Da'i al-Mutlaq

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The term Dā'ī al-Mutlaq or ad-Da'i ul-Mutlaq (Arabic: الداعي المطلق or داعي المطلق‎‎) literally means "the absolute or unrestricted missionary" pl. Du'aat-دعاۃ. In the Fatimid era Ismā'īlī faith, the term dā'ī has been used to refer to important religious leaders other than the hereditary Imāms working under their commands known as ad-Da'i al-Bilaagh (Arabic: الداعي البلاغ), and the Da'wah or "Mission" is a spiritually guided clerical-style organisation. "The Da'wah" was a term for the Ismā'īlī faith itself from early on. They are also called Dā'ī Syednas.

Purity from within
The Purity of Ahl ul Bayt and their Du'aat

History[edit]

According to Ismā'īlī Musta'alavī Tayyabī tradition, before the 21st Fatimid Musta'alavi Imam, Taiyab abi al-Qasim went into state of occultation from Cairo in 528 AH/1134 AD, his father, the 20th Imām al-Amīr had instructed Queen Arwa al-Sulayhi/Al-Hurra Al-Malika in Yemen to anoint a vicegerent after the occultation - the Dāʻī al-Mutlaq, who as the Imām's vicegerent, has full authority to govern the community in all matters both spiritual and temporal.[1] It is the spiritual rank in Isma'ili Da'wah which became more explicit and operational after the seclusion of 21st Imam. After Prophet Mohammad this rank is on the 6th position and after this comes Mazoon-مأذون and Mukaasir-مکاسر who are in turn appointed by the Dā'ī al-Mutlaq.  Before the seclusion, the Da’i or a missionary works under the direct orders of Imaam and his trusted associates in all the 12 islands-جزائر where faithful were present and living openly propounding their faith or secretly due to the fear of their lives. 

During the Imam's occultation, the Dā'ī al-Mutlaq is appointed by his predecessor in office.  Da’i was given Itlaaq-إطلاق [2] or a free conduct and absolute religious and social authority but under the governing principles of Isma’ili Taiyebi Faith.  His command is regarded as a final decree guided by the divine support of Imam and this is the reason he is called Da’i al-Mutlaq. Unlike the case of Imam, where he appoints his successor only from his sons through divinely guided practice called Nass-نص, the Da’i can appoint anyone in his place who is most trusted, pious and capable of carrying Da’wah affairs with wisdom and proficiency. The first Da'i al-Mutlaq of the Taiyabi Ismaili sects was Syedna Zoeb bin Moosa.[3]

The Dā'ī al-Mutlaq is recognised in English law as a corporation sole, by a private act of Parliament passed in 1993.[4]

Tradition of Nass governing the Appointment of Da'i[edit]

Nass-نص is a declaration and designation through Divine Indication and Spiritual Intervention-تأئید إلھي for the appointment of a successor-منصوص, be it an Imam or his deputy-داعي during Imam’s concealment by his predecessor-ناص amongst his subjects, publicly-نص جلي or privately-نص خفي and at times supported by written documentary orders-سجل شریف.  This tradition and practice-سنۃ اللہ is related to the Isma’ili Taiyebi succession to the seat of Imaamat,[5] whereby each Imam under hidden heavenly commands designates his successor, when he witnesses the Light of Imaamat-نور الإمامۃ has got transferred to one of his sons whom he selects for Nass.  During the seclusion of Imam, his deputy-Da’i performs this act of succession whom he finds eligible for the status of Da’i.  He might not be from his sons, unlike the succession of Imam where an Imam always appoints his successor from one of his sons.  The succession of Imaamat has begun from the Aadam Safiyullaah-آدم صفي اللہ and will continue till the last day when Qaa’im ul Qeyaamah-قائم القیامۃ will act as the final authority on the Day of Judgement.

The appointment according to Shi'a faith and sources is when Mohammad appointed his son-in-law, cousin and his heir 'Ali bin Abi Taalib as his Vicegerent, legatee and Wali[6] of the Faithful. This Prophetic tradition is followed throughout the centuries be it the appointment of Imam or Da'i and as per Isma'ili-Taiyebi principles it is the belief that no Imam or Da'i dies without the appointment of his successor and this will continue till the Last Day of this World.

Da'i al-Mutlaq governing the two Important Ranks: Mazoon and Mukaasir[edit]

  • المأذون المطلق - al-Mazoon al-Mutlaq, Mazoon e Mutlaq: The Licentiate, Authoritative Rank, the most trusted associate in Da’wah ranks who takes Bay’at-Pledge of Loyalty from his subjects by the orders of Da’i al-Mutlaq.  He is on a Spiritual Rank in the Isma’ili Taiyebi Da’wah hierarchy immediately below the authority of Da’i who sits in his right side and who carries out the religious activities as per the regulations of Da’wah organization.  At any cost he always assists and obeys his superior and his Master, the Da’i al-Mutlaq.  His prime responsibility is to conduct teaching sessions and make them understand the basic things of Isma’ili Taiyebi faith.  In the absence of Da’i he acts as his legatee.  Da’i may appoint his Mazoon as his successor.  And if not Da’i can appoint someone more learned and efficient for the post of Da’i after him and can never disqualifies Mazoon from his post. As the respectable post of Mazoon is necessary for the completeness of Spiritual Hierarchy.
  • المکاسر المطلق - al-Mukaasir al-Mutlaq, Mukaasir e Mutlaq - The Eight and the last rank in the Spiritual Hierarchy of the Isma’ili Taiyebism.  He sits left to the Da’i al-Mutlaq during the religious gathering-Majlis. He is lower to the rank of Mazoon. He is well versed and well informed about the baseless beliefs of other sects for which he thinks as a threat to the faith of believers.  His responsibility is to train the beginner - مستجیب مؤمن and win over the neophyte who is little aware of the overall understanding of Islamic Faith and by proper grooming he enters him into the fold of Isma’ilism by taking Oath of Fealty in the name of the present Da’i al-Mutlaq.  He is quite expert in putting Rational and Logical arguments with necessary ideological and doctrinal proofs and healthy debates.

Dawoodi Bohras[edit]

Currently, within the Dawoodi Bohra sect, there is a dispute on who is the rightful rightful successor to 52nd Da'i al Mutlaq Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin. The two rival claimants staked their claim as appointees for the title of 53rd Da'i al-Mutlaq viz. Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin’s half-brother, Khuzaima Qutbuddin, who had served as the Mazoon al-Mutlaq (Second highest rank after the Da'i al-Mutlaq) of the Community, and Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin’s second son, Mufaddal Saifuddin. Khuzaima Qutbuddin passed away on 30 March 2016 and appointed his son Taher Fakhruddin as his successor,[citation needed] who claims that he succeeded his father as the 54th Da'i al-Mutlaq. The rival claimants are currently fighting a declaration suit in the Hon'ble Bombay High Court.

Alavi Bohras[edit]

This title is also used in the Alavi Bohra community to refer to their leader (in the Persian form "Da'i-e-Mutlaq") for similar reasons. At present Saiyedna Haatim Zakiyuddin is the 45th Da’i al-Mutlaq of Alavi Bohras in the line of succession of these Da’is in which 24 are in Yemen, 7 are in Ahmedabad, 1 is in Surat and 12 are in Vadodara. The 44th Da'i al-Mutlaq Saiyedna Abu Haatim Taiyeb Ziyauddin (d. 05-08-1436 AH/23-05-2015) appointed his eldest son Haatim Zakiyuddin as his successor.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Dawoodi Bohras - The Dal Al Mutlaq". thedawoodibohras.com. Retrieved 2016-07-27. 
  2. ^ 'Aqeedat ul-Muwahhedeen wa Muzehato Maraatib Ahl id-Deen: 8th Da’i-e-Mutlaq Saiyedna Husain bin Saiyedna Ali bin Mohammad al-Waleed (d. 667 AH/1269 AD)
  3. ^ "The Dawoodi Bohras - The Dal Al Mutlaq". thedawoodibohras.com. Retrieved 2016-07-27. 
  4. ^ Dawat-e-Hadiyah Act 1993 (c. x) at Legislation.gov.uk
  5. ^ Tohfat ul-Quloob wa Farjat ul-Makroob: 3rd Da’i-e-Mutlaq Saiyedna Haatim Mohiyuddin (d. 596 AH/1199 AD)
  6. ^ Taaj ul-‘Aqaa’id wa Ma’dan ul-Fawaa’id: 5th Da’i-e-Mutlaq Saiyedna Ali bin Mohammad al-Waleed (d. 612 AH/1215 AD)

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