Crowan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Crowan
The Church at Crowan - geograph.org.uk - 85172.jpg
Crowan parish church
Crowan is located in Cornwall
Crowan
Crowan
Crowan shown within Cornwall
Population 2,581 (2011 census including Carzise )
OS grid reference SW645345
Civil parish
  • Crowan
Unitary authority
Ceremonial county
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town CAMBORNE
Postcode district TR14
Dialling code 01209
Police Devon and Cornwall
Fire Cornwall
Ambulance South Western
EU Parliament South West England
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
CornwallCoordinates: 50°09′47″N 5°17′38″W / 50.163°N 05.294°W / 50.163; -05.294
Clowance Estate

Crowan (Cornish: Egloskrewen)[1] is a village and civil parish in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is about three-and-a-half miles (6 km) south of Camborne.[2] The River Hayle rises near Crowan and flows through the village and the railway branch to Helston passed nearby.

Crowan had a population of 2,375 (2001) which had increased to 2,454 in the 2011 census.[3] Crowan Churchtown is not the largest settlement: there are villages at Praze-an-Beeble, Nancegollan, Bolitho and Leedstown and a hamlet at Black Rock (on the B3280 road four miles (6.5 km) south of Camborne and five miles (8 km) north of Helston).[2] The hamlets of Carzise, Clowance Wood, Drym, Fraddam, Gwinear Downs, Horsedowns, Nine Maidens Downs, Noonvares, Paul's Green, Releath, Townshend and Tremayne are also in the parish.[4]

Notable buildings and antiquities[edit]

The parish church is dedicated to St Crewenna and is built of granite. The Latin name of the saint is first given as Crewanus in 1201 though later forms are in the feminine. St Crewenna was possibly one of the Irish saints accompanying saints Germoe and Breaca.[5] The church is of the 15th century but was substantially restored in 1872. There are numerous monuments to members of the St Aubyn family. Sir John St Aubyn, 5th Baronet, is buried at Crowan; his monument was carved by William Behnes.[6] The three St Aubyn brasses (c. 1420, c. 1490 & c. 1550) are however now at Clowance.[7][8]

In some 18th-century documents there is evidence that the parish was called Uni-Crowan and this may be connected to the fact that the parish was in two parts, one in Penwith and one in Kerrier hundred. The Kerrier portion was once a separate chapelry and may have had St Uny as its patron saint.[9] Crowan feast was observed on the nearest Sunday to the eve of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary.[10]

This cross once stood at the north of Nine Maidens Downs and marked the boundary between Camborne, Crowan, Wendron and Illogan parishes. It now stands in the grounds of Clowance House. The crossroads was known as Binnerton Cross; the head has a Greek cross on one side and a crude figure of Christ on the other.[11]

Clowance House was the seat of the St Aubyns (from 1671 they were the St Aubyn Baronets, but the legitimate line ended with Sir John St Aubyn, 5th Baronet in 1839).[12] Three years before his death the wings of the house burnt down on 10 November 1836.[13] The resort of Clowance estate offers swimming, tennis, gym and fitness facilities, a bar and an Italian restaurant.[14]

Prehistoric remains: Crowan parish has many remains of prehistoric times including barrows and stone crosses.[15] There are four Cornish crosses in the parish; one cross is at Praze-an-Beeble and three are at Clowance. The original location of the Praze cross is unknown. Two of the Clowance crosses have a cross on one side and a crude crucifixus figure on the other; one formerly stood at Bold Gate on Clowance Down and the other at Binnerton Cross. The third cross is curiously ornamented on the front and back of the shaft; it formerly stood at the northwest corner of Nine Maidens' Down.[16]

Manor Mill is an ancient mill used for grinding corn until 1946. It then became a pottery and later still a weaving mill.[17]

Mining[edit]

Crowan was formerly a mining parish with thousands employed. By 1880 they had all shut and Polerebo still had a steam-engine in good condition. Other mines included Binner Downs, Crenver, West Treasury, Wheal Abraham, Wheal Strawberry and Wheal Treasury.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Place-names in the Standard Written Form (SWF) Archived May 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. : List of place-names agreed by the MAGA Signage Panel Archived May 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Cornish Language Partnership.
  2. ^ a b Ordnance Survey: Landranger map sheet 203 Land's End ISBN 978-0-319-23148-7
  3. ^ Office for National Statistics : Census 2011: Parish Headcounts : Cornwall Retrieved 2009-12-23
  4. ^ Cornwall; Explore Britain
  5. ^ Ellis, P. B. (1992) The Cornish Saints. Penryn: Tor Mark Press, p. 9
  6. ^ Gunnis, Rupert (196u). Dictionary of British Sculptors, 1660-1851 (New rev. ed.). London: Abbey Library. ISBN 9780685279342. 
  7. ^ Dunkin, E. (1882) Monumental Brasses. London, Spottiswoode
  8. ^ Pevsner, N. (1970) Cornwall, 2nd ed., revised by E. Radcliffe. Penguin Books
  9. ^ Doble, G. H. (1960) The Saints of Cornwall; part 1. Truro: Dean and Chapter; pp. 97-99
  10. ^ Cornish Church Guide (1925) Truro: Blackford; p. 10
  11. ^ Langdon, A. G. (1896) Old Cornish Crosses. Truro: Joseph Pollard; pp. 131-33
  12. ^ W. P. Courtney, ‘St Aubyn, Sir John, fifth baronet (1758–1839)’, rev. Hallie Rubenhold, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2010 accessed 30 March 2015
  13. ^ "Fire at Clowance Park". West Briton. 18 November 1836. Retrieved 3 January 2013. 
  14. ^ "Clowance Estate". Clowance Lodges. Retrieved 3 January 2013. 
  15. ^ Ancient Crowan
  16. ^ Langdon, A. G. (1896) Old Cornish Crosses. Truro: Joseph Pollard; pp. 129-33 & 328-30
  17. ^ Todd, A. C. & Laws, Peter (1972) The Industrial Archaeology of Cornwall. Newton Abbot: David & Charles; p. 222
  18. ^ "Camborne". The Cornishman (111). 26 August 1880. p. 4. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Crowan at Wikimedia Commons