Jump to content


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Civility may denote orderly behavior and politeness. Historically, civility also meant training in the humanities.


Late Middle English: from Old French civilite, from Latin civilitas, from civilis "relating to citizens" (see civil). In early use, the term denoted the state of being a citizen and hence good citizenship or orderly behavior. The sense "politeness" arose in the mid-16th century.[citation needed]

Developmental model[edit]

Adolf G. Gundersen and Suzanne Goodney Lea developed a civility model grounded in empirical data that "stresses the notion that civility is a sequence, not a single thing or set of things". The model conceives of civility as a continuum or scale consisting of increasingly demanding traits ranging from "indifference" to "commentary", "conversation", "co-exploration" and, from there, to "habituation". According to the authors, such a developmental model has several advantages, not least of which is that it allows civility to be viewed as something everyone can get better at.[1]

Empathy in civility[edit]

Many experts[who?] say civility goes beyond good manners and listening attentively, but includes sharing our own beliefs and values with others through some type of engagement with the intent of sincere respect towards one another. This also requires a willingness and open mindedness to having our opinions and biases challenged by others who share different and perhaps unique points of view.[2]

Experts[who?] say that our ability to act with civility is connected with our ability to understand our own emotions. Understanding our feelings helps us to recognize how we are feeling in real-time and give us a greater ability to have empathy for others. Furthermore, discerning and recognizing our feelings can help us to evaluate the things that trigger us emotionally and therefore become more aware of how we will possibly react and feel in certain situations. By taking the time to understand our thoughts and emotions in these situations, this practice can lead to self-recognition and acceptance of how similar situations may affect others, including those that may share a unique perspective.[3]

Sharon Styles-Anderson established Emotional Civility Day, March 6. Emotional Civility, a concept developed by Anderson, helps the world recognize that there is a connection between the way people feel and the way they interact with others.

Lack of civility[edit]

Incivility is the opposite of civility—a lack of civility. Verbal or physical attacks on others, cyber bullying, rudeness, religious intolerance, discrimination, and vandalism are some of the acts that are generally considered uncivil. Incivility is an issue on the global stage.[4] Social media and the web give people the ability to freely exchange ideas, but this has not come without consequences.

Politicians in the U.S. frequently say that they encounter a lack of civility in their workplace, and have disregarded it as unfortunate aspect of politics. But polls indicate that "going negative" can help candidates win elections. During the 2016 presidential campaign, candidate Donald Trump regularly called his rivals "stupid, incompetent, and losers".[5]

Recognizing that people harassing others online has become a problem and can have negative consequences for businesses, many companies stepped up to create more awareness and initiatives to help. Intel in collaboration with organizations such as the Born This Way Foundation and Vox Media initiated "Hack Harassment" aimed to increase awareness of online harassment and anti-harassment technologies.[6] As of 2016 the Data & Society/CiPHR Measuring Cyberabuse poll indicated that nearly 70% of people between the ages of 15 and 29 are harassed or abused online.[7] Although there are tactics to block cyber-bullying, such as censorship and banning users from accessing a site, it does not correct the underlying issues on what causes it. 75% of technology professionals believe a universal code of online conduct would also help curb online harassment.[8]

On April 22, 2016, The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research at the University of Chicago released a report citing that 74 percent of Americans think manners and behavior have declined in the United States. In this study they discovered that people in most cases can agree with what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior. They found that 8 out of 10 Americans find jokes made based on race, gender, or sexuality are considered inappropriate, but only a small number of people own up to making these types of jokes. The report suggests that nearly half of all Americans aged 18–29 find it acceptable to use their cell phones in a restaurant, while fewer than 22 percent of people over the age of 60 agree.[9]

Movements to foster civility[edit]


In October 2019, the United Nations announced that the World Civility Index would be a part of their Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).[10] The new Sustainable Development Goals initiative serves as the updated global targets that were set forth initially in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of 2000 to 2015. Under the Sustainable Development Goals initiatives, the United Nations identified seventeen core challenges that have an interconnected part in achieving a more sustainable future for all.[11] The World Civility Index is designed to be implemented as a tool for employers and organizations around the world to create a system of consistent measurements of soft skills that are related to civility.[10] Other global organizations, like the Worldwide Civility Council, also aim to centralize civility resources and tools, such as the Civility Scorecard and Masonic Family Civility Project, in order to help promote civility and assist various civility organizations around the world.[12] One of the core ideas promoted by the United Nation's goal on achieving worldwide civility is having a universal system for measuring civility, because setting a standard of measurement helps to more accurately measure levels of civility.[10] Furthermore, having meaningful measurements will help in creating more effective and efficient training to assist people in acquiring the soft skills needed, like civility, in the modern workplace and foreseeable future.[10]

In 2020, the Worldwide Civility Council launched the Certified Civil initiative to recognize the commitment to civil behavior and communication by individuals, organizations, and groups around the world, which also includes but is not limited to businesses, publications, websites, and social media sites.[13] A Certified Civil designation can only be awarded based on a demonstrated ability to act and foster civility. At the core of the civility certification process are several commitments, including advocating for dignity and respect in all dealings, listening to create constructive dialogues, speaking in a manner that reflects respect, ensuring all public content is within bounds defined by the Certified Civil standards, displaying the Certified Civil logo, and maintaining good standing through continuous certification.[14]

In the United States[edit]

Opinion polls[edit]

A 2010 Allegheny College poll found that nearly all Americans (95 percent) believe civility is important in politics.[15]

In a 2012 poll conducted by Weber Shandwick, 65% of Americans reported an increase in incivility due to a weakened U.S. economy during the Great Recession. Almost 50% of those Americans indicated they have removed themselves from participating in politics because of fear of incivility or bullying. Of the 1000 people surveyed, a follow-up study revealed that 86% of those people reported being subjected to incivility.[16] In this report, part of an annual follow-up research report in January 2016 sharing findings on attitudes and sentiment about civility, 95% of Americans believe that incivility is a very visible issue, while 74% recognized that civility in general had declined during the past few years. Over 90% of voters claimed that the presidential candidates' attitudes and civil behavior would play a significant role in their voting decision in the upcoming 2016 election.[17]

In poll conducted by Georgetown University in 2019, 88% of Americans polled expressed concern and frustration about uncivil and rude behavior of many politicians.[18] 87% said they are "[clarification needed]tired of leaders compromising their values and ideals, while 80% of those same Americans want both "compromise and common ground" as well as leaders who "will stand up for the other side".[19]

In the legal profession[edit]

Penn State University conducted a study on perceptions of the legal profession and its relation to civility. They found that general opinion pointed to a drop in civility within the legal profession. To counteract demeaning and unprofessional behavior, there have been several initiatives put in place by state bar associations. However, the legal profession is not the only industry that has adopted civility standards. Many other companies and organizations across several industries have adopted civility standards that also help to increase workplace civility.[20]

In schools[edit]

Numerous universities in the U.S., such as the University of Colorado, the University of Missouri,[21] University of California Davis,[22] Johns Hopkins University,[23] University of Wisconsin,[24] Rutgers University,[25] American University,[26] and California State University San Marcos[27] have created programs designed to foster and define what civility means on their campuses. The Center on Civility & Democratic Engagement at University of California, Berkeley's Goldman School of Public Policy recognizes that public dialogue often lacks civility and focuses on preparing leaders to successfully engage people of diverse perspectives in finding solutions for pressing public policy issues.[28] Some colleges, such as the Arizona State University, offer an undergraduate certificate in Civil Communication.[29] Other universities, such as Kansas State University,[30] developed programs in dialogue and deliberation which involve codes of behavior that foster constructive, civil discourse. Although many colleges have adopted programs to foster civility efforts, there are still many colleges and universities, including many of the Ivy League schools, that do not have or list no visible place online about any civility initiatives, codes or standards.

In the community[edit]

Numerous community groups have formed in the U.S. to restore constructive civility in the public space. The Civility Toolkit with approximately 300 civility tools aggregated by the Civility Center provides access to resources regarding civility to help restore civility in society.[31] Many of these groups are members of the National Coalition for Dialogue and Deliberation.[32]

Arnett and Arneson define civility as "a metaphor that points to the importance of public respect in interpersonal interaction."[33] The difference between tolerating someone and respecting them is that toleration does not imply respect, but respect requires understanding of another person's perspective. Having social intelligence or "Social IQ" impacts our ability to empathize with people, and realize all people are human and that if respect or common ground cannot be met that we strive for at least toleration in order to be civil.

In Psychology Today, Price-Mitchell describes civility as a personal attitude that acknowledges other humans' rights to live and coexist together in a manner that does not harm others.[citation needed] The psychology of civility indicates awareness, ability to control one's passions, as well as have a deeper understanding of others. This may suggest that civility goes beyond mere toleration, but may imply a mutual co-existence and respect for humankind.

In the academic journal Philosophy & Public Affairs, Calhoun delineates civility as an element of dialogue that sheds light on "basic moral attitudes of respect, tolerance, and considerateness".[34] Calhoun considers civility to be one of the moral virtues that can differ from what is socially acceptable, since what is socially acceptable is not always morally correct.

In the Washington Post, Peter Wehner, author and former deputy director of speechwriting for President George W. Bush, expressed three central points on how civility makes society function and noble. The first of these points illustrates that civility is what holds our families, communities, conversations, and establishments together.[35] Civility enables civic cohesion and eliminates excuses for invective conversations or conflict. Wehner's second point suggests that civility is also an expression of a work of divine art and respect for all human beings.[35] In some ways this mirrors the words written in the United States Declaration of Independence on Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness in that all people are worthy of the inherent and unalienable respect of human dignity. The third point made by Wehner is that civility is an expression of epistemological humility where truth is not relative, but suggests that truth can cover a more widely spread understanding than what is preconceived or imagined.[35]

The Smithsonian coordinated with Olúfémi O. Táíwò, assistant professor of political philosophy and ethics at Georgetown University, to discuss the important role that civility has played in the pursuit of social justice.[36] The presentation outlined that civility seemed to have declined in recent years by increasing political and social polarization coupled with simplistic mass communication systems. Additionally, Táíwò examines social norms, like the formal female adult address of calling a woman "Ms.", as well as emerging norms of social etiquette that could encourage people to think and ask others about their pronouns.[36] Hosting community events around civility can lead to interesting conversations and can broaden perspectives, and as Táíwò points out, civility will continue to play an important role in how justice for all will be shaped in the future.[36]

Masons and civility[edit]

The Freemasons and members of the Masonic family have had a long history of fostering civil dialogue and building civil societies. Masonic Lodges represent a peaceful assembly of people that are of different places of origin, languages, backgrounds, and beliefs. The principles and tenets of Freemasonry aim to promote and restore civility in the United States and around the globe. In 2015, Grand Master Charvonia of the Grand Lodge of California declared May 25, 2015 to be the "Champion Civility Month", which encouraged Freemasons throughout California to make an effort to bring more civility into their local lodges and community.[37] Additionally, Freemasons from around the world have been working to repair civility through the Masonic Family Civility Project. This Civility Project was built to help raise awareness of civility, by providing social conversations, civility resources, multimedia education, and information for anyone to access.[38]

From April 30 to May 1 of 2019, an Urgency of Civility Conference was hosted in Washington D.C. at the George Washington Masonic National Memorial. Civility experts convened to discuss civility in arenas of government, education, media, community, and the workplace. During the conference, Congressman Emanuel Cleaver II made a presentation in recognition of Virginia Forni and her late husband, P.M. Forni, for their efforts on the Johns Hopkins Civility Initiative.[39] Advocates of civility shared their thoughts, ideas, and efforts to promote civility in various sectors. Attendees worked together to form action items required to help further civility initiatives, including innovative thinking, engaging the community, and maintaining steadfast persistence.[40]

In the workplace[edit]

Studies and polls from 2014 indicate that Americans find workplace incivility to be a growing problem that has a negative impact on them and their duties at work. One study suggests 60% of employees think that their co-workers' irritating habits have negatively affected them at their job. In the same study, 40% reported that they are looking for another job opportunity because of a negative co-worker. These studies suggest that incivility in the workplace dampens productivity and has an adverse effect on an organization's bottom line.[41] This data does not account for how many people encounter workplace incivility and are not sure what they can do about it. Furthermore, it does not take into consideration how many of these workplaces have civility tools or initiatives.

Various organizations, including the United States government, have taken steps to prevent incivility at work. One strategy is addressing sexual harassment cases, which the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) defines as unlawful in all states. This involves preventing gender-based mistreatment during employment or hiring. Harassment encompasses "sexual harassment" as well as workplace bullying, cyberbullying, and threats.[42] Although sexual harassment's illegality is widely accepted, it gained significant attention in the U.S. starting in 1964.[citation needed] In the past, unclear legal boundaries resulted in more people experiencing unwanted behavior due to legal ambiguity. The term's clearer definition has enhanced workplace protection, but individuals need to actively contribute by speaking up and reporting incidents.

Organizational behavior[edit]

Human resource managers are aware of the effects of social behavior in the workplace. Inappropriate workplace behavior has led HR personnel to pay more attention to problems arising from incivility, bullying, and abusive supervision within organizations. Research concluded that incivility can have a negative impact of organizational behavior, including: decreased satisfaction, reduced job performance, increased perceptions of injustice, increased depression, and can lead to employees to experience psychological withdrawal.[43]

Organizations are improving their workplaces by reducing incident rates and limiting liability. Some companies offer employees civility training specifically geared to foster civility by facilitating conversations about it. Research indicates that civility training shows a positive increase in respect, job satisfaction, and overall trust, while effects of incivility, cynicism, and employee absenteeism decreased.[44] The results suggest civility training can improve the workplace climate, foster a culture of positive behaviors, and minimize workplace issues.

In Canada[edit]

In July 2012, the President of the Federation of Law Societies of Canada addressed civility at the 5th Biennial International Legal Ethics Conference.[45] In 2012, the Law Society of Upper Canada decided that Joe Groia was guilty of incivility to opposing counsel during his successful defense of John Felderhof on Insider trading and securities charges. On the same case, the Supreme Court of Canada confirmed the decision of Bar of Quebec that Giles Dore was guilty of professional misconduct because of an uncivil letter he wrote to a judge. This high-profile case brought a lot of attention to the legal definition of the word civility, and what it means to be civil in the legal profession. It has since defined a broader set of rules of what is legally considered civil in the court of law in Canada.

Since the Groia case, The Law Society of Upper Canada launched several initiatives to guard against incivility in the Canadian legal profession. To enforce its stance on civility in the Canadian legal system, they issued verbal warnings to lawyers who are not civil with judges and other lawyers. The counter argument against civility measures is that the new guidelines may inhibit their ability to defend their clients.[46] Since laws and rules are often open to interpretation,[non sequitur] some lawyers consider it a conflict of interest to be civil with their opponents as they do not believe there is any way to accomplish their goals while remaining civil.

In January 2017, the B.C. & Yukon Freemasons in Canada stated civility was like The Golden Rule: "treating others as you would want them to treat you". This statement was in part to a recent civility initiative.[47]

In New Zealand[edit]

At a recent address with Gisborne's top businesswomen in early 2016, Lara Meyer, an adviser to the Australian Government, cited incivility in the workplace has cost New Zealand approximately NZ$15 million a year. Noting that Australia is also losing out about NZ$26 million a year due to a lack of workplace civility.[48] There could potentially be more loss that is unaccounted for in New Zealand businesses, as the cost of rudeness could be holding them back from working together more politely and agreeably.

In Hungary[edit]

Civil Összefogás Fórum (Civil Cooperation Forum), founded on April 5, 2009, is a kind of umbrella organisation for numerous community groups throughout Hungary.[citation needed]

Famous quotes on civility[edit]

  • "So let us begin anew—remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is always subject to proof. Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate." ―John F. Kennedy[49]
  • "Civility does not here mean the mere outward gentleness of speech cultivated for the occasion, but an inborn gentleness and desire to do the opponent good." ―Mohandas K. Gandhi[50]
  • "Civility costs nothing and buys you everything" ―Lady Mary Wortley Montagu[51]
  • "If a man continually blusters, if he lacks civility, a big stick will not save him from trouble, and neither will speaking softly avail, if back of the softness there does not lie strength, power." ―Theodore Roosevelt[52]
  • "Civility also requires relearning how to disagree without being disagreeable... surely you can question my policies without questioning my faith." ―Barack Obama[53]

See also[edit]

  • Etiquette – Customary code of polite behaviour
  • Incivility – Social behaviour lacking in civility or good manners


  1. ^ Gundersen, Adolf G.; Lea, Suzanne Goodney (March 14, 2013). Let's Talk Politics: Restoring Civility through Exploratory Discussion. Parkersburg, W.Va.: Interactivity Foundation.
  2. ^ "Why Civility Matters". 2020. Retrieved 2020-07-05.
  3. ^ "Why The Key to Civility is Empathy". Forbes. 2018-02-08. Archived from the original on July 5, 2020. Retrieved 2020-07-05.
  4. ^ "Incivility in Political Discourse (The Coming Apogee of the Moonbat Hordes)". InDC Journal. 2004-10-13. Archived from the original on 2013-01-03. Retrieved 2006-11-25.
  5. ^ "Bush Appeals for Civility in GOP Race". US News. 2015-07-28. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
  6. ^ "Hack Harassment". 2016-01-17. Archived from the original on 2016-01-13. Retrieved 2016-01-17.
  7. ^ "Hack Harassment Announces Formation of Advisory Board to Elevate the Dialogue Around Online Harassment". 2017-05-01. Retrieved 2021-03-24.
  8. ^ "Intel, Vox Media, Re/code and Lady Gaga's Born This Way Foundation to Hack Online Harassment". 2016-01-07. Retrieved 2021-03-24.
  9. ^ "Americans believe civility is on the decline". The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research at the University of Chicago. 2016-04-22. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
  10. ^ a b c d "World Civility Index – Improve Youth's Soft Skills, and Standardizing Measurement For It, For Decent Jobs". 2019. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
  11. ^ "About the Sustainable Development Goals". n.d. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
  12. ^ "Working to restore civility in society". n.d. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
  13. ^ "About Certified Civil". Certified Civil. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  14. ^ "Certified Civil – Because Respect is the Foundation of Productive Dialogue". Certified Civil. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  15. ^ Levine, Peter (2013). We Are the Ones We Have Been Waiting For: The Promise of Civic Renewal in America (Kindle, first ed.). Oxford University Press. ASIN B00F51ZXII.
  16. ^ Ray Williams (July 15, 2012). "The Rise of Incivility and Bullying in America". Psychology Today. Retrieved August 7, 2015.[permanent dead link]
  17. ^ Ray Williams (January 28, 2016). "Nearly All Likely Voters Say Candidates' Civility Will Affect Their Vote; New Poll Finds 93% Say Behavior Will Matter". Weber Shandwick. Archived from the original on February 2, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2016.
  18. ^ Georgetown Institute of Politics and Public Service (October 23, 2019). "NEW POLL: Voters Find Political Divisions So Bad, Believe U.S. Is Two-Thirds Of The Way To "Edge Of A Civil War"". Georgetown University. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
  19. ^ Georgetown Institute of Politics and Public Service (October 23, 2019). "NEW POLL: Voters Find Political Divisions So Bad, Believe U.S. Is Two-Thirds Of The Way To "Edge Of A Civil War"". Georgetown University. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
  20. ^ PennState University (2017). "University Libraries Civility Statement and Guidelines". Penn State University Libraries. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
  21. ^ "Civility, You, and Mizzou". University of Missouri. 2015. Archived from the original on December 29, 2017. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
  22. ^ "The Civility Project". civilityproject.ucdavis.edu. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  23. ^ "JHU Dr. Forni's Civility Website". krieger.jhu.edu. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  24. ^ "UW Oshkosh CivilityWorks". CivilityWorks. Archived from the original on 10 November 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  25. ^ Lanman, Sandra. "Rutgers Project Advances Civility on Campus and Beyond". Rutgers University, School of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  26. ^ "What is Civility". www.american.edu. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
  27. ^ Student Life and Leadership (2015). "The Civility Campaign". California State University San Marcos. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
  28. ^ "Goldman School of Public Policy Center on Civility & Democratic Engagement". Retrieved October 14, 2020.
  29. ^ "Certificate in Civil Communication". Arizona State University. 2017. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
  30. ^ "Institute for Civic Discourse and Democracy". Kansas State University. 2017. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
  31. ^ Civility Center (2015). "The Civility Center Toolkit & Resources". Civility Center 501(c)(3). Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  32. ^ National Coalition for Dialogue & Deliberation (2015). "What We're All About". NATIONAL COALITION FOR DIALOGUE & DELIBERATION. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
  33. ^ Arnett, Arneson, Ronald, Pat (September 30, 1999). Dialogic Civility in a Cynical Age: Community, Hope, and Interpersonal Relationships. State University of New York Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0791443262.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  34. ^ Calhoun, Cheshire. "The Virtue of Civility". Philosophy & Public Affairs. 251–275.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  35. ^ a b c Gerson, Michael. "Civility doesn't just make our system function – it also makes it noble". Washington Post. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
  36. ^ a b c Smithsonian (2020). "Civility's Role in Social Justice". 2020 Smithsonian Associates and Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved July 5, 2020.
  37. ^ Freemason.org (May 2015). "Champion Civility This May". Freemason.org. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
  38. ^ Masonic Family Civility Project (December 2017). "Using Masonic Values to Promote Civility". masoniccivility.org. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
  39. ^ The Urgency of Civility (May 2019). ""Urgency of Civility" conference Held in Washington DC". civilityconvening.org. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
  40. ^ The Urgency of Civility (May 2019). "Civility was Rediscovered and Redefined". civilityconvening.org. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
  41. ^ Barbara Richman (May 28, 2014). "Ten Tips for Creating Respect and Civility in Your Workplace". Lorman. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
  42. ^ "Sexual Harassment". U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
  43. ^ S. Lim and A. Lee (2011). "Work and nonwork outcomes of workplace incivility: Does family support help?". Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 16 (1): 95–111. doi:10.1037/a0021726. PMID 21280947.
  44. ^ Leiter, M. P.; Laschinger, H. K. S.; Day, A.; Oore, D. G. (2011). "The Impact of Civility Interventions on Employee Social Behavior, Distress, and Attitudes". The Journal of Applied Psychology. 96 (6). Journal of Applied Psychology, Advance Online Publication: 1258–1274. doi:10.1037/a0024442. PMID 21744942.
  45. ^ Wooley, Alice (2013). "'Uncivil by Too Much Civility'? Critiquing Five More Years of Civility Regulation in Canada". Dalhousie Law Journal. 36 (1): 239. SSRN 2186930. Archived from the original on Nov 30, 2023.
  46. ^ Ling, Justin (2015-01-28). "Has the so-called civility movement already won?". National Magazine. Archived from the original on 2018-11-27. Retrieved 2015-09-17.
  47. ^ B.C. and Yukon Freemasons (January 20, 2017). Freemason's Civility Initiative Outline (PDF). Masonic Civility. Civility can simply be defined as treating others as you would want them to treat you.
  48. ^ "Counting the cost of rudeness". The Gisborne Herald. 2016-04-06. Archived from the original on 2016-04-11. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
  49. ^ "Inaugural Address of President John F. Kennedy". John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. 1961-01-20. Retrieved 2020-07-05.
  50. ^ Pathways to Relationship: Four Weeks on Simplicity, Gentleness, Humility, Friendship. New City Press. 2015-01-28. p. 28. ISBN 9781565483170. Retrieved 2020-07-05.
  51. ^ "Lady Mary Wortley Montagu 1689–1762 English writer". Oxford Reference. 1756-05-30. Retrieved 2020-07-05.
  52. ^ The Wisdom of Theodore Roosevelt. Citadel. 2015-01-28. p. 9. ISBN 9780806524849. Retrieved 2020-07-05.
  53. ^ Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States. Office of the Federal Register National Archives and Records Administration. 2010-06-30. p. 162. Retrieved 2020-07-05.

Further reading[edit]

  • Anderson, Digby C., ed. (1996). Gentility Recalled: Mere Manners and the Making of Social Order. Social Affairs Unit and the Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty. ISBN 978-0-907631-66-8.
  • Anderson, Elijah (2012). The Cosmopolitan Canopy: Race and Civility in Everyday Life. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-34051-8.
  • Bogorad, T.S. The Importance of Civility.
  • Carter, Stephen L. (1999). Civility. Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-06-097759-7.
  • Carter, Stephen L. (1998). Civility: Manners, Morals, and the Etiquette of Democracy. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-02384-4.
  • Davetian, Benet (2009). Civility: A Cultural History. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-9722-4.
  • Elsner, Paul A.; Boggs, George R. Encouraging Civility as a Community College Leader.
  • Fluker, Walter E. (2009). Ethical Leadership: The Quest For Character, Civility, and Community. Augsburg Fortress. ISBN 978-0-8006-6349-0.
  • Forni, P.M. The Civility Solution: What to Do When People Are Rude.
  • Forni, P.M. (2002). Choosing Civility: The Twenty-five Rules of Considerate Conduct. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-28118-2.
  • Guinness, Os (2009). The Case for Civility: And Why Our Future Depends on It. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-06-135343-7.
  • Harris, Godfrey (2003). Civility: How It Fosters Better Communities. The Americas Group. ISBN 978-0-935047-44-8.
  • Ikegami, Eiko (2005). Bonds of Civility. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-60115-3.
  • Kingwell, Mark (2012). Unruly Voices: Essays on Democracy, Civility and the Human Imagination. Biblioasis. ISBN 978-1-926845-84-5.
  • Perkins, John M. (1996). Restoring At-Risk Communities: Doing It Together and Doing It Right. Baker Books. ISBN 978-0-8010-5463-1.
  • Roberts, Kent; Newman, Jay (2001). Bring a Dish to Pass: The Civil Action of Community Improvement.
  • Washington, George. Rules of Civility & Decent Behavior in Company and Conversation.
  • Washington, George (2003). Brookhiser, Richard (ed.). Rules of Civility: The 110 Precepts That Guided Our First President in War and Peace.

External links[edit]