Deme

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Pinakia, identification tablets (name, father's name, deme) used for tasks like jury selection, Museum at the Ancient Agora of Athens

In Ancient Greece, a deme or demos (Ancient Greek: δῆμος) was a suburb or a subdivision of Athens and other city-states. Demes as simple subdivisions of land in the countryside seem to have existed in the 6th century BC and earlier, but did not acquire particular significance until the reforms of Cleisthenes in 508 BC. In those reforms, enrollment in the citizen-lists of a deme became the requirement for citizenship; prior to that time, citizenship had been based on membership in a phratry, or family group. At this same time, demes were established in the main city of Athens itself, where they had not previously existed; in all, at the end of Cleisthenes' reforms, Athens was divided into 139 demes.[1] to which one should add Berenikidai, established in 224/223 BC, Apollonieis (201/200 BC) and Antinoeis (126/127). The establishment of demes as the fundamental units of the state weakened the gene, or aristocratic family groups, that had dominated the phratries.[2]

A deme functioned to some degree as a polis in miniature, and indeed some demes, such as Eleusis and Acharnae, were in fact significant towns. Each deme had a demarchos who supervised its affairs; various other civil, religious, and military functionaries existed in various demes. Demes held their own religious festivals and collected and spent revenue.[3]

Demes were combined with other demes from the same area to make trittyes, larger population groups, which in turn were combined to form the ten tribes, or phylai of Athens. Each tribe contained one trittys from each of three regions: the city, the coast, and the inland area.

Cleisthenes' reforms and its modifications[edit]

First period: 508 – 307/306 BC[edit]

The division of the Athenian city-state (polis) into urban (pink), inland (green), and coastal (blue) zones by Cleisthenes

Cleisthenes divided the landscape in three zones—urban (asty), coastal (paralia) and inland (mesogeia)—and the 139 demes were organized into 30 groups called trittyes ("thirds"), ten for each of the zones and into ten tribes, or phylai, each composed of three trittyes, one from the coast, one from the city, and one from the inland area.

Cleisthenes also reorganized the Boule, created with 400 members under Solon, so that it had 500 members, 50 from each tribe, each deme having a fixed quota.

The ten tribes were named after legendary heroes and came to have an official order:

  1. Erechtheis (Ἐρεχθηΐς) named after Erechtheus
  2. Aigeis (Αἰγηΐς) named after Aegeus
  3. Pandionis (Πανδιονίς) named after Pandion
  4. Leontis (Λεοντίς) named after Leos, son of Orpheus
  5. Acamantis (Ἀκαμαντίς) named after Acamas
  6. Oineis (Οἰνηΐς) named after Oeneus
  7. Kekropis (Κεκροπίς) named after Cécrops
  8. Hippothontis (or Hippothoontis) (Ἱπποθοντίς) named after Hippothoon
  9. Aiantis (Αἰαντίς) named after Ajax
  10. Antiochis (Ἀντιοχίς) named after Antiochus, son of Heracles

Second period: 307/306 – 224/223 BC[edit]

In 307/306 – 224/223 BC the system was reorganized with the creation of two Macedonian Phylai (XI. Antigonis and XII. Demetrias), named after Demetrius I of Macedon and Antigonus I Monophthalmus, and an increase in the membership of the Boule to 600. Each of the ten tribes, except Aiantis, provided three demes (not necessarily one for trittyes); the missing contribution of Aiantis was covered by two demes of Leontis and one from Aigeis.

Third period: 224/223 – 201/200 BC[edit]

The Egyptian Phyle XIII. Ptolemais, named after Ptolemy III Euergetes was created in 224/223 BC and the Boule was again increased to 600 members, the twelve tribes giving each a demos. A new village was created and named Berenikidai after Ptolemy's wife Berenice II of Egypt.

Fourth period: 201/200 BC – 126/127 AD[edit]

In 201/200 BC the Macedonian Phylae were dissolved and the villages (except the two given to Ptolemais) went back to their original tribes. In the spring of 200 BC Tribe XIV. Attalis, named after Attalus I, was created following the same scheme used for the creation of the Egyptian Phyle: each tribe contributed a deme and a new deme, Apollonieis, was created in honour of Apollonis, wife of Attalus I of Pergamum. As a consequence there were again 12 tribes and 600 members of the Boule. From this period onward, quotas were no longer assigned to the demes for the 50 Boule members from each tribe

Fifth period: 126/127 – third century[edit]

The last modification was the creation in 126/127 of XV. Hadrianis, named after the Emperor Hadrian, following the same scheme: each tribe contributed a deme and a new deme, Antinoeis, was created in honour of Hadrian's favourite, Antinous. Each tribe contributed 40 members to the Boule.

Representation in the Boule[edit]

In the first three periods there it a more detailed system of fixed quotas which essentially remained unchanged. There is no evidence for a single general reapportionment of quotas within each of the first three periods, while there are evident small quota-variations between the first and the second periods.[4]

More precisely in:

307/306 BC, 24 demes increased of 1 bouleutes, 13 of 2, 5 or 3, 6 of 4 and 1 (Lower Paiania) of 11 and there is not a single example of a decreased quota.[5]
224/223 BC 4 demes increased of 1 bouleutes, 1 of 2, 2 or 3 and 2 of 4; of the 56 demes whose quota in the third period are known more than half maintain their same quota through the first three periods.[6]

As regards the last two periods, the material illustrates the complete collapse of the quota-system from 201/200 BC.[7]

Spurious and Late Roman demes[edit]

Some deme lists suggest extendsions of the list of 139+3 by adding 43 other names ,some of which have been considered by scholars as Attic demes.[8] The criticism performed by John S. Traill[9] shows that 24 are the result of error, ancient[10] or modern,[11] or of misinterpretation[12] and 19[13] are well known chiefly from inscriptions of the second and third centuries AD, i.e. in the fifth period, and thus for political purposes they were originally dependent on legitimate Cleisthenic demes.

Homonymous and divided demes[edit]

There were[14] six pairs of homonymous demes:

  • Halai Araphenides (VII.Kekropis) and Halai Aixonides (II.Aigeis)
  • Oion Dekeleikon (VIII.Hippothontis; later XIII.Ptolemais, XIV.Attalis) and Oion Kerameikon (IV.Leontis; affiliated with XII.Demetrias in the Macedonian period)
  • Eitea: there were two demes of that name, but no modifier is known. One is associated to V.Acamantis, later XI.Antigonis and XV.Hadrianis; the other is associated to X.Antiochis
  • Oinoe and Oinoe: again no modifier is known; one deme was associated to VIII.Hippothontis, later XII.Demetrias and XIII.Ptolemais; the other was associated to IX.Aiantis, later XIV.Attalis and XV.Hadrianis.
  • Kolonai: again no modifier is known; one deme was associated to IV.Leontis; the other to X.Antiochis, later XI.Antigonis and XIII.Ptolemais.
  • Eroiadai: again no modifier is known for these two demes associated to VIII.Hippothontis and X.Antiochis.

There were six divided demes, one composed of three parts:

  • Agryle, Upper Agryle and Lower Agryle (I.Erechtheis); one of them, but there is no prosopographical information for identifying which, was transferred to XI.Antigonis and went back at the end of the Macedonian period; later one of them (again it is uncertain which) was transferred to XIV.Attalis.
  • Lamptrai, Upper Lamptrai and Coastal/Lower Lamptrai (I.Erechtheis); Upper Lamptrai was transferred to XI.Antigonis and went back at the end of the Macedonian period.
  • Pergase, Upper and Lower (I.Erechtheis); one of them (no prosopographical information allows to decide which) was transferred to XI.Antigonis and went back at the end of the Macedonian period.
  • Ankyle: no special designations of either section are preserved, although they are presumed to have the regular Upper and Lower forms. One section, perhaps Upper Ankale, was transferred to XI.Antigonis and went back at the end of the Macedonian period.
  • Paiania, Upper Paiania and Lower Paiania (III.Pandionis); Upper Paiania, was transferred to XI.Antigonis and went back at the end of the Macedonian period.
  • Potamos has three sections, Upper Potamos, Lower Potamos and Potamos Deiradiotes (IV.Leontes); during the Macedonian period, Potamos Deiradiotes belonged to XI.Antigonis and Lower Potamos to XII.Demetrias

List of Athenian demes according to tribes/phylai (φυλαί)[edit]

The ten Cleisthenic tribes[edit]

I. Erechtheïs (Ἐρεχθηΐς)[15]
Deme #[16] #[17] #[18] Notes
city
Upper Agryle 2 3 3 One deme to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
Lower Agryle 2
Euonymon 10 12 12
Themakos 1 1 to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
coast
Anagyrous 6 8 8
Kedoi 2 2 2
Upper Lamptrai 5 to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
Coastal Lamptrai 9 10 10
Pambotadai 1(0) 1 2 to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
Kephisia (?) inland
Kephisia 6 8 8
Upper Pergase 2 3 3 One deme to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
Lower Pergase 2
Phegous 1 1 1
Sybridai 0(1) 1 1
Deme #[16] #[17] #[18] Notes
II. Aigeis (Αἰγηΐς)[19]
Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
city
Upper Ankyle 1 to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
Lower Ankyle 1 1
Bate 1(2) 1
Diomeia 1 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods
Erikeia 1 2
Hestiaia 1 1
Kollytos 3 4
Kolonos 2 2
coast
Araphen 2 2
Halai Araphenides 5 9
Otryne 1 1
Phegaia 3(4) 3(4) to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
Philaidai 3 3
Epakria inland
Erchia 7(6) 11
Gargettos 4 to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
Ikarion 5(4) to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
Ionidai 2(1) 2
Kydantidai 1(2) 1(2) to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
Myrrhinoutta 1 1
Plotheia 1 2
Teithras 4 4
Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
III. Pandionis (Πανδιονίς)[20]
Deme #[16] #[17] #[18] Notes
Kydathenaion city
Kydathenaion 12(11) to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
Myrrhinous coast
Angele 2(3) 4 4
Myrrhinous 6 8 8
Prasiai 3 3 3
Probalinthos 5 5 5 to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
Steiria 3 3 4
Paiania inland
Konthyle 1 1 to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
Kytheros 2(1) to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
Oa 4 4 4 to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
Upper Paiania 1 to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
Lower Paiania 11 22 22
Deme #[16] #[17] #[18] Notes
IV. Leontis (Λεοντίς)[21][22]
Deme #[16] #[17] #[18] Notes
Skambonidai city
Halimous 3 3 3
Kettos 3 3(4) 3
Leukonoion 3 5 5
Oion Kerameikon 1 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods
Skambonidai 3 4 4 to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
Upper Potamos 2 2 2
Lower Potamos 1 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods
Phrearrhioi coast
Deiradiotai 2 to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
Potamioi Deiradiotai 2 to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
Phrearrhioi 9 9 10
Sounion 4 6 6 to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
Hekale (?) inland
Aithalidai 2 to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
Cholleidai 2 5 5
Eupyridai 2 2 2
Hekale 1 1 to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
Hybadai 2 2(1) 2
Kolonai 2 2 2
Kropidai 1 1 1
Paionidai 3 3 3
Pelekes 2 2 2
Deme #[16] #[17] #[18] Notes
V. Akamantis (Ἀκαμαντίς)[23]
Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
Cholargos city
Cholargos 4 6
Eiresidai 1 2
Hermos 2 2
Iphistiadae 1 1
Kerameis 6 6
Thorikos coast
Kephale 9 12
Poros 3 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods
Thorikos 5(6) 6
Sphettos inland
Eitea 2 to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods and to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
Hagnous 5 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
Kikynna 2 3
Prospalta 5 5 to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
Sphettos 5 7
Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
VI. Oeneïs (Οἰνηΐς)[24]
Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
Lakiadai city
Boutadai 1 1 to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
Epikephisia 1(2) 1
Hippotomadai 1 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods
Lakiadai 2 3
Lousia 1 1
Perithoidai 3 3
Ptelea 1 1
Tyrmeidai 1(0) 1 to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
Thria coast
Kothokidai 2(1) to XII.Demetrias in the second and third period
Oe 6(7) 6
Phyle 2 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third period
Thria 7 8 to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
Pedion inland
Acharnae 22 25
Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
VII. Kekropis (Κεκροπίς)[25]
Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
Melite (?) city
Daidalidai 1 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods and to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
Melite 7 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods
Xypete 7 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods
Aixone(?) coast
Aixone 8 12
Halai Aixonides 6 10
inland
Athmonon 6 10 to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
Epieikidai 1 1(0)
Phlya 7 9 to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
Pithos 2(3) 4
Sypalettos 2 2 [26]
Trinemeia 2 2
Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
VIII. Hippothontis (Ἱπποθοντίς)[23]
Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
Peiraieus city
Hamaxanteia 2 2
Keiriadai 2 2
Koile 3 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods
Korydallos 1 1 to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
Peiraieus 9 10
Thymaitadai 2 2
Eleusis coast
Acherdous 1 1
Auridai 1 to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods
Azenia 2 2
Elaious 1 1 to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
Eleusis 11 12
Kopros 2 2
Oinoe 2 to XII.Demetrias in the second and to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
Dekeleia (?) inland
Anakaia 3 3
Eroiadai 1 2
Dekeleia 4 6
Oion Dekeleikon 3 3 to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
IX. Aiantis (Αἰαντίς)
Deme #[16] #[17] #[18] Notes
Phaleron (?) city
Phaleron 9 9 13
Thorikos coast
Marathon 10 10 13
Oinoe 4 4 6 to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period and to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
Rhamnous 8 8 12
Trikorynthos 3 3 6 to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
Aphidna (?) inland
Aphidna 16 16 to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period and to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
Deme #[16] #[17] #[18] Notes
X. Antiochis (Ἀντιοχίς)[27]
Deme #[16] #[17] Notes
Alopeke city
Alopeke 10 12
Anaphlistos coast
Aigilia 6 7 to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
Amphitrope 2 3
Anaphlystos 10 11
Atene 3 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period
Besa 2 2 to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period
Thorai 4 to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods
Pallene inland
Eitea 2(1) 2
Eroiadai 1 1
Kolonai 2 to XI.Antigonis in the second period and to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period
Krioa 1 2
Pallene 6(7) 9
Semachidai 1 1
Deme #[16] #[17] Notes

The Macedonian tribes[edit]

XI. Antigonis[28]
Deme Former phyle Trittys #[16] #[17]
Lower Agryle Erachtheis city 3 3
Upper Lamptrai Erachtheis coast 5 5
Lower Pergase Erachtheis inland 2 2
Upper Ankyle Aigeis city 1 1
Ikarion Aigeis inland 5 6
Kydathenaion Pandionis city 12 12
Kytheros Pandionis inland 2 2
Upper Paiania Pandionis inland 1 1
Aithalidai Leontis inland 2 2
Deiradiotai Leontis coast 2 2
Potamos Deiradiotes Leontis coast 2 2
Eitea Akamantis inland 2 2
Auridai Hippothontis coast 1 1
Kolonai Antiochis inland 2 2
XII. Demetrias[29]
Deme Former phyle Trittys #[16] #[17]
Diomeia Aigeis city 1 1
Oion Kerameikon Leontis city 1 1
Lower Potamos Leontis coast 1 2
Hagnous Akamantis inland 5 5
Poros Akamantis coast 3 3
Hippotomadai Oineis city 1 1
Kothokidai Oineis coast 2 2
Phyle Oineis coast 2 6
Daidalidai Kekropis city 1 1
Melite Kekropis city 7 7
Xypete Kekropis city 7 7
Koile Hippothontis city 3 3
Oinoe Hippothontis coast 2 2
Atene Antiochis coast 3 4
Thorai Antiochis coast 4 5

The later tribes[edit]

XIII. Ptolemais[30]
Deme Former phyle Trittys #[16] #[17] #[18]
Kolonai Antigonis inland 2 2 2
Oinoe Demetrias coast 2 2 2
Themakos Erechteis city 1 1 1
Kydantidai Aigeis inland 1 (2) 1 (2) 1
Konthyle Pandionis inland 1 1 1
Hekale Leontis inland 1 1 1
Prospalta Akamantis inland 5 5 5
Boutadai Oineis city 1 1 1
Phlya Kekropis inland 6 9 9
Oion Dekeleikon Hippothontis inland 3 3 3
Aphidna Aiantis inland 16 16 16
Aigilia Antiochis coast 6 7 7
Berenikidai new 1
XIV. Attalis[31]
Deme Former phyle Trittys #[16] #[17] #[18]
Lower Agrile Erechteis city 3 3 3
Ikarion Aigeis inland 5 (4) 6 6
Probalinthos Pandionis coast 5 5 5
Sounion Leontis coast 4 6 6
Oion Dekailekon Ptolemais inlamd 3 3 3
Hagnous Akamantis inland 5 5 5
Tyrmeidai Oineis city 1(0) 1 1
Athmonon Kekropis inland 6 10 10
Korydallos Hippothontis city 3 3 3
Oinoe Aiantis coast 4 4 6
Atene Antiochis coast 3 4 4
Apollonieis new
XV. Hadrianis[32]
Deme Former phyle Trittys #[16] #[17] #[18]
Pambotadai Erechteis coast 1 (0) 1 (0) 2
Phegaia Aigeis coast 3 (4) 3 (4) 4
Oa Pandionis inland 4 4 4
Skambonidai Leontis city 3 4 4
Aphidna Ptolemais inlamd 16 16 16
Eitea Akamantis inland 2 2 2
Thria Oineis coast 7 8 8
Daidalidai Kekropis city 1 1 1
Elaious Hippothontis coast 1 1 1
Trikorynthos Aiantis coast 3 3 6
Besa Antiochis coast 2 2 2
Oinoe Attalis coast 4 4 6
Antinoeis new

The ten tribes of Thurii[edit]

When the city was settled under the support of Pericles and the command of Lampon and Xenocritus the population was organized in ten tribes, following the Athenian organization: there were tribes for the population of 1. Arcadia, 2. Achaea, 3. Elis, 4. Boeotia, 5. Delphi, 6. Dorians, 7. Ionians, 8. population of Euboea, 9. the islands and 10. Athenians.[33]

Later usage[edit]

The term "deme" (dēmos) survived into the Hellenistic and Roman eras. By the time of the Byzantine Empire, the term was used to refer to one of the four chariot racing factions, the Reds, the Blues, the Greens and the Whites.

In modern Greece, the term dēmos is used to denote one of the municipalities.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Traill 1975, p. 76
  2. ^ J.V. Fine, The Ancient Greeks: A Critical History
  3. ^ David Whitehead, "Deme" from the Oxford Classical Dictionary, Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth, ed.
  4. ^ Traill 1975, p. 56
  5. ^ Traill 1975, p. 59
  6. ^ Traill 1975, p. 62
  7. ^ Traill 1975, p. 61
  8. ^ Graes, Phegaia, Kaletea (III); Rhakidai, Kyrteidai (V); Phyle B, Perrihidai (VI); Kikynna B, Trinemeia B, Sypalettos B (VII); Agriadai, Pol(--), Anakaia B, Amymone, Sphendale (VIII); Kykala, Perrhidai, Thyrgonidai, Titakidai, Petalidai, Psaphis (IX); Atene B, De(--), Lekkon, Leukopyra, Ergadeis, Phyrrhinesioi, Malainai, Pentele (X).
  9. ^ Traill 1975, pp. 81–96
  10. ^ Anakaia B, Phegaieis B, Graes, Pol(--)
  11. ^ Agriadai
  12. ^ De(--), Salamis, Kaletea, Kikynna B, Atene B, Ikaroin, Amphitrope B, Phyle B, Sypalettos B, Trinemeia B, Coastal Lamptrai, Chastieis, Chelidonia, Echelidai, Gephyreis, Lekkon, Oisia, Rhakidai, Sporgilos.
  13. ^ Hyporeia,Thirgonidai, Titakidai, Perrhidai, Petalidai, Eunostidai, Klopidai, Melainai, Sphendale, Pentale, Psaphis, Akyaia, Amymone, Ergadeis, Kykala, Kyrteidai, Leukopyra, Phy(r)rhinesioi, Semachidai B,
  14. ^ Traill 1975, pp. 123–8
  15. ^ Traill 1975, Table I
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Quota in the first period
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Quota in the second period
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Quota in the third period
  19. ^ Traill 1975, Table II
  20. ^ Traill 1975, Table III
  21. ^ Traill 1975, Table IV
  22. ^ Traill 1975, p. 133
  23. ^ a b Traill 1975, Table V
  24. ^ Traill 1975, Table VI
  25. ^ Traill 1975, Table VII
  26. ^ Meritt, 1961, pp.227-230 suggests that Sypalettos could be temporarily belonged to XIV.Attalis in 145; the argument would justify the conflicting facts that the current archon, Epikrates, was from Sypalettos and that archonship, in the secretary-cycle, should be assigned to Attalis; in connection he pointed that the son of the eponym, Attalos II, was of the deme Sypalettos and that a similar reletionship between phylai and members of the family of the eponym is proved by Ptolemy V Epiphanes, grandson of Ptolemy III and member of XIII.Ptolemais and by Hadrian which was accepted into the deme of Besa.
  27. ^ Traill 1975, Table X
  28. ^ Traill 1975, Table XI
  29. ^ Traill 1975, Table XII
  30. ^ Traill 1975, Table XIII
  31. ^ Traill 1975, Table XIV
  32. ^ Traill 1975, Table XV
  33. ^ Fritz Schachermeyr, Perikles, Kohlhammer, Stuttgart–Berlin–Köln–Mainz 1969

References[edit]

  • Traill, John S. (1975). The Political Organization of Attica. Hesperia Supplements. 14. Amsterdam: American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA). pp. i–169. doi:10.2307/1353928. ISBN 978-0-87661-514-0. JSTOR 1353928.
  • Fine, John V. A. The Ancient Greeks: A critical history (Harvard University Press, 1983). ISBN 0-674-03314-0.
  • Hornblower, Simon, and Anthony Spawforth, ed., The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Oxford University Press, 2003). ISBN 0-19-866172-X.
  • Meritt, B. D. The Athenian Year. Berkeley, 1961.
  • Suzanne, Bernard (1998). plato-dialogues.org, "Attic Tribes and Demes". Retrieved August 1, 2006.
  • Whitehead, David. The Demes of Attica 508/7–ca. 250 BC: A Political and Social Study (Princeton University Press, 1986).