Civility is derived from the Latin civis, meaning "citizen". However, civility is not limited to actions by an individual in his or her capacity as a citizen. A citizen’s participation in the political process (voting, governance) is known as civic engagement.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Developmental Model of Civility
- 3 Worldwide Civility
- 4 Civility in the United States of America (U.S.)
- 5 Civility in Canada (CA)
- 6 Further reading
- 7 Quotes on Civility
- 8 See also
- 9 External links
- 10 References
Civility is the act of engaging with others in a constructive manner. Some definitions conflate civility with politeness, which suggests disengaging with others so as not to offend ("roll over and play dead"...). The notion of constructive civility suggests robust, even passionate, engagement framed in respect for differing views. In his call for restoring civility, Pastor Rick Warren said, "In America, we’ve got to learn how to disagree without demonizing each other." 
Community, choices, conscience, character are all elements directly related to civility. Civility goes beyond mere manners, which is how a civil attitude often forms, this and other elements of civility, are often what creates more meaningful friendships and relationships.
The act or engagement of civility in conversation is commonly referred to as civil discourse. Kenneth J. Gergen suggests that respect of all participants must be respected in civil discourse, as "the language of dispassionate objectivity". Freemasonry has been a long-standing supporter of allowing and perpetuating alternative voices and ideas, promoting democratic habits of generous listening and civil discourse.
Developmental Model of Civility
Adolf G. Gunderson, PhD, and Suzanne Goodney Lea, PhD, have developed a model which "stresses the notion that civility is a sequence, not a single thing or set of things." The model places various types of interactions on a continuum from "less civil" to "indifference" to "most civil."
Movement to Foster Worldwide Civility
International Day of Peace (Also referred to as "Peace Day") is observed around the world each year on 21 September. Established in 1981 by resolution 36/37, the United Nations General Assembly declared this day devoted to strengthening the ideals of peace, both within and among all nations and peoples. Furthering the Day’s mission, the General Assembly voted unanimously in 2001 to adopt resolution 55/282 establishing 21 September as an annual day of non-violence and cease- fire.
Anyone, anywhere around the globe can celebrate Peace Day. It can be as simple as lighting a candle at noon, sitting in silent meditation, or doing a good deed for someone you don’t know. Others participate by involving co-workers, organizations, community and governments engaged in a large events to commemorate Peace Day.
In May 2007, the Global Peace Index (GPI) was launched in an attempt to measure the relative ranking of peacefulness around different countries around the world. Today the Global Peace Index is maintained the Institute for Economics and Peace, and is conducted on an annual basis. The index primarily gauges global peace using three main themes: level of safety and security in society, the extent of domestic and international conflict, and the degree of militarization.
Origin of Civility
Late Middle English: from Old French civilite, from Latin civilitas, from civilis 'relating to citizens' (see civil). In early use the term denoted the state of being a citizen and hence good citizenship or orderly behavior. The sense 'politeness' arose in the mid 16th century.
Civility in the United States of America (U.S.)
History of Civility in U.S.
As a young man, George Washington transcribed a list of Rules of Civility and Decent Behaviour In Company and Conversation, largely devoted to polite manners.
In March 2010, Author Anna Post published a book called Mr. Manners, Lessons from Obama on Civility, which highlights good manners from the President of the United States of America.
In a 2012 poll by Weber Shandwick, 65% of Americans said the lack of civility is a major problem that has worsened.
Movement to Foster Civility in U.S.
Civility In Government
Many projects are led by State Supreme Courts, such as the California Judicial Branch who launched a Civics Education Outreach program to educate students about the role of an independent judiciary in our democracy and how our court systems work.
Civility In the Legal Profession
In the legal profession, in response to a perceived decline in civility, various state bar associations in the U.S. have adopted or are considering civility standards. Civility initiatives are also evident in other workplace environments in the U.S.
Civility In Schools
Numerous universities in the U.S., such as the University of Colorado, the University of Missouri, and California State University San Marcos  have created programs designed to foster civility. Arizona State University offers an undergraduate certificate in Civil Communication. Still other universities, such as Kansas State University, have developed programs in dialogue and deliberation which involve codes of behavior that foster constructive, civil discourse.
Civility In the Community
Numerous community groups have formed throughout the U.S. to restore constructive civility in the public sphere. The Civility Toolkit with an estimated 300 tools and resources have been compiled by the Civility Center with a mission to help provide resources to help restore civility in society. Many of these groups are members of the National Coalition for Dialogue and Deliberation. Other programs, like iCivics which is led by Justice Sandra Day O'Conner, provides students with tools they need for active participation and democratic action, and teachers with the materials and support to achieve this in the form of goals, games, and print-and-go lesson plans 
Arnett and Arneson define civility "a metaphor that points to the importance of public respect in interpersonal interaction."
In Psychology Today, Dr. Price-Mitchell describes civility as "behavior that recognizes the humanity of others, allowing us to live peacefully together in neighborhoods and communities."
Calhoun (2000) delineates civility as an element of dialogue that sheds light on "basic moral attitudes of respect, tolerance, and considerateness" (p. 255). Calhoun, C. (2000). The virtue of civility. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 29 (3), 251-275.
Lack of Civility in U.S.
Lack of Civility, or Incivility consists of personal attacks, rudeness and disrespectful actions, threatening words, lack of respect, vandalism, hooliganism, and shows a lack of having good manners. Incivility has become a contemporary political issue in a number of countries.
Politicians in the U.S. often cite the lack of civility as an unfortunate aspect of politics, but polls indicate that "going negative" can help candidates win elections. During the 2016 presidential campaign, candidate Donald Trump has regularly cited his rivals for being "stupid, incompetent and losers"
Studies and polls indicate that Americans view Workplace incivility as a serious problem that is getting worse. One study found that 60% of employees believe that co-workers’ annoying behaviors negatively impact the workplace and, as a result, 40% reported that they are looking for new employment. These and other findings illustrate that disrespectful and uncivil behaviors drain productivity and negatively influence both an organization’s bottom line and the overall economy.
Numerous organizations and the US Government has actively attempted to prevent incivility in people's place of work. One measure to reduce workplace incivility, such as in the case of sexual harassment being illegal, and defined by the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), "It is unlawful to harass a person (an applicant or employee) because of that person's sex." Harassment can include "sexual harassment" or unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical harassment of a sexual nature.
Civility in Canada (CA)
Movement to Foster Civility in CA
In July 2012, the President of the Federation of Law Societies of Canada in his opening remarks to the 5th Biennial International Legal Ethics Conference, argued for the centrality of civility as a moral virtue for lawyers, and defended the regulatory attention paid to civility by the Canadian law societies that constitute the Federation's membership.
Also, during 2012 the Law Society of Upper Canada decided that Joe Groia was guilty of his incivility to opposing counsel during his successful defense of John Felderhof from Insider trading and securities charges. On the same case, the Supreme Court of Canada confirmed the decision of Bar of Quebec that Giles Dore was guilty of professional misconduct because of an uncivil letter he wrote to a judge.
Since the case with Joe Groia, coiner of the term "Civility Movement", The Law Society of Upper Canada has made it a mission to root out incivility in the legal profession. In most cases, that means reprimanding lawyers who are no civil with judges and other lawyers. In a handful of cases, lawyers have questioned whether the law society's intervention might be counter-productive - discouraging lawyers' vigorous defense of their clients for the sake of politeness.
- Benet Davetian, "Civility – A Cultural History," University of Toronto Press, 2009, ISBN 978-0-8020-9722-4
- Eiko Ikegami, "Bonds of Civility", February 2005, ISBN 9780521601153
- Digby Anderson, editor (1996) Gentility Recalled: Mere Manners and the Making of Social Order, May 1996, ISBN 978-0907631668
- Elijah Anderson, The Cosmospolitan Canopy: Race And Civility In Everyday Life, February 28, 2012, ISBN 978-0393340518
- George Washington Rules of Civility & Decent Behavior in Company and Conversation
- Godfrey Harris, Civility: How It Fosters Better Communities Paperback, Jun 2003, ISBN 978-0935047448
- John Perkins, Restoring At - Risk Communities: Doing It Together and Doing It Right Paperback, Nov 1 2011, ISBN 978-0801054631
- Kent Roberts & Jay Newman: Bring a Dish to Pass The Civil Action of Community Improvement, 2001
- Mark Kingwell, Unruly Voices: Essays on Democracy, Civility and the Human Imagination, September 11, 2012, ISBN 978-1926845845
- Os Guinness, The Case for Civility: And Why Our Future Depends on It, January 22, 2008, ISBN 978-0061353437
- P.M. Forni Choosing Civility: The 25 Rules of Considerate Conduct
- P.M. Forni The Civility Solution: What to Do When People Are Rude
- P.M. Forni, Choosing Civility: The Twenty-five Rules of Considerate Conduct, St. Martin's Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-312-28118-2
- Paul A. Elsner and George R. Boggs, Encouraging Civility as a Community College Leader
- Rules of Civility: The 110 Precepts That Guided Our First President in War and Peace
- Stephen Carter, Civility, Feb 13 1999, ISBN 978-0060977597
- Stephen L. Carter (1998) Civility: Manners, Morals, and the Etiquette of Democracy, Basic Books, 1998, ISBN 978-0-465-02384-4
- T.S. Bogorad The Importance of Civility
- Walter Earl Fluker, Ethical Leadership: The Quest For Character, Civility, And Community Paperback, Feb 1 2009, ISBN 978-0800663490
Quotes on Civility
|"Be civil to all, sociable to many, familiar with few, friend to one, enemy to none."|
- Be civil to all, sociable to many, familiar with few, friend to one, enemy to none. – Benjamin Franklin
- Civility costs nothing, and buys everything. – Mary Wortley Montagu, English Writer
- Civility is but a desire to receive civility, and to be esteemed polite. - François de la Rochefoucauld (French classical author, leading exponent of the Maxime, 1613-1680)
- Civility is not not saying negative or harsh things. It is not the absence of critical analysis. It is the manner in which we are sharing this territorial freedom of political discussion. If our discourse is yelled and screamed and interrupted and patronized, that's uncivil. – Richard Dreyfuss, American Actor
- Civility means a great deal more than just being nice to one another. It is complex and encompasses learning how to connect successfully and live well with others, developing thoughtfulness, and fostering effective self-expression and communication.
– Pier Massimo Forni, Award-winning professor at Johns Hopkins University
- Congratulations is the civility of envy. - Ambrose Bierce quotes (American Writer, Journalist and Editor, 1842-1914)
- I don’t believe in confrontation. That seems to me outside civil discourse and we all have to find a way to be civil to one another. – Condolezza Rice, American Political Scientist and diplomat
- I've always said that 'Civility is its own reward' and I've found this to be true. If you can invest a small amount of money and then earn a good living AND live your values AND offer children and youth and teens invaluable skills to help them be confident and successful as they find their way in the world- how could you NOT feel good about getting up every day to do this work? - Lew Bayer, President of Civility Experts, Founder and Executive Director of Center for Organizational Cultural Competence
- Political civility is not about being polite to each other. It's about reclaiming the power of 'We the People' to come together, debate the common good and call American democracy back to its highest values amid our differences. – Parker Palmer, Author & Educator
- So let us begin anew - remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is always subject to proof. - John Fitzgerald Kennedy quotes (American 35th US President (1961–63)
- The notion of political correctness declares certain topics, certain expressions, even certain gestures, off-limits. What began as a crusade for civility has soured into a cause of conflict and even censorship. - George Bush (American 41st US President (1989–93)
- There can be no high civility without a deep morality. - Ralph Waldo Emerson quotes (American Poet, Lecturer and Essayist, 1803-1882)
- True respect means taking other people's beliefs seriously and assuming they are adult and intelligent enough to be able to cope with it if you tell them, clearly and civility, why you think they are totally, utterly and disastrously wrong. - Julian Baggini, British Philosopher
- We hear a great deal about the rudeness of the rising generation. I am an oldster myself and might be expected to take the oldsters' side, but in fact I have been far more impressed by the bad manners of parents to children than by those of children to parents. Who has not been the embarrassed guest at family meals where the father or mother treated their grown-up offspring with an incivility which, offered to any other young people, would simply have terminated the acquaintance? Dogmatic assertions on matters which the children understand and their elders don't, ruthless interruptions, flat contradictions, ridicule of things the young take seriously sometimes of their religion insulting references to their friends, all provide an easy answer to the question "Why are they always out? Why do they like every house better than their home?" Who does not prefer civility to barbarism? - C.S. Lewis, The Four Loves
- When once the forms of civility are violated, there remains little hope of return to kindness or decency. - Samuel Johnson quotes (English Poet, Critic and Writer. 1709-1784)
Etiquette and language
Etiquette and society
Movements and organizations promoting civility
- Choose Civility is an ongoing community-wide initiative, led by Howard County Library, to position Howard County, Maryland as a model of civility. The project intends to enhance respect, empathy, consideration and tolerance in Howard County.
- Civility Center - In late 2013, as a result of ongoing communications between Russ Charvonia, who was at that time Deputy Grand Master, Masonic Grand Lodge of California, and Kent Roberts, Director, and Founder along with Jay Newman, of the National Civility Center, it was determined that the parties shared a common interest in building better communities and fostering civility and so a partnership was forged. Effective September 2014, a Freemason's Civility Task Force and a new Board of Directors for the National Civility Center were created. The groups have worked together to devise a mission for the new Civility Center that marries Masonic values and the goals of the Center.
- Dr. P.M. Forni, a professor at Johns Hopkins University, co-founded the Johns Hopkins Civility Project in 1997. An aggregation of academic and community outreach activities, the JHCP aimed at assessing the significance of civility, manners and politeness in contemporary society. The JHCP has been reconstituted as The Civility Initiative at Johns Hopkins, which Dr. Forni now directs. This Web site is designed to introduce Dr. Forni's work on civility and to offer links to related material
- Peace Worldwide was founded by Dr. Mehdi Alavi, whose commitment is to pursue everlasting world peace and world order. Their mission is to promote freedom and peace for all humanity. Their believe is "United, we can create a world free from the scourges of war, oppression, and persecution.
- The Civility Institute, founded by Dr. Benet Davetian (author of Civility-A Cultural History), conducts research on civility and provides consultations for institutions, schools, corporations. The goal of the institute is to offer beneficiaries with a practical understanding of the social psychology of civility and how civility can be increased without interfering with the mandates of a competitive society.
- The Civility Project is a voluntary, grassroots movement of people from diverse backgrounds who agree that, at this critical time in America's history, solutions to our most pressing problems will be found only through a more civil exchange of ideas. A web-based organization, CivilityProject.org hopes to promote more civility in public discourse. Mark DeMoss and long-time Clinton advisor Lanny Davis launched The Civility Project earlier 2009.
- The Institute for Civility believes there are two key threats to the effectiveness and efficiency of our governing process today. A nation experiencing both polarization and citizen apathy is a nation at risk. The institute works to reduce polarization in society by focusing on the very public civility (or lack of it!) in the governing process by facilitating dialogue, teaching respect, and building civility.
- The National Civility Center is a not-for-profit organization established in 2000 to help people make their communities better places to live. They believe that a comprehensive approach to community improvement—one that engages all local stakeholders around shared ideas and a unified plan for action—can help community members and organizations become more effective at solving tough social issues.
- "Robert C. Crosby, D.Min." (1997). "The Meaning of Civility". http://www.colorado.edu/. Retrieved July 4, 2015.
- "Guy Burgess, Ph.D. and Heidi Burgess, Ph.D." (2012). "Rick Warren's Real Reason: Why the Pastor Cancelled the Candidates". http://www.huffingtonpost.com/. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
- Kenneth J. Gergen (2001). Social construction in context. pp. 71–5. ISBN 0-7619-6545-9.
- Charvonia, Russ (April 1, 2014). Civility [Ciblity]. The Short Talk Bulletin – via The Masonic Service Association of North America. (subscription required (. ))
Freemasonry has been a long standing supporter of allowing and perpetuation alternative voices and ideas, promoting democratic habits of generous listening and civil discourse.
- "Gundersen, Adolf G., PhD, and Suzanne Goodney Lea, PhD" (2001). "Please Please Me: Voluntary Civility Standards for Lawyers". http://www.mass.gov/. Retrieved July 31, 2015.
- "International Day of Peace". http://internationaldayofpeace.org/. 2015. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
International Day of Peace (Also referred to as "Peace Day") is observed around the world each year on 21st of September. Established in 1981 by resolution 36/37, the United Nations General Assembly declared this day devoted to strengthening the ideals of peace, both within and among all nations and peoples. Furthering the Day’s mission, the General Assembly voted unanimously in 2001 to adopt resolution 55/282 establishing 21 September as an annual day of non-violence and cease- fire.
- Information about indicators and methodology "2014 Global Peace Index" (PDF). Institute for Economics and Peace. Retrieved 2015-06-02.
- "George Washington" (1971). "Rules of Civility & Decent Behaviour In Company and Conversation". http://www.history.org/. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- "Ray Williams" (July 15, 2012). "The Rise of Incivility and Bullying in America". https://www.psychologytoday.com. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
- "Administrative Office of the Courts" (March 2011). "California Judicial Branch Outreach to Students:Highlights" (PDF). http://www.courts.ca.gov/. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
- "PennState University" (2015). "History of Civility at the University Libraries". https://www.libraries.psu.edu. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- "University of Missouri" (2015). "Articles and Essays about Civility on College Campuses". http://www.missouri.edu. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- "Student Life and Leadership California State University San Marcos" (2015). "The Civility Campaign". http://www.csusm.edu/. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- "Arizona State University" (2015). "Certificate in Civil Communication". http://www.asu.edu. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- "Kansas State University" (2015). "Institute for Civic Discourse and Democracy". http://www.k-state.edu. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
- "Civility Center" (2015). "The Civility Center Toolkit & Resources". http://www.civilitycenter.org/. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- "National Coalition for Dialogue & Deliberation" (2015). "What We’re All About". http://ncdd.org/. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
- "iCivics" (2015). "Our Story". http://www.icivics.org/. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
- Arnett,Arneson, Ronald,Pat (September 30, 1999). Dialogic Civility in a Cynical Age: Community, Hope, and Interpersonal Relationships. State University of New York Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0791443262.
- "Incivility in Political Discourse (The Coming Apogee of the Moonbat Hordes)". http://www.indcjournal.com/ InDC Journal. 2004-10-13. Retrieved 2006-11-25.
- "Bush Appeals for Civility in GOP Race". http://www.usnews.com/news/blogs/ken-walshs-washington/2015/07/28/bush-appeals-for-civility-in-gop-race. 2015-07-28. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
- "Barbara Richman" (May 28, 2014). "Ten Tips for Creating Respect and Civility in Your Workplace". Lorman. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
- "Sexual Harassment". U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
- "Uncivil by too much civility" (PDF). http://www.cba.org/CBA/cbaclc2014/SECURE_PDF/a7%20Uncivil%20by%20too%20much%20civility.pdf. 2012-12-08. Retrieved 2015-09-17.
- "Has the so-called civility movement already won?". http://www.nationalmagazine.ca/Articles/January-2015-Web/Out-of-order.aspx. 2015-01-28. Retrieved 2015-09-17.
- Richard Alan Krieger. Civilization's Quotations: Life's Ideal. Algora Publishing; 2001. p. 274.
- "P.M. Forni" (2002). "Choosing Civility: The Twenty-Five Rules of Considerate Conduct". New York, St. Martin's Press. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "Choose Civility". http://choosecivility.org/. ChooseCivility.org. 2014. Retrieved July 31, 2015.
The project intends to enhance respect, empathy, consideration and tolerance in Howard County
- "About Us". http://www.civilitycenter.org/. Civilitycenter.org. 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
civilityproject.org In late 2013, as a result of ongoing communications between Russ Charvonia, who was at that time Deputy Grand Master, Masonic Grand Lodge of California, and Kent Roberts, Director, and Founder along with Jay Newman, of the National Civility Center, it was determined that the parties shared a common interest in building better communities and fostering civility and so a partnership was forged. Effective September 2014, a Freemason's Civility Task Force and a new Board of Directors for the National Civility Center were created. The groups have worked together to devise a mission for the new Civility Center that marries Masonic values and the goals of the Center..
- "Dr. P.M. Forni". http://krieger.jhu.edu/civility/index.html. John Hokins University. 2014. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
Dr. P.M. Forni, a professor at Johns Hopkins University, co-founded the Johns Hopkins Civility Project in 1997.
- "Peace Worldwide". http://www.peaceworldwide.org/p/about-peace-worldwide.html. peaceworldwide.org/. 2015. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
commitment is to pursue everlasting world peace and world order. Their mission is to promote freedom and peace for all humanity. Their believe is "United, we can create a world free from the scourges of war, oppression, and persecution.
- "The Civility Institute". http://www.civilityinstitute.com/. CivilityInstitute.com/. 2015. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
The Civility Institute is to encourage a broad discussion of civility and its complex and powerful role in human relations.
- "Bringing civility to a troubled world". http://www.civilityproject.org/. CivilityProject.org. 2014. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
CivilityProject.org hopes to promote more civility in public discourse.
- "The Institute for Civility in Government". http://www.instituteforcivility.org/. InstituteForCivility.org. 2015. Retrieved July 31, 2015.
We are a grassroots, non-partisan, non-profit organization that is building civility in a society that all too often seems tilted toward uncivil speech and actions.
- "The Principles of Engagement are guideposts for attracting collaborators and establishing relationships among them". http://www.civilitycenter.org/. CivilityCenter.org. 2014. Retrieved July 31, 2015.
The Civility Center is a not-for-profit organization established in 2000 to help people make their communities better places to live