Cessna 210 Centurion
|Cessna 210 Centurion|
|A Cessna 210 Centurion|
|National origin||United States|
|First flight||January 1957|
Design and development
The early Cessna 210 (210 and 210A) had four seats with a Continental IO-470 engine of 260 hp (190 kW). It was essentially a Cessna 182B to which was added a retractable landing gear, swept tail, and a new wing. In 1961 the fuselage and wing were completely redesigned — the fuselage was made wider and deeper, and a third side window was added. The wing planform remained the same; constant 64-inch (160 cm) chord from centerline to 100 inches (250 cm) out, then straight taper to 44-inch (110 cm) chord at 208 inches (530 cm) from centerline, but the semi-Fowler flaps (slotted, rear-moving) were extended outboard, from Wing Station 100 to Wing Station 122, which allowed a lower landing speed. FAA certification regulations state that a single-engined aircraft must have a flaps-down, power-off stall speed no greater than 70 miles per hour (110 km/h). To compensate for the reduced aileron span, the aileron profile was changed and its chord enlarged. The 1964 model 210D introduced a 285 hp (213 kW) engine and two small child seats, set into the cavity which contained the mainwheels aft of the passengers.
In 1967 the model 210G introduced a cantilever wing replacing the strut-braced wing. Its planform changed to a constant taper from root chord to tip chord. In 1970 the 210K became the first full six-seat model. This was achieved by replacing the flat leaf-springs used for the retractable main landing gear struts (undercarriage) with tapered tubular steel struts of greater length. This allowed the tires to be nested farther to the rear of the fuselage, making room for the full-size rear seats. In 1979 the 210N model eliminated the folding doors which previously covered the two retracted main wheels. The tubular spring struts retract into shallow channels along the bottom of the fuselage and the wheels fit snugly in closed depressions on the underside of the fuselage. Some models featured de-icing boots as an option.
The aircraft was offered in a normally aspirated version, designated the model 210, as well as the turbocharged T210 and the pressurized P210 versions. The Centurion II was an option introduced in 1970 with improved avionics, and was available in both normally aspirated and turbocharged versions (Turbo Centurion II)
On 21 May 2012 the airworthiness authority responsible for the design, the US Federal Aviation Administration, issued an emergency Airworthiness Directive requiring 3,665 of the cantilever wing Cessna 210s to be inspected for cracks in the spar cap, wing spar and wing. Aircraft with more than 10,000 hours of airframe time were grounded immediately pending a visual inspection.
On 16 May 2019, a Cessna Model T210M airplane suffered an in-flight separation of the right wing. Preliminary investigations found cracking of the wing-spar carry-thru where fatigue began from a small corrosion pit on the lower surface of the carry-thru. Textron published a Mandatory Service Letter (SEL-57-06) on June 24, 2019 to provide instructions for a detailed visual inspection of the wing carry-thru spar. The FAA issued an Airworthiness Directive on 21 February 2020 mandating eddy current inspections of the carry-thru spar lower cap, corrective action if necessary, application of a protective coating and corrosion inhibiting compound, and reporting the inspection results to the FAA. Since it shared a common carry-thru design, the Cessna 177 Cardinal also received a similar Mandatory Service Letter (SELF-57-07) and an airworthiness concern from the FAA.
There are a wide range of modifications available for the Cessna 210, including:
- Aeronautical Engineers Australia has developed a life extension package for 210s suffering from wing spar carry-through beam corrosion.
- Crownair Aviation developed a “Centurion Edition” T210, which is a remanufactured aircraft introduced in November 2008 that features a glass cockpit and new engine along with other minor refinements.
- Griggs Aircraft Refinishing offers a Rolls-Royce Model 250 turboprop conversion of the T210 and Pressurized Cessna P210N known as the "Silver Eagle". This conversion was previously offered by O&N Aircraft
- Riley Rocket – Restoration and addition of intercooler to Continental TSIO-520 models to boost from 310 to 340 hp (231 to 254 kW).
- Vitatoe Aviation offers the TN550 conversion which uses a Continental IO-550P engine with an IO-520 turbocharger with dual intercoolers and a larger alternator.
The Cessna 210 was manufactured in 26 model variants. The C210, C210A-D, the Centurion C210E-H&J, Turbo Centurion T210F-H&J, the Centurion II C210K-N&R, the Turbo Centurion II T210K-N&R and the P210N&R. The 210N, T210N (turbocharged), and P210N (pressurized) versions were produced in the greatest quantity. The rarest and most expensive models were the T210R and P210R, which were produced only in small quantities in 1985-86.
Several modifications and optional fittings are also available including different engine installations, wingtip tanks, speed brakes, STOL kits and gear door modifications.
The early strut-winged Cessna 210B was developed into a fixed-gear aircraft known as the Cessna 205. This spawned an entirely new family of Cessna aircraft including the 206 and the eight-seat 207.
- Four-seat production variant with a Continental IO-470-E engine, 40 degree hydraulic flaps, gear doors, introduced in 1960., first flown in 1957, 575 built.
- A 210 with a third cabin window on each side, introduced in 1961, 265 built.
- A 210A with a cut-down rear fuselage, a rear-vision window and a Continental IO-470-S engine, introduced in 1962, 245 built.
- A 210B with some minor changes, introduced in 1963, 135 built.
- 210D Centurion
- A 210C fitted with a 285 hp (213 kW) Continental IO-520-A engine and increased takeoff weight to 3,100 lb (1,406 kg), introduced in 1964, 290 built.
- 210E Centurion
- A 210D with some minor changes, introduced in 1965, 205 built.
- 210F Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210E with some minor changes and optional 285 hp (213 kW) turbocharged Continental TSIO-520-C engine, introduced in 1966, 300 built.
- 210G Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210F with a strutless cantilever wing and modified rear window, increased takeoff weight to 3,400 lb (1,542 kg), introduced in 1967, 228 built.
- 210H Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210G with a new flap system and instrument panel, 210 built. Flap range decreased to 30 degrees, fuel capacity increased from 65 to 90 US gal (246 to 341 l). Introduced in 1968.
- 210J Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210H with reduced wing dihederal, different nose profile and a Continental IO-520-J (or TSIO-520H) engine, introduced in 1969, 200 built.
- 210K Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210J with rear changed to full seat to provide six seats, an IO-520-L engine with 300 hp (224 kW) limited to five minutes, landing gear changed, enlarged cabin with a single rear side window, weight increased to 3,800 lb (1,724 kg), produced 1970-71, 303 built.
- 210L Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210K with nose-mounted landing lights, the electrical system changed to 24 volt, the engine-driven hydraulic pump replaced with an electrical pump and a three-bladed prop fitted. Improved aerodynamics led to an increase in approximately 8 kn (15 km/h) in cruise speed. Produced 1972-76, 2070 built.
- 210M Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210L with an optional 310 hp (231 kW) TSIO-520-R engine and minor changes, produced 1977-80, 1381 built.
- 210N Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210M with open wheel wells for main landing gear and minor changes. Although this change appeared only on the C210N, most early models have had gear doors removed due to extensive maintenance and handling problems, leaving them similar to the "N". Produced 1981-84, 1943 built.
- 210R Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210N with longer-span stabilizers and minor changes, produced 1985-86, 112 built.
- P210N Pressurized Centurion
- A Turbo 210N with pressurized cabin, four windows each side, with a 310 hp (231 kW) Continental TSIO-520-AF engine, produced 1978-83, 834 built.
- P210R Pressurized Centurion
- A P210N with longer-span stabilizers, increased takeoff weight and a 325 hp (242 kW) Continental TSIO-520-CE engine, produced 1985-86, 40 built.
- Riley Turbine P-210
- Conversion of pressurized Cessna 210P Centurion aircraft, fitted with a Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-112, flat rated at 500 shp (373 kW).
The Cessna 210 is widely used by flight training schools, private operators, air taxi and commercial charter, and companies.
Accidents and incidents
- 12 August 1964, Charles Clifford Ogle took off in a Cessna 210A N9492X, flying from Oakland California to Las Vegas, Nevada. He disappeared; it is speculated his plane crashed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California
- On 12 July 1968, Leonard Bendicks hijacked a Cessna 210 from Key West, Florida, to Cuba. He was deported to the US in September 1968. On 4 March 1971, he was sentenced to 10 years for kidnapping.
- On 9 August 1981, a Cessna 210M, VH-MDX crashed around the Barrington Tops National Park in New South Wales, killing all 5 on board. It is the only post-World War II incident in Australia in which the aircraft remains missing. The Australian Transport Safety Bureau reports mentions icing, violent weather, and instrument failure.
- While flying N6579X, an early model 210A, famed test pilot Scott Crossfield crashed and died in the woods of Ludville, Georgia on April 19, 2006. The National Transportation Safety Board established the probable cause as "The pilot's failure to obtain updated en route weather information, which resulted in his continued instrument flight into a widespread area of severe convective activity, and the air traffic controller's failure to provide adverse weather avoidance assistance, as required by Federal Aviation Administration directives, both of which led to the airplane's encounter with a severe thunderstorm and subsequent loss of control."
Specifications (T210N Turbo Centurion II)
Data from Janes' All The World's Aircraft 1982-83
- Crew: One
- Capacity: Five passengers
- Length: 28 ft 2 in (8.59 m)
- Wingspan: 36 ft 9 in (11.20 m)
- Height: 9 ft 8 in (2.95 m)
- Wing area: 175 sq ft (16.3 m2)
- Empty weight: 2,303 lb (1,045 kg)
- Gross weight: 4,000 lb (1,814 kg)
- Fuel capacity: 87 US gal (72 imp gal; 330 L) (usable capacity)
- Powerplant: 1 × Continental Motors TSIO-520-R air-cooled turbocharged flat-six, 310 hp (230 kW)
- Propellers: 3-bladed McCauley Type D3A34C402/90DFA-10 constant-speed propeller, 7 ft 6 in (2.29 m) diameter 
- Maximum speed: 204 kn (235 mph, 378 km/h) at 17,000 ft (5,200 m)
- Cruise speed: 193 kn (222 mph, 357 km/h) at 20,000 ft (6,100 m) (80% power)
- Stall speed: 58 kn (67 mph, 107 km/h) (power off, flaps down) (CAS)
- Range: 900 nmi (1,000 mi, 1,700 km) at 10,000 ft (3,000 m) (econ cruise)
- Service ceiling: 27,000 ft (8,200 m)
- Rate of climb: 930 ft/min (4.7 m/s)
- Takeoff distance to 50 ft (15 m): 2,160 ft (660 m)
- Landing distance from 50 ft (15 m): 1,500 ft (460 m)
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era
- Taylor 1982, pp. 345–346
- Simpson 1991, pp. 103–104
- Grady, Mary (21 May 2012). "FAA Issues Emergency AD For Cessna 210s". AVweb. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- Federal Aviation Administration (27 Jun 2019). "Alert, Cessna 177 and 210 Airplanes". Retrieved 2 Jul 2019.
- Federal Aviation Administration (21 February 2020). "Airworthiness Directives; Textron Aviation Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by Cessna Aircraft Company)". rgl.faa.gov. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
- Cook, Marc (3 March 2020). "Cessna 210 Wing Spar AD Issued". AVweb. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
- "Modifications". Aeronautical Engineers Australia. March 2009. Archived from the original on 2005-06-20. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
- "Avidyne Partners With Southern Star & Crownair To Get STC For Entegra Glass Cockpit Retrofit In Cessna 210 Single-Engine Piston Aircraft". Revista aérea. December 21, 2008. Archived from the original on December 1, 2018. Retrieved July 27, 2017.
- "January 2004: O&N Aircraft". FibreGlast Developments Corp. January 2004. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-10-19.
- Griggs Aircraft Refinishing. "Silver Eagle". griggsaircraft.com. Archived from the original on 16 August 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- Smith, Gene (September 1989). "The P-Rocket". Air Progress: 45.
- Cox, Bill. "Improving on a Good Thing The venerable Cessna P210N enjoys a welcome improvement". Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- "Type Certificate Data Sheet No. 3A21 Revision 47" (PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. February 25, 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
- Danielle Bruckert and Oleg Roud (2008). Cessna 210 Training Manual. ISBN 978-0-557-01418-7.
- Taylor 1982, p. 453
- Hatch 1986, p. 37
- Flores 2001, p. 301
- Hatch 1986, p. 79
- Cuban Political Violence in the United States Archived 2011-09-27 at the Wayback Machine Disorders and terrorism, National Advisory Committee, on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals Washington: 1976. Report of the Task Force on Disorders and Terrorism Appendix 6: Chronology of incidents of terroristic, quasi-terroristic attacks, and political violence in the United States:January 1965 to March 1976 By Marcia McKnight Trick
- "Investigation number: 198101477 Cessna 210M, VH-MDX, near Barrington Tops, NSW, 9 August 1981". Australian Transport Safety Bureau. Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved July 27, 2017.
- "NTSB Releases Final Report on Accident that Killed Famed Aviator Scott Crossfield". September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 27, 2017.
- "National Transportation Safety Board Aviation Accident Final Report Accident Number: CHI06MA115". National Transportation Safety Board. September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 27, 2017.
- Jackson 2003, p. 804
- Flores, Santiago A. (May 2001). "From Cavalry to Close Air Support". Air International. Vol. 60 no. 5. pp. 298–303. ISSN 0306-5634.
- Hatch, Paul F. (29 November 1986). "World's Air Forces 1986". Flight International. Vol. 130 no. 4039. pp. 30–104. ISSN 0015-3710. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- Jackson, Paul (2003). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.
- Simpson, R.W. (1991). Airlife's General Aviation. England: Airlife Publishing. ISBN 1-85310-194-X.
- Taylor, John W. R. (1982). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1982-83. London: Jane's Yearbooks. ISBN 0-7106-0748-2.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cessna 210 Centurion.|
- FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet 3A21 Type Certificate Data Sheet for Cessna 210 models.