Falmouth, Cornwall

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Falmouth
Falmouth Cornwall.jpg
Falmouth Harbour
Falmouth is located in Cornwall
Falmouth
Falmouth
Falmouth shown within Cornwall
Population21,797 (2011)[1]
OS grid referenceSW810325
Civil parish
  • Falmouth
Unitary authority
Ceremonial county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townFALMOUTH
Postcode districtTR11
Dialling code01326
PoliceDevon and Cornwall
FireCornwall
AmbulanceSouth Western
EU ParliamentSouth West England
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Cornwall
50°09′N 5°04′W / 50.15°N 5.07°W / 50.15; -5.07Coordinates: 50°09′N 5°04′W / 50.15°N 5.07°W / 50.15; -5.07

Falmouth (/ˈfælməθ, ˈfɔːl-, ˈfʌl-/; Cornish: Aberfala)[2] is a town, civil parish and port on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.[3] It has a total resident population of 21,797 (2011 census).[4]

History[edit]

The name Falmouth is of English origin. (Present-day speakers of the Cornish language use Aberfal or Aberfala based on Welsh precedents.) It is claimed that an earlier Celtic name for the place was Peny-cwm-cuic (which translates to English as 'head of the creek') which is the same as the anglicised "Pennycomequick" district in Plymouth.[5]

Early history[edit]

Falmouth was where Henry VIII built Pendennis Castle to defend Carrick Roads in 1540. The main town of the district was then at Penryn. Sir John Killigrew created the town of Falmouth shortly after 1613.[6]

In the late 16th century, under threat from the Spanish Armada, the defences at Pendennis were strengthened by the building of angled ramparts. During the Civil War, Pendennis Castle was the second to last fort to surrender to the Parliamentary Army.[7]

Killigrew monument in Arwenack Street

After the Civil War, Sir Peter Killigrew received royal patronage when he gave land for the building of the Church of King Charles the Martyr, dedicated to Charles I, "the Martyr".[8]

The seal of Falmouth was blazoned as "An eagle displayed with two heads and on each wing with a tower" (based on the arms of Killigrew). The arms of the borough of Falmouth were "Arg[ent]. a double-headed eagle displayed Sa[ble]. each wing charged with a tower Or. in base issuant from the water barry wavy a rock also Sa. thereon surmounting the tail of the eagle a staff also proper flying therefrom a pennant Gu[les]".[9]

Being the nearest to the entrance of the English Channel, two Royal Navy squadrons were permanently stationed here. In the 1790s one was under the command of Sir Edward Pellew (later Viscount Exmouth) and the other under the command of Sir John Borlase Warren. Each squadron consisted of five frigates, with either 32 or 44 guns. Pellew’s flagship was HMS Indefatigable and Warren’s HMS Révolutionnaire. At the time of the French Revolutionary Wars, battle ships and small vessels were continually arriving with war prizes taken from the French ships and prisoners of war. Near Penryn, at Tregellick and Roscrow, were two large camps for the French prisoners.[10]

The Falmouth Packet Service operated out of Falmouth for over 160 years between 1689 and 1851. Its purpose was to carry mail to and from Britain's growing empire. At the end of the 18th century there were thirty to forty, small, full rigged, three-masted ships. The crews were hand picked and both officers and men often made large fortunes from the private contraband trade they partook, while under the protection of being a Government ship, free from customs and excise searches and therefore payment of duty.[10] Captain John Bullock worked in the Packet Service and built Penmere Manor in 1825.

19th and 20th centuries[edit]

The Falmouth Lifeboat moored by the docks with the old town and The Penryn River in the background

In 1805 news of Britain's victory and Admiral Nelson's death at Trafalgar was landed here from the schooner Pickle and taken to London by stagecoach. On 2 October 1836 HMS Beagle anchored at Falmouth at the end of her noted survey voyage around the world.[11] That evening, Charles Darwin left the ship and took the Mail coach to his family home at The Mount, Shrewsbury.[12] The ship stayed a few days and Captain Robert FitzRoy visited the Fox family at nearby Penjerrick Gardens. Darwin's shipmate Sulivan later made his home in the nearby waterside village of Flushing, then home to many naval officers.

In 1839 Falmouth was the scene of a gold dust robbery when £47,600 worth of gold dust from Brazil was stolen on arrival at the port.[13]

The Falmouth Docks were developed from 1858,[14] and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) opened Falmouth Lifeboat Station nearby in 1867. The present building dates from 1993 and also houses Her Majesty's Coastguard.[15] The RNLI operates two lifeboats from Falmouth: Richard Cox Scott, a 17-metre (56 ft) Severn-class all-weather boat, and Eve Park, an Atlantic 75 inshore lifeboat.[16]

Near the town centre is Kimberley Park. The land pre-dates 1877,[clarification needed] and is named after the Earl of Kimberley who leased the park's land to the borough of Falmouth. Today the park has exotic and ornate plants and trees.[17]

The Cornwall Railway reached Falmouth on 24 August 1863. The railway brought new prosperity to Falmouth, as it made it easy for tourists to reach the town. It also allowed the swift transport of the goods recently disembarked from the ships in the port. The town now has three railway stations. Falmouth Docks railway station is the original terminus and is close to Pendennis Castle and Gyllyngvase beach. Falmouth Town railway station was opened on 7 December 1970 and is convenient for the National Maritime Museum Cornwall, the waterfront, and town centre. Penmere railway station opened on 1 July 1925 towards the north of Falmouth and within easy walking distance of the top of The Moor. All three stations are served by regular trains from Truro on the Maritime Line. Penmere Station was renovated in the late 1990s, using the original sign and materials.

Second World War[edit]

Nazaire memorial

During World War II, 31 people were killed in Falmouth by German bombing. An anti-submarine net was laid from Pendennis to St Mawes, to prevent enemy U-boats entering the harbour.

It was the launching point for the noted commando raid on Saint-Nazaire in 1942. Between 1943 and 1944, Falmouth was a base for American troops preparing for the D-Day invasions.[18] There are commemoration plaques at Turnaware Point, Falmouth Watersports marina, Tolverne and Trebah gardens.[19]

Historic estates[edit]

  • Arwenack, the estate which occupied the site before the development of the town of Falmouth, long the seat of the Killigrew family.

Governance[edit]

Falmouth Town Council
Type
Type
Leadership
Mayor
Cllr Grenville Chappel
Seats16 Councillors
Elections
Multiple non transferable vote
Last election
2 May 2013
Meeting place
Falmouth Town Council, Municipal Buildings, The Moor, Falmouth TR11 2RT
Website
www.falmouthtowncouncil.co.uk

Falmouth Town is a civil parish within Cornwall, formed in 1974 from the historic Falmouth Borough Council. Falmouth received its Order of Charter in 1661.

As of 2017, it is governed by sixteen councillors (four represent the Boslowick Ward, three each for the Arwenack, Penwerris, Smithick and Trescobeas). Each of them serves a four-year term. The majority of everyday services are provided by Cornwall Council which is a unitary authority governing the entirety of mainland Cornwall. Falmouth elects five councillors to Cornwall Council.

Economy, industry and tourism[edit]

While Falmouth's maritime activity has much declined from its heyday, the docks are still a major contributor to the town's economy. It is the largest port in Cornwall. Falmouth remains a cargo port and the bunkering of vessels and the transfer of cargoes also keep the port's facilities busy. The port is popular with cruise ship operators.

Further up the sheltered reaches of the Fal there are several ships laid up, awaiting sailing orders and/or new owners/charterers.

Falmouth is a popular holiday destination and it is now primarily a tourist resort. The five main beaches starting next to Pendennis Castle and moving along the coast towards the Helford river are Castle, Tunnel, Gyllyngvase, Swanpool and Maenporth beaches. The National Maritime Museum Cornwall opened in February 2003. The building was designed by the architect M. J. Long.[20]

The Falmouth & Penryn Packet, first published in 1858, is still based in the town as the lead title in a series of Packet Newspapers for central and western Cornwall.[21]

The West Briton newspaper, first published in 1810, is a weekly tabloid newspaper which has a Falmouth & Penryn edition reporting on the area.

Culture[edit]

Meteorological Observation Tower, built by the "Poly"

Falmouth has many literary connections. The town was the birthplace of Toad, Mole and Rat: Kenneth Grahame's classic The Wind in the Willows began as a series of letters sent to his son. The first two were written at the Greenbank Hotel whilst Grahame was a guest in May 1907. Reproductions of the letters are currently on display in the hotel. Poldark author Winston Graham knew the town well and set his novel The Forgotten Story (1945) in Falmouth.

The town has been the setting for several films and television programmes. British film star Will Hay was a familiar face in Falmouth in 1935 whilst filming his comedy Windbag the Sailor. The film had many scenes of the docks area. The docks area was featured in some scenes with John Mills for the 1948 film Scott of the Antarctic. Robert Newton, Bobby Driscoll and other cast members of the 1950 Walt Disney film Treasure Island (some scenes were filmed along the River Fal) were visitors to the town. Stars from the BBC TV serial The Onedin Line stayed in the town during filming in the late 1970s. In 2011 Paramount Pictures filmed parts of the film World War Z starring Brad Pitt in Falmouth Docks and off the coast.

Falmouth has the first "Polytechnic": Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society which went into administration briefly in 2010 but is now a feature of the town with frequent art exhibitions, stage performances and an art house cinema.

Falmouth is home to many theatre groups, including Falmouth Theatre Company, Falmouth Young Generation and Amity Theatre. Falmouth Theatre Company, also known as FTC, is the oldest local company with performances dating back to 1927.

The Falmouth Art Gallery is a public gallery with a diverse 19th and 20th century art collection including many notable modern Cornish artists exhibited in four to five seasonal exhibitions a year, as well as a "family friendly and free" community and schools education programme.

The Anglican parish churches are dedicated to King Charles the Martyr and to All Saints. A third church is St Michael's Church, Penwerris. The Roman Catholic church of St Mary Immaculate is in Killigrew Street. It was designed by J. A. Hansom and built in 1868; the tower and spire (1881) are by J. S. Hansom; the baptistery and porch were added in 1908 to the original designs. The style is a blend of Gothic and Burgundian Romanesque, creating a very French effect. Two of the stained glass windows are early works of Dom Charles Norris.[22] Falmouth Methodist Church is also in Killigrew Street; the street façade is "one of the grandest expressions of Methodism in Cornwall". The United Reformed Church (originally Bible Christian) is in Berkeley Vale. The former synagogue (1816) is one of the earliest surviving synagogues in England; it was in use until 1879.[23]

Falmouth has its own community radio station Source fm broadcasting on 96.1 FM and online.[24]

In 2016, Falmouth won the "Great British High Street 2016" award, in the 'Coastal Community' category.[25]

Transport[edit]

Aerial view of Falmouth: Penryn River centre left; part of Carrick Roads top; part of Falmouth Bay right

Falmouth harbour[edit]

Falmouth is famous for its harbour. Together with Carrick Roads, it forms the third deepest natural harbour in the world, and the deepest in Western Europe.[26] It has been the start or finish point of various round-the-world record-breaking voyages, such as those of Robin Knox-Johnston and Dame Ellen MacArthur.

During World War II the United States Navy had a large base in Falmouth harbour as well as an army base in the town. Some of the U.S. D-day landings originated from Falmouth harbour and the surrounding rivers and creeks.

The SS Flying Enterprise, a cargo vessel that had sailed from Hamburg on 21 December 1951, ran into a storm on the Western Approaches to the English Channel. A crack appeared on her deck and the cargo shifted. A number of vessels went to her aid including the tug Turmoil which was stationed in Falmouth, but they found it impossible to take the Flying Enterprise in tow. The ship was finally taken in tow on 5 January 1952 by the Turmoil when she was some 300 nautical miles (560 km) from Falmouth. It took several days to reach port. On 10 January the tow line parted when the ship was still 41 nautical miles (76 km) from Falmouth. Two other tugs joined the battle to save the ship and cargo, but the Flying Enterprise finally sank later that day. Captain Carlsen and the tug's mate Kenneth Dancy, the only crew members still on board, were picked up by the Turmoil and taken to Falmouth to a hero's welcome.

Road[edit]

Falmouth is a terminus of the A39 road, connecting to Bath, Somerset some 180 miles (290 km) distant.

Railway[edit]

Falmouth has three railway stations (described above) at the southern end of an 11 34 miles (19 km) branch line (the Maritime Line) to the county town of Truro.

Education[edit]

There are five primary schools in the town and one secondary school, namely Falmouth School.[27][28]

Falmouth University has a campus at the original town site, Woodlane, and another in the Combined Universities in Cornwall campus at Tremough, Penryn, which it shares with the University of Exeter. It offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses chiefly in the fields of Art, Design and Media. The University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus offers a range of undergraduate and postgraduate courses, often with a particular focus on the environment and sustainability, and also hosts the world-renowned Camborne School of Mines (formerly located nearby in Camborne), which specialises in the understanding and management of the Earth's natural processes, resources and the environment.[29]

In 2015, actor and comedian Dawn French was installed as Falmouth University's chancellor.[30]

Falmouth Marine School, formerly Falmouth Technical College, specialises in traditional and modern boat-building, marine engineering, marine environmental science and marine leisure sport. The campus is part of Cornwall College, which is registered through Plymouth Polytechnic. The college acts as a first and second college for sixth form students and for undergraduate students, ranging from City and Guilds, NVQ and HND.[clarification needed]

Sport and recreation[edit]

The town has a football team in the South West Peninsula Premier League, Falmouth Town F.C., who play at Bickland Park in the north-west of the town, and also Falmouth RFC, a rugby union club who play at The Recreation Ground, a site at the top of The Moor.

Falmouth is also home to one of Cornwall's biggest cricket clubs, where four teams represent the town in the Cornwall Cricket League, with the 1st team playing in the Cornwall Premier League. Falmouth CC play at the Trescobeas ground on Trescobeas Road.

Winter sunset over Falmouth Bay from Castle Drive.

With its proximity to sheltered and unsheltered waters, Falmouth has long been a popular boating and water sports location. It is, for example, a centre of Cornish pilot gig rowing. Solo yachtsman Robert Manry crossed the Atlantic from Falmouth, Massachusetts (which is named for Falmouth) to Falmouth, Cornwall, from June–August 1965 in the thirteen-and-a-half-foot Tinkerbelle—this was the smallest boat to make the crossing at the time. The town was the location for the 1966, 1982 and 1998 Tall Ships' Race in which approximately ninety Tall Ships set sail for Lisbon, Portugal.

It also saw total coverage of the total eclipse of the Sun at 11:11 a.m. on 11 August 1999, where this eclipse lasted just over two minutes – the longest duration in the UK.[31]

Notable people[edit]

Early times to 1780[edit]

1780 to 1810[edit]

1810 to 1850[edit]

1850 to 1910[edit]

1910 to present[edit]

Sport[edit]

Landmarks[edit]

Twinning[edit]

Falmouth is twinned with Douarnenez in Brittany, France and Rotenburg an der Wümme, in Lower Saxony, Germany.[37]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Symons, Alan (1994). Falmouth's Wartime Memories. Arwenack Press. ISBN 9781899121007
  • Whetter, James (2003). The History of Falmouth. Lyfrow Trelyspen. ISBN 9780953997251
  • Wilson, D.G. (2007). Falmouth Haven: The Maritime History of a Great West Country Port. History Press. ISBN 9780752442266

References[edit]

  1. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Falmouth Parish (1170220542)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  2. ^ "Official Maga Placenames list". Cornish Language Partnership. May 2014. Retrieved 2015-01-11.
  3. ^ Ordnance Survey: Landranger map sheet 204 Truro & Falmouth ISBN 978-0-319-23149-4
  4. ^ "Civil Parish population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  5. ^ "Falmouth Town". GenUKI. Retrieved 2008-07-14.
  6. ^ "Falmouth 1837". Old Towns of England. Retrieved 2007-05-25.
  7. ^ "Castle recreates Civil War strife". BBC News. 2006-08-19. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
  8. ^ Guide to the Parish Church (No date, after 1997)
  9. ^ Pascoe, W. H. (1979). A Cornish Armory. Padstow, Cornwall: Lodenek Press. p. 132. ISBN 0-902899-76-7.
  10. ^ a b "The Flushing Boy Who Became A Great Traveller". The Cornishman (212). 3 August 1882. p. 6.
  11. ^ FitzRoy, Robert (1839). Narrative of the surveying voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle between the years 1826 and 1836, describing their examination of the southern shores of South America, and the Beagle's circumnavigation of the globe. Appendix to Volume II. London: Henry Colburn.
  12. ^ Keynes, R. D. (2001). Charles Darwin's Beagle diary. Cambridge University Press. p. 447.
  13. ^ The Times; Saturday, 29 June 1839; pg. 6: The Gold-Dust Robbery
  14. ^ "Falmouth Docks". Falmouth Packet Archives 1688–1850. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  15. ^ Morris, Jeff (2002). The History of the Falmouth Lifeboats (2nd ed.). Coventry: Lifeboat Enthusiast's Society.
  16. ^ Denton, Tony (2009). Handbook 2009. Shrewsbury: Lifeboat Enthusiasts Society.
  17. ^ "Kimberley Park". Falmouth.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-07-21.
  18. ^ Wilson, Viki. "What happened on D Day in Cornwall". Cornwall Today. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  19. ^ "War in Cornwall". IntoCornwall.com. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  20. ^ "Falmouth International Maritime Initiative". Long/Kentish Practice. Archived from the original on 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2008-07-14.
  21. ^ "British Newspapers Online entry for Falmouth & Penryn Packet". Retrieved 1 September 2012.
  22. ^ Beacham, Peter & Pevsner, Nikolaus (2014). Cornwall. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12668-6; pp. 187-88
  23. ^ Beacham (2014). p. 188
  24. ^ "Source FM 96.1 Falmouth and Penryn Community Radio". Retrieved 2013-01-29.
  25. ^ "The Great British High Street Awards 2016: Winners | The Great British High Street". thegreatbritishhighstreet.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
  26. ^ "About Falmouth". Falmouth Town Council. Retrieved 2009-06-03.
  27. ^ enquiries@ofsted.gov.uk, Ofsted Communications Team. (2010-11-05). "Find an inspection report". reports.ofsted.gov.uk. Retrieved 2018-06-05.
  28. ^ "Welcome to Falmouth School's Website". www.falmouth.cornwall.sch.uk. Retrieved 2018-06-05.
  29. ^ "Camborne School of Mines – Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter". Emps.exeter.ac.uk. Retrieved 2014-07-21.
  30. ^ "Dawn French installed as Falmouth University chancellor". BBC News. 2015-03-26. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
  31. ^ Bryn Jones. "THE 1999 TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OBSERVED FROM FALMOUTH". Jonesbryn.plus.com. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
  32. ^ Valerie Ann Loggie, Department of History of Art College of Arts and Law (2011). SOHO DEPICTED: PRINTS, DRAWINGS AND WATERCOLOURS OF MATTHEW BOULTON, HIS MANUFACTORY AND ESTATE, 1760-1809 (PDF). Birmingham: Thesis University of Birmingham for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY. p. 115. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  33. ^ "Stephen Charles "Charles" Hartley". Retrieved 2009-06-25.
  34. ^ "Rosina Buckman". Our region – Manawatu. Retrieved 2009-06-25.
  35. ^ Najder, Z. (2007) Joseph Conrad: A Life, pp. 90 to 91. Camden House. ISBN 978-1-57113-347-2.
  36. ^ Hichens, Robert Peverell (1946). We Fought Them in Gunboats. British Publishers Guild. pp. 15–18.
  37. ^ "Twinning Committee for Cornwall". Twinning Committee for Cornwall. Retrieved 20 September 2014.

External links[edit]