Coat of arms of Yugoslavia
|Coat of arms of Yugoslavia|
Lesser Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918-1941)
Emblem of SFR Yugoslavia (1963-1992)
|Use||As official emblem of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia|
During its existence as a state from 1918 to 1992, Yugoslavia used two different coats of arms: the royal coat of arms of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, used between the World Wars (1918-1941), and the socialist emblem, used after World War II by Socialist Yugoslavia.
The pre-World War II Kingdom had a coat of arms similar to that of the Kingdom of Serbia, featuring a white double-headed eagle on a red shield. After World War II the emblem of Yugoslavia featured a group of individual torches, surrounded by wheat with a red star at the top, and burning together in one flame; this represented the brotherhood and unity of the various groupings within Yugoslavia. Until 1963 the symbolism of five torches represented five recognised ethnic groups: Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Montenegrins and Macedonians. From 1963 onwards six torches featured, symbolising the six federal constituent republics forming Yugoslavia:
The extra torch granted greater de facto symbolic recognition to the Moslem population (Bosniaks) of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The date imprinted on the emblem, 29 November 1943, commemorates the second meeting of the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) in Jajce, which formed the basis for post-war organisation of the country, establishing a federal republic (Yugoslavia celebrated this date as Republic Day).
The emblem of republican Yugoslavia, along with the badges of its constituent republics, exemplifies socialist heraldry.
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (previously called Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes) was an evolution of the Coat of arms of Serbia. Graphically the coat of arms were similar, featuring only two major differences, the first difference being the royal crowns. The royal Serbian coat of arms depicts the Obrenović dynastic crown, while the royal Yugoslav coat of arms depicted the ruling Karađorđević dynastic crown.
The second difference was the shield surmounted on the white double-headed eagle. The previous Serbian coat of arms depicted only the Serbian tetragrammatic cross, representing only the Serbian nation. When Yugoslavia was formed, the surmounted shield was altered to include the newly integrated Croat and Slovene nations, as the three official nations of Yugoslavia. The coat of arms includes three golden six-armed stars in the form of an upside down triangle, adopted from the coat-of-arms of the Counts of Celje family. An image of the royal Yugoslav coat of arms can be seen on the 10-Yugoslav dinar banknote of 1926.
Greater coat of arms of Yugoslavia 1918-1941
During World War II (1943–1945), the Yugoslav state was named Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (DFY), in 1945 it was renamed Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (FPR Yugoslavia), and again in 1963 into Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia). The emblem of socialist Yugoslavia was designed in 1943 and remained in use up to 1963, when the country underwent reforms and was renamed for the final time. It featured five torches surrounded by wheat and burning together in one flame; this represented the brotherhood and unity of the five nations of SFR Yugoslavia: Croats, Serbs, Montenegrins, Macedonians, and Slovenes. The Bosniaks were not represented as a constituent nation.
As part of the 1963 reforms, the name of the country was changed into Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and its emblem was redesigned to represent six Yugoslav federal republics (instead of the five nations). The new emblem was the final version with six torches, and was in official use up to the country's dissolution in 1992. The date of the insignia remained the same, 29 November 1943, the date the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) met in Jajce on its second meeting.
Emblem of Yugoslavia used during World War II, 1943-46.
The emblems of the Yugoslav socialist republics were defined by each of its six constituent republics. Emblems appeared as a symbol of statehood on the documents of republican level, for example on the signs of the republican institutions, on watermarks of school diplomas, etc. The emblems included old historical symbols where they could demonstrate historical compatibility with the new socialist political system – see Croatian and Serbian traditional emblem in the middle of their coats of arms; also Slovenian Mount Triglav was recognized as a symbol of Slovenian Liberation Front during the National Liberation War during World War II. Where the old symbols were deemed inappropriate (the traditional cross on the Serbian coat of arms, ethnic or religious coat of arms for Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former traditionally monarchist symbol for Montenegro or the historical lion for Macedonia), prominent features or unofficial national symbols were added, e.g. Mount Lovćen for Montenegro, or a pair of chimneys for Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The same with the federal Yugoslav emblem: all separate republican emblems featured a red star, and wheat or other important plants from that region. The individual emblems of the six Yugoslav socialist republics were as follows:
|Republic||Emblem||Author||Republic-specific features||Present-day coat of arms|
|SR Bosnia and Herzegovina||Unknown||Plants||Conifer twig (left), Deciduous twig (right), two sheaves of wheat (lower middle portion)||
Coat of arms of Bosnia and Herzegovina
|Silhouette of Jajce|
|Industry||two factory chimneys|
|SR Croatia||Antun Augustinčić
and Vanja Radauš
Coat of arms of Croatia
|Adriatic Sea, rising sun|
|SR Macedonia||Vasilije Popović–Cico||Plants||Garland of wheat, tobacco leaves and poppy buds||
National emblem of Macedonia
|River Vardar, Mount Korab, sunrise, sky|
|Ornaments||ribbon with traditional Macedonian embroidery|
|SR Montenegro||Milan Božović
and Milo Milunović
Coat of arms of Montenegro
|Mount Lovćen, Adriatic Sea|
|Ornaments||Montenegrin tricolour of Pan-Slavic colors|
|SR Serbia||Đorđe Andrejević Kun||Plant||sheaf of wheat (left), sheaf of oak leaves with acorns (right)||
Coat of arms of Serbia
|Ornaments||red track (with inscriptions), Serbian traditional symbol|
|SR Slovenia||Branko Simčič||Plants||wheat, leaves of linden||
Coat of arms of Slovenia
- Flag of Yugoslavia
- List of Yugoslav flags
- Coat of arms of Serbia and Montenegro
- Emblems of the Soviet Republics
- Fugger Germandik, Rolanda (2013). Grofje Celjski med zgodovino in mitom [Counts of Celje Between History and a Myth] (in Slovenian). ISBN 978-961-6845-04-5.
- 10 dinar note of 1926 Archived February 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- Stuparić, Darko. Diplomati izvan protokola : ambasadori Titove Jugoslavije, Centar za kulturnu djelatnost Saveza socijalističke omladine Zagreba, Zagreb, 1978., p. 75.
- Jonovski, Jovan. Coats of arms of Macedonia, Macedonian Herald, Electronic Version, heraldika.org.mk, No. 3, March 2009, p. 9.
- Markuš, Jovan B. Grbovi, zastave i himne u istoriji Crne Gore (Библиотека Свети Петар Цетињски), "Svetigora" (Izdavačko-informativna ustanova Mitropolije Crnogorsko-primorske), Cetinje, 2007., p. 47-48., ISBN 978-86-7660-054-0
- Excerpt from the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Montenegro (1963) in: Guć, Nedeljko. (ed.) Društveno-političko uređenje, pravosuđe, uprava, (Zbirke propisa I-IV), knj. 1, Prosveta, Beograd, 1967, p. 303.
Грб Социјалистичке Републике Црне Горе представља поље окружено ловоровим вијенцем који је доље повезан црногорском заставом. Између врхова ловоровог вијенца је петокрака црвена звијезда, а у средини поља представљен је Ловћен. Позади Ловћена с неколико вијуга представљено је Јадранско море.— Guć, 1967, 303
- 8. člen Ustave Socialistične republike Slovenije (1974)
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