Cocoa Beach, Florida
|Cocoa Beach, Florida|
|City of Cocoa Beach|
An empty Cocoa Beach on a cloudy day
Location in Brevard County and the state of Florida
|Country||United States of America|
|Established||June 5, 1925|
|Incorporated (city)||June 29, 1957|
|Founded by||Gus C. Edwards|
|• Mayor||Dave Netterstrom|
|• City Manager||Bob Majka|
|• Vice Mayor||Kevin S. Pruett|
|• Total||15 sq mi (39 km2)|
|• Land||4.9 sq mi (12.7 km2)|
|• Water||10.1 sq mi (26.3 km2)|
|Elevation||0 ft (0 m)|
|• Density||750/sq mi (290/km2)|
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||0280609|
Cocoa Beach is a city in Brevard County, Florida. The population was 11,231 at the 2010 United States Census. It is part of the Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Government
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Education
- 7 Landmarks
- 8 Infrastructure
- 9 Notable people
- 10 Criticism
- 11 Sister cities
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The first non-native settlement in the area was by a family of freed slaves following the American Civil War. In 1888, a group of men from Cocoa bought the entire tract of land, which went undeveloped until it was bought out in 1923 by a member of the group—Gus Edwards, Cocoa's city attorney. At that time, Edwards' total holdings included approximately 600 acres (240 ha), and he had stopped practicing law to devote all his efforts to developing the area.
Prior to incorporation, the area was known as Oceanus. The Town of Cocoa Beach was established on June 5, 1925. Cocoa Beach's first official meeting was held at the Cocoa Beach Casino on July 27, 1925, and adopted the City Seal. Gus C. Edwards was elected  as mayor and served as a commissioner along with J.A. Haisten, and R.Z. Grabel. A little less than a month later, plans for a pier became official.
In 1935, the FDOT opened up what is now State Road A1A as a one-lane dirt road to Eau Gallie. In 1938, a Deputy Marshal was appointed "to act in emergencies at night or at other times" for $.25/hour. By 1939, the town had 49 residents. In 1940, the town requested that State Road 140 (now A1A) be routed on Orlando Avenue instead of Atlantic Avenue. In 1942, the town prepared to receive men assigned to the newly opened Naval Air Station Banana River. Establishing regular garbage collection was discussed when the town discovered that the Air Station was having theirs collected.
On May 1, 1942, the German submarine U-109 torpedoed the La Paz off the shore of Cocoa Beach. The crew was able to beach it with the help of tugs. Eventually it was returned to shipping. On May 3, the same U-boat sank the SS Laertes near the same spot. Local boys were recruited for salvaging efforts and to rid the beach of subsequent debris. Shortly thereafter, the federal government realized the danger of back-lighting from the coast making easy targets of passing ships and ordered a blackout for the remainder of the war.
In 1944, the town successfully fought a bill introduced in the Florida legislature which would have dissolved the city government. In 1947 a single police officer was hired for $1/hour. The same year, the city constructed works for the distribution of potable water. In 1950, a volunteer fire department was created which used a second-hand vehicle. In 1950, a proposal to prevent people from driving on the beach was defeated. In 1951, the city sought to place a stoplight, the city's first, at the intersection of what is now A1A and Minuteman Causeway. In 1953, the city decided to mark the names of all streets. In 1953, the city planned to pave A1A south from 520 down Orlando Avenue. The city intended to bear 1/3 of the costs, the adjacent property owners, 2/3. In 1954, the Women's Club opened a library in the building used by the Fire Department. In 1955, the speed limit in most of the town was raised to 35 miles per hour (56 km/h). In 1955, the city prepared to house the people who were going to be launching missiles from what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. In 1956, the city attorney warned the council that blacks might attempt to use the beach. If they did, he recommended clearing the beach of all persons, both white and black. The 1954 decision, Brown v. Board of Education, had, in theory at least, integrated all general public facilities. Actual integration came later.
On June 29, 1957, the town of Cocoa Beach incorporated into a city. In September 1959, the city voted to add more sidewalks, improve the streets in residential areas as well as the main streets, and to pave more roads.
Cocoa Beach started its major growth during the 1960s (1000% population increase from 1950 to 1960) as a result of America's space program. NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center is located approximately 15 miles (24 km) north of town. Many people moved to Cocoa Beach due to jobs connected to the space program and in search of new opportunities.
After manned space flights, the town held parades in honor of the astronauts.
After NASA's Apollo program came to an end, and before the Space Shuttle program was in full swing, the town's economy reflected the resulting layoffs. At one point, in 1975, unemployment was 14.3%. Many families lost their jobs or simply moved away. The housing market plummeted and some people unable to sell their homes simply abandoned them.
Cocoa Beach was the setting for the 1960s sitcom I Dream of Jeannie, although no episodes were actually filmed there, and star Barbara Eden only made two visits during the show's production — both in 1969, for publicity. Cocoa Beach High School was used as the school in the 2002 movie Race to Space.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.0 square miles (39 km2). 4.9 square miles (13 km2) of it is land and 10.1 square miles (26 km2) of it (67.49%) is water. Bordering the city on the north is Cape Canaveral; on the south is Crescent Beach; on the east is the Atlantic Ocean (5.6 mi or 9.0 km of oceanfront); on the west is the Banana River.
There are a number of boating channels dredged in the area: the 0-99 Channel, the 100 Channel, the 200 Channel for houseboats, the 300 Channel, the 400 Channel near housing for private boats, the 500 Channel and the 600 Channel. Dredged material is placed on one of the Thousand Islands, but is now controlled.
Many of the homes in Cocoa Beach are built on dredged mud and sand from the Banana River.
Cocoa Beach's has a humid Subtropical Climate Köppen climate classification of Cfa. This climate features hot and humid summers with frequent tropical downpours and daily thundershowers, and warm, dry, and sunny winters. The average high temperature in the warmest month (July) in Cocoa Beach is 91 °F (33 °C) and the average high in the coolest month (January) is 72 °F (22 °C).
|Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures|
|Rec High °F||89||92||93||97||97||101||102||101||98||96||91||89|
|Norm High °F||72||73||77||81||85||89||91||90||88||83||78||73|
|Norm Low °F||50||51||55||60||66||71||72||73||72||67||60||53|
|Rec Low °F||17||27||25||35||47||55||60||60||58||41||30||21|
|Source: The Weather Channel |
Cocoa Beach is run by a Commission-Manager government, agreed to by its citizens in 1958. The City Commission acts as the legislative branch of the city government, guided by the provisions of the Charter of the City of Cocoa Beach. The City Commission enacts ordinances and resolutions that the City Manager administers as the appointed executive officer of the city government.
In 2007, the city had a taxable real estate base of $2.09 billion.
In 2012, the police force consisted of 36 officers.
In 2011, the city photographed more than 20,000 instances of vehicles running red lights by the use of automatic cameras. A total of 6,595 violations were prosecuted. In 2014, the city grossed $1.1 million for over 9.000 red light violations. Over 24,000 violations were captured on film. All could not be prosecuted for various reasons. The city netted over $249,000. The remainder went for licensing fees to the installing vendor; over half was remitted to the state. Cameras were sited at four locations on state road A1A, including the intersection with state road 520. Intersection crashes dropped from 88 in 2009 to 30 in 2014.
The City Commission is made up of five members, one of whom is the Mayor. Historically, the commissioners were elected at-large to three-year terms but with a successful referendum on the 2010 ballot to hold elections on even-numbered years, the terms were extended to four years.
Following an election, a Vice Mayor is then selected from the commission members at an organizational meeting. The Mayor presides over all meetings and performs duties as delegated by the City Commission. Seats affected by the 2010 referendum included Seat #1, Seat #4 and Seat #5. The November 6, 2012 election results are as followed
- Mayor/Commissioner, Seat #1 - Dave Netterstrom (term expires 2016)
- Vice-Mayor/Commissioner, Seat #2 - Tim Tumulty (term expires 2016)
- Commissioner, Seat #3 - Ben Malik (term expires 2016)
- Commissioner, Seat #4 - Skip Williams (term expires 2014)
- Commissioner, Seat #5 - Adrianne Dillon (term expires 2014)
The City Manager is appointed by the City Commission and is responsible for the city's day-to-day operations. The city's charter has established a separation of powers and responsibility between the Commission and the Manager; the elected commission establishes policy that the manager and staff carry out. The City Manager conducts day-to-day operations through four city departments: Administrative, Public Safety, Utilities, and Recreation. Charles Billias was the City Manager from 1998 until October 2012. Bob Majka is the current City Manager 
As of the census of 2010, there were 11,231 people, 6,529 households, and 3,532 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,552.1 inhabitants per square mile (985.5/km²). There were 8,709 housing units at an average density of 1,780.6 per square mile (687.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 96.64% White, 0.62% African American, 0.22% Native American, 1.07% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, and 1.08% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.52% of the population.
There were 6,529 households,12.9% of which had children under the age of 18 residing; 45.5% were married couples living together; 5.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 45.9% were non-families. 38.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.7% were households of persons 65 years of age or older living alone. The average household size was 1.91 and the average family size was 2.47.
The city's population was divided into the following age groups: 12.2% under the age of 18; 3.8% between 18 and 24; 22.0% between 25 and 44,; 27.6% between 45 and 64, and 34.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 54 years. For every 100 females there were 99.3 males. For every 100 females aged 18 years and older, there were 96.4 males.
According to the census, the median income for a single household in the city was $42,372, and the median income for a family was $51,795. Males had a median income of $39,418 versus $27,113 for females. The per capita income for the city was $28,968. About 3.7% of families and 6.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.8% of those under age 18 and 4.0% of those age 65 or over.
It is estimated that there are 2.4 million day trippers annually. While businesses appreciate the tourism, it creates a parking problem for the city. There are 1,780 paved parking spaces and 607 spaces on the streets downtown, near the beach.
The Cocoa Beach Pier, formerly known as the Cape Canaveral Pier, was built in 1962. An annual Easter Surfing Festival began in 1964. An estimated 100,000 spectators attend annually. An annual Beach Fest is held in May.
An air show in 2009 drew a crowd estimated at 30,000.
There is a store that sells dinosaur and other fossils.
In 2007, Cocoa Beach's median labor force was 6,344. Of that group, 6,006 were employed and 338 were unemployed, for an unemployment rate of 5.3%.
The city has three public schools:
- Freedom 7 Elementary
- Theodore Roosevelt Elementary
- Cocoa Beach High School
Freedom 7 Elementary school and Cocoa Beach Jr./Sr High School both are certified International Baccalaureate schools. Freedom 7 Elementary has a primary years program, and Cocoa Beach Jr./Sr High has both a middle years program and a diploma program.
- Cocoa Beach Pier
- Alan Shepard Beachfront Park
- Thousand Islands Conservation Area
- Cocoa Beach Aquatic Center and Pool Complex
- I Dream of Jeannie Lane
- In 1960, a structure on A1A was built that contained a branch of the First Federal Bank of Florida. It was glass and stood on spindly legs. Despite a major overhaul in 1981 that covered much of the glass structure in concrete, it was still called the "Glass Bank" by locals. It was damaged by Hurricane Frances, and was later demolished in early 2015.
The following roads are usually called by their numbers when spoken:
- SR A1A Proceeding northbound from the southern border of the city limits, the road forks into two double-laned roads north of the Oceanus Circle intersection. The southbound road is called "Orlando Avenue"; the northbound one, "Atlantic Avenue". The two roads merge into one again, just north of the intersection with Sunflower Street.
- SR 520
Public transportation in Cocoa Beach, Cape Canaveral, and surrounding Brevard County is provided by Space Coast Area Transit.
The city has 37 canals, totaling 9 miles (14 km), serving residential homes, plus 17 miles (27 km) of channels. These are maintained by the city.
- Allison Anders, raised in the city. Filmed Things Behind the Sun in the county in 2001
- Willam Belli, a drag queen, actor, recording artist, and youtuber raised in the city
- Jan Davis, NASA astronaut
- Jay F. Honeycutt, former director of the Kennedy Space Center
- Zora Neale Hurston, author
- Rick Martel, professional wrestler
- Allen Neuharth, CEO of Gannett and columnist. Founder of USA Today
- Kelly Slater, professional surfer, 11-time World Champion
- George Steele, professional wrestler a.k.a. George "The Animal" Steele
- Joe Williams, former men's basketball coach at Jacksonville University, Furman University and Florida State University (1979–1986). Coached against John Wooden's UCLA team in the 1970 NCAA Men's Basketball National Championship game.
- Melissa Witek, Miss Florida USA 2005 and contestant on NBC's Treasure Hunters
- Nancy Yasecko, filmmaker and videographer 
A reporter for The New York Times, there to cover a Space Shuttle launch in 2010, commented that the city
... isn't a dream destination ... (read: crowded, touristy and tacky) and ... prices are astronomical during shuttle launchings ...
An area spokesman replied that it was common everywhere to jack up room rates for major events.
- Harbor Cay Condominium, which collapsed while under construction in 1981
- "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Cocoa Beach city, Florida". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Biography of Gus C. Edwards City of Cocoa Beach - Official Site. Retrieved on 2009-06-26.
- City History City of Cocoa Beach - Official Site. Retrieved on 2009-06-26.
- History at a Glance City of Cocoa Beach - Official Site. Retrieved on 2009-06-26.
- Parrish, Ada Edmiston; Field, Alma Clyde; Harrell, George Leland (2001). Merritt Island and Cocoa Beach. Charleston, SC: Arcadia. ISBN 0738506680.
- Meeting Minutes for July 27, 1925 City of Cocoa Beach - Official Site. Retrieved on 2009-06-26.
- "The History of Cocoa Beach". City of Cocoa Beach. 2010-12-15.
- Chris Kridler (2010-08-18). "New book highlights Florida's role during World War II". Florida Today. Florida Today.
- La Paz (British Motor merchant) - Ships hit by German U-boats during WWII. uboat.net. Retrieved on 2013-09-18.
- The History of Cocoa Beach. Cityofcocoabeach.com. Retrieved on 2013-09-18.
- Osborne, Ray I Dream of Jeannie Days
- Race to Space (2000) - Overview - MSN Movies. Movies.msn.com. Retrieved on 2013-09-18.
- Harbaugh, Pam (12 May 2010). "Nebula Awards honor science, fantasy writers". Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today. pp. !D.
- Kridler, Chris (April 20, 2007). Paddle a watery wilderness. Florida Today.
- Randy Lascody (March 2002). "The Onset of the Wet and Dry Seasons in East Central Florida- A Subtropical Wet-Dry Climate?". National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office Melbourne, FL. NOAA.
- Elected Officials City of Cocoa Beach - Official Site. Retrieved on 2009-06-26.
- Cocoa Beach golf course accessed March 18, 2008
- Dean, James (April 26, 2008). More taxes or fewer services. Florida Today.
- Gallop, J.D. (January 31, 2012). "Off-duty officer 'critical' after crash". Florida Today (Melbourne, Florida). pp. 1B.
- Neale, Rick (February 5, 2012). "Challengers mostly win". Florida Today (Melbourne, Florida). pp. 12A.
- Moody, R. Norman (January 16, 2015). "Cocoa Beach keeps red light cameras...for now". Florida Today (Melbourne, Florida). pp. 12A. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
- "City of Cocoa Beach". Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- City Departments City of Cocoa Beach - Official Site. Retrieved on 2009-06-26.
- City Officials City of Cocoa Beach - Official Site. Retrieved on 2013-03-30.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
-  factfinder.census.gov
- Travel Writer'S Magazine - Space Coast Is Great Place For Families To Commune With Nature
- Neale, Rick (February 24, 2013). "Parking plan recharged". Florida Today (Melbourne, Florida). pp. 1B.
- Neale, Rick (March 9, 2013). "Parking garage costs concern Cocoa Beach". Florida Today (Melbourne, Florida). pp. 1B.
- Moody, R. Norman and Best, Keilani (March 22, 2008). Surf's i[ fpr economy. Florida Today.
-  retrieved 4 October 2009 Archived April 30, 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Waymer, Jim (29 December 2009). "Rarity on display". Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today. pp. 1A.
- Summers, Keyonna (3 April 2010). "Sign in the sand". Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today. pp. 1A.
- Cocoa Beach Community Data Sheet Economic Development Council of Florida's Space Coast. Retrieved on 2009-06-26.
- Building Permits United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2009-06-24.
- Amy Shepherd Nance (2009-12-05). "A Vintage Cape Canaveral Tour". VisitFlorida.com.
- Moody, R. Norman (19 March 2010). "Cocoa Beach studies municipal electriciy". Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today. pp. 1A.
- Waymer, Jim (November 24, 2013). "Muck". Florida Today (Melbourne, Florida). pp. 4A. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
- Scott, Megan K. (6 March 2011). "Hurston's real home". Florida Today (Melbourne, Florida). pp. 1D.
- Records, Clerk of the Courts
- Freedom Forum retrieved April 8, 2008
- Online World of Wrestling.com retrieved April 8, 2008
- John Wooden: UCLA Coaching Legend
- Browne, Malcolm W (1986-07-09). "TV REVIEWS - 'GROWING UP WITH ROCKETS,' CAPE CANAVERAL FAMILY LIFE". New York Times. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
- Berman, Dave (18 May 2010). "'N.Y. Times': Liked launch, not venues". Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today. pp. 1A.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cocoa Beach, Florida.|
- Official website
- History of Cocoa Beach
- Cocoa Beach travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Cocoa Beach, Florida at DMOZ
- Cocoa Beach Collection on RICHES Mosaic Interface