From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
DF-31 (CSS-10)
DF-31 ballistic missiles 20170919.jpg
DF-31 in Military Museum of the Chinese People's Revolution
TypeIntercontinental ballistic missile
Place of originPeople's Republic of China
Service history
In service2006 (DF-31), 2007 (DF-31A), 2017 (DF-31B)
Used byPeople's Liberation Army Rocket Force
Production history
ManufacturerAcademy of Rocket Motors Technology (ARMT)
Mass42 t (41 long tons; 46 short tons)
Length13 m (42 ft 8 in)
Diameter2.25 m (7 ft 5 in)
Warhead1 Thermonuclear weapon@ 1 Mt with decoys (DF-31 & DF-31A)
3-5 Nuclear @ 20, 90, or 150 kt each with MIRV (DF-31B) [1]

EngineSolid-fuel rocket
7,200–8,000 km (4,500–5,000 mi) (DF-31)[2][3]
11,200 km (7,000 mi) (DF-31A)[3]
Flight altitudeup to 1200 km
Maximum speed Up to 8 km/s
Astro-inertial guidance with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System
Accuracy100 m CEP for silo launched and 150 m for TEL-launched.[4]
Silo, 8 axle TEL
Dongfeng-31A after a military parade in 2015.
Range of various Chinese missiles (2007); DF-31 range in green.

The Dong Feng 31 (simplified Chinese: 东风-31; traditional Chinese: 東風-31; lit. 'East Wind-31'; NATO reporting name CSS-10)[5] is a third-generation long-range, road-mobile, three stage, solid-fuel rocket intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) in the Dongfeng missile series developed by the People's Republic of China. It is designed to carry a single 1-megaton thermonuclear weapon. It is a land-based variant of the submarine-launched JL-2. It is operated by the Second Artillery Corps (SAC) which, in 2009, was estimated to have under 15 DF-31 missiles and under 15 DF-31A missiles in inventory.[6] US Air Force National Air and Space Intelligence Center estimates that as of June 2017, five to ten Mod 1 and over fifteen Mod 2 launchers were operationally deployed.[7]


The PRC began developing the DF-31 ICBM in January 1985.[8] ARMT (then called the 4th Aerospace Academy) was appointed as the main contractor while the research arm of the Second Artillery Corps provided contributing support. The land-based variant of the JL-2 was originally called the DF-23 but was changed later on to the DF-31 because of a change in operational requirements. In 1999, the missile was first displayed publicly at the National Day Parade.[9] On August 2, 1999, the Chinese state news media reported the successful test of the DF-31.[8] The third test flight of the missile occurred on November 4, 2000; the second test flight had taken place earlier that year.[10] Operational deployment of the missiles reportedly began in 2006.[11] In 2009, US Air Force Intelligence reported that under 15 DF-31 missiles had been deployed.[6]


The DF-31 is a three stage solid-fuel rocket equipped with an inertial navigation system. The missile is mounted on a transporter erector launcher. It is capable of reaching targets throughout Europe, Asia, and parts of Canada and the northwestern United States.[7]


The PRC has developed an improved variant of the DF-31 called the DF-31A. This upgraded missile has a reported range of 11,200 km,[3] will allow targeting of most of the continental United States[7] and was designed with MIRV capability to hold 3 to 5 warheads, each capable of a 20–150 kt yield, but is thought to be armed with only one warhead with penetration and decoy aids to complicate missile defense efforts.[1][6] The missile was shown to the public during the parade in Beijing celebrating 70 years since the end of World War II on September 3, 2015.[12] It can carry maneuverable reentry vehicles.[13]


The PRC has developed an improved variant of the DF-31A called the DF-31AG (G stands for 改 (Gaï), "modified)[14] or DF-31B with an off-road 8 axle TEL and MIRVs.[15][16] China has successfully tested it from a mobile launcher.[17] The missile's TEL features an extra pair of elevators near the aft of the missile unlike the TELs of the DF-31 or DF-31A, suggesting a heavier missile second and third stage than earlier variants.[18] On the military parade marking the 90th Anniversary of the founding of the People’s Liberation Army in 2017, DF-31AG ICBM was officially demonstrated.[19]


  1. ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-09-06.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ CSS-10 (DF-31), missilethreat.csis.org
  3. ^ a b c Annual Report to Congress: Military Power of the People's Republic of China 2008, Office of the Secretary of Defense
  4. ^ "Dong Feng 31 (DF-31/DF-31A/CSS-10)". Missile Threat.
  5. ^ https://www.nasic.af.mil/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=F2VLcKSmCTE%3D&portalid=19[bare URL PDF]
  6. ^ a b c US Air Force Air and Space Intelligence Center, Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats 2009 [1]
  7. ^ a b c http://www.nasic.af.mil/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=F2VLcKSmCTE%3d&portalid=19[bare URL PDF]
  8. ^ a b Diamond, Howard (July 1, 1999). "Chinese Strategic Plans Move Forward with Missile Test". Arms Control Today. Arms Control Association. ISSN 0196-125X.[dead link]
  9. ^ The Federation of American Scientists & The Natural Resources Defense Council (DF-31A) Nov, 2006. 73 (PDF)[2]
  10. ^ Gertz, Bill (December 13, 2000). "Pentagon Confirms China's Missile Test". The Washington Times.[dead link]
  11. ^ Minnie Chan (23 January 2014). "China's nuclear missile drill seen as warning to US not to meddle in region". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  12. ^ WORLD TV (3 September 2015). "CHINA SHOWS OFF ITS MILITARY POWER ON V-DAY 70TH PARADE; Strategic Strikes Module Displays MISSILES". Archived from the original on 2016-03-13 – via YouTube.
  13. ^ Diplomat, Franz-Stefan Gady, The. "Here's What You Need to Know About China's Grand Military Parade". The Diplomat.
  14. ^ KENHMANN, Henri (24 July 2017). "Qui est ce nouvel ICBM mobile DF-31AG ?".
  15. ^ Minnie Chan (4 October 2014). "China puts on show of force with DF-31B mobile ICBM missile test". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  16. ^ China tests 10000 km nuclear missile 4. October 2014
  17. ^ "China has successfully test-launch of DF-31B intercontinental ballistic missile from mobile launcher Archived 2015-04-02 at the Wayback Machine 19. March 2015
  18. ^ "Janes | Latest defence and security news".
  19. ^ "DF-31AG Intercontinental Ballistic Missile". www.military-today.com.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]