Complex (psychology)

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A complex is a structure in the unconscious that is objectified as an underlying theme—like a power or a status—by grouping clusters of emotions, memories, perceptions and wishes in response to a threat to the stability of the self. In psychoanalysis, it is antithetical to drives.[1][2]


An example of a complex would be as follows: if one had a leg amputated when one was a child, this would influence one's life in profound ways, even if they overcame the physical handicap. A person may have many thoughts, emotions, memories, feelings of inferiority, triumphs, bitterness, and determinations centering on that one aspect of their life. If these thoughts were troubling and pervasive, Jung might say they had a complex about the leg.[3]

The reality of complexes is widely agreed upon in the area of depth psychology, a branch of psychology asserting that the vast majority of the personality is determined and influenced by unconscious processes.[3] Complexes are common features of the psychic landscape, according to Jung's accounting of the psyche, and often become relevant in psychotherapy to examine and resolve, most especially in the journey toward individuation or wholeness. Without resolution, complexes continue to exert unconscious, maladaptive influence on our thoughts, feelings, and behavior and keep us from achieving psychological integration.

History and development of the idea[edit]

Carl Jung distinguished between two types of unconscious mind: the personal unconscious and collective unconscious.[3] The personal unconscious was the accumulation of experiences from a person's lifetime that could not be consciously recalled.[3] The collective unconscious, on the other hand, was a sort of universal inheritance of human beings, a "species memory" passed on to each of us, not unlike the motor programs and instincts of other animals.[3] Jung believed the personal unconscious was dominated by complexes.[3]

The term complex (German: Komplex; also emotionally charged complexes or feeling-toned complex of ideas), was coined by Carl Jung when he was still a close associate of Sigmund Freud.[4] Complexes were so central to Jung's ideas that he originally called his body of theories Complex psychology.[5] Historically the term originated with Theodor Ziehen, a German psychiatrist who experimented with reaction time in word association test responses.[5] Jung described a complex as a node in the unconscious; it may be imagined as a knot of unconscious feelings and beliefs, detectable indirectly, through behavior that is puzzling or hard to account for.

Jung found evidence for complexes very early in his career in the word association tests conducted at the Burghölzli, the psychiatric clinic of Zurich University, where Jung worked from 1900 to 1908.[5] Jung developed the theory out of his work on Word Association Test.[5] In the word association tests, a researcher reads a list of 100 words to each subject, who was asked to say, as quickly as possible, the first thing that came to mind in response to each word, and the subject's reaction time was measured in fifths of a second.[5] (Sir Francis Galton invented the method in 1879.) Researchers noted any unusual reactions—hesitations, slips of the tongue, signs of emotion.[5] Jung was interested in patterns he detected in subjects' responses, hinting at unconscious feelings and beliefs.[5]

In Jung's theory, complexes may be conscious, partly conscious, or unconscious.[3] Complexes can be positive or negative, resulting in good or bad consequences.[6] There are many kinds of complex, but at the core of any complex is a universal pattern of experience, or archetype.[7] Two of the major complexes Jung wrote about were the anima (a node of unconscious beliefs and feelings in a man's psyche relating to the opposite gender) and animus (the corresponding complex in a woman's psyche). Other major complexes include the mother, father, hero, and more recently, the brother and sister. Jung believed it was perfectly normal to have complexes because everyone has emotional experiences that affect the psyche. Although they are normal, negative complexes can cause us pain and suffering.[6]

One of the key differences between Jungian and Freudian theory is that Jung's thought posits several different kinds of complex. Freud only focused on the Oedipus complex which reflected developmental challenges that face every young boy. He did not take other complexes into account except for the Electra complex, which he briefly spoke of.[8]

After years of working together, Jung broke from Freud, due to disagreements in their ideas, and they each developed their own theories. Jung wanted to distinguish between his and Freud's findings, so he named his theory "analytical psychology".[citation needed]

Jung's theory of complexes with key citations[edit]

Psychological complex according to Jung (en).jpg

The ego itself can be thought of as a complex, not yet fully integrated with other parts of the psyche (namely, the superego and the id, or unconscious). As described by Jung, "by ego I understand a complex of ideas which constitutes the center of my field of consciousness and appears to possess a high degree of continuity and identity. Hence I also speak of an ego-complex".[9]

Jung often used the term complex to describe a partially repressed, yet highly influential cluster of charged psychic material split off from, or at odds with, the conscious "I".[10] Daniels described complexes in 2010 as "'stuck-together' agglomerations of thoughts, feelings, behavior patterns, and somatic forms of expression".[10] Concerning its nature as feeling-toned, Jung wrote "[a complex] is the image of a certain psychic situation which is strongly accentuated emotionally and is, moreover, incompatible with the habitual attitude of consciousness. This image has a powerful inner coherence, it has its own wholeness and, in addition, a relatively high degree of autonomy, so that it is subject to the control of the conscious mind to only a limited extent, and therefore behaves like an animated foreign body in the sphere of consciousness."[11]

Some complexes can usurp power from the ego and can cause psychological disturbances and symptoms resulting from the development of a neurosis.[10] Jung described the autonomous, self-directing nature of complexes when he said

"what is not so well known, but far more important theoretically, is that complexes can have us. The existence of complexes throws serious doubt on the naive assumption of the unity of consciousness, which is equated with 'psyche,' and on the supremacy of the will. Every constellation of a complex postulates a disturbed state of consciousness. The unity of consciousness is disrupted and the intentions of the will are impeded or made impossible. Even memory is often noticeably affected, as we have seen. The complex must therefore be a psychic factor that, in terms of energy, possesses a value that sometimes exceeds that of our conscious intentions, otherwise, such disruptions of the conscious order would not be possible at all. And in fact, an active complex puts us momentarily under a state of duress, of compulsive thinking and acting, for which under certain conditions the only appropriate term would be the judicial concept of diminished responsibility"[12]

On the other hand, Jung spoke of the "differentiating functions" as essentially the healthy development of useful complexes, yet not without bringing about often undesirable side effects.

"It is true that we do not refer to this [training and development of functions] as obsession by a complex, but as one-sidedness. Still, the actual state is approximately the same, with this difference, that the one-sidedness is intended by the individual and is fostered by all the means in his power, whereas the complex is felt to be injurious and disturbing. People often fail to see that consciously willed one-sidedness is one of the most important causes of an undesirable complex, and that, conversely, certain complexes cause a one-sided differentiation of doubtful value.[13]

In Psychological Types, Jung describes the effects of tensions between the dominant and inferior differentiating functions, often forming complexes and neuroses, in high and even extremely one-sided types.

"In the foregoing descriptions I have no desire to give my readers the impression that these types occur at all frequently in such pure form in actual life. They are, as it were, only Galtonesque family portraits, which single out the common and therefore typical features, stressing them disproportionately, while the individual features are just as disproportionately effaced.[14]

Complexes and subpersonalities[edit]

Jung conceptualized complexes as having a high degree of autonomy, describing them as ‘splinter psyches’ that form the basis for ‘mini-personalities’, whom he called the ‘little people’.[15] This provided the foundation for later expansion of the idea, most notably by British Psychotherapist John Rowan, who referred to them as subpersonalities, each one operating as a 'semipermanent and semi-autonomous region of the personality capable of acting as a person'.[16]

The work of Rowan and others led to the widespread use of techniques by which psychotherapists encourage clients to express the thoughts, feelings, and attitudes of their various subpersonalities, as a way of facilitating the integration of diverse characteristics, part of what Jung called individuation.[17]


Name Key Theorist(s) Description Refs
Adonis complex
Cassandra complex
Cinderella complex
Don Juan complex
Electra complex
Empedocles complex [18]
Father complex
God complex
Hero complex
Hoffmann complex [19]
Icarus complex
Inferiority complex
Jocasta complex
Jonah complex
Laius complex [20]
Madonna–whore complex
Martyr/Victim complex
Medusa complex
Messianic/Messiah complex
Napoleon complex
Novalis complex [21]
Oedipus complex
Ophelia complex
Persecution complex
Peter pan complex
Phaedra complex
Phaeton complex
Prometheus complex [22]
Savior complex
Superiority complex
Superman complex

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Marriott, David S. (2021). Lacan Noir: Lacan and Afro-pessimism. The Palgrave Lacan Series. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 55. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-74978-1. ISBN 978-3-030-74977-4. S2CID 242148951. Complex [:] It is antithetical to that of trieb[.] [I]t is a structure, just as it is a form, an activity. It represents ... experiences, behaviors, etc. ... what gets fixed, in the complex, is not reality as it is represented, but that which gets to be hallucinated as both a missing object and a 'state of objectification' (LFC, 21).
  2. ^ Schultz & Schultz 2009
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Dewey 2018
  4. ^ Hopcke, Robert (1992). A guided tour of the collected works of C.G. Jung. Shambhala Publications. p. 18. ISBN 9780834828254.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Daniels 2003
  6. ^ a b Mattoon 1999
  7. ^ Wishard 2004
  8. ^ Carlini 2005
  9. ^ Jung 1971, par. 706
  10. ^ a b c Daniels 2010
  11. ^ Jung 1969, par. 201
  12. ^ Jung 1969, par. 200
  13. ^ Jung 1969, par. 255
  14. ^ Jung 1971, par 666
  15. ^ Jung, Carl Gustav. On the nature of the psyche. Princeton University Press, 2020. pp159-234
  16. ^ Rowan, John (1990). Subpersonalities: the people inside us. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-04329-8. OCLC 19669498.
  17. ^ Lester, David (2019). Theories of personality: a systems approach. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-367-13345-8. OCLC 1124351258.
  18. ^ Bachelard, Gaston (1968) [1938]. "Fire and Reverie: The Empedocles Complex". The Psychoanalysis of Fire. Translated by Ross, Alan C. M. Beacon Press. pp. 13–20. ISBN 978-0-807-06461-0.
  19. ^ Bachelard, Gaston (1968) [1938]. "Alcohol: the Water that Flames. Punch: The Hoffmann Complex. Spontaneous Combustions". The Psychoanalysis of Fire. Translated by Ross, Alan C. M. Beacon Press. pp. 83–98. ISBN 978-0-807-06461-0.
  20. ^ Iris Levy (2011). "The Laius complex: From myth to psychoanalysis". International Forum of Psychoanalysis. 20 (4): 222–228. doi:10.1080/0803706X.2011.597428. S2CID 143062338.
  21. ^ Bachelard, Gaston (1968) [1938]. "Psychoanalysis and Prehistory: The Novalis Complex". The Psychoanalysis of Fire. Translated by Ross, Alan C. M. Beacon Press. pp. 21–41. ISBN 978-0-807-06461-0.
  22. ^ Bachelard, Gaston (1968) [1938]. "Fire and Respect: The Prometheus Complex". The Psychoanalysis of Fire. Translated by Ross, Alan C. M. Beacon Press. pp. 7–12. ISBN 978-0-807-06461-0.