Doris Roberts

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Doris Roberts
DorisRobertsApr2011.jpg
Roberts in April 2011
Born Doris May Green
(1925-11-04)November 4, 1925
St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
Died April 17, 2016(2016-04-17) (aged 90)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Cause of death Stroke
Nationality American
Ethnicity Jewish
Occupation Actress
Years active 1951–2016
Spouse(s) Michael E. Cannata (m. 1956; div. 1962)
William Goyen (m. 1963; d. 1983)
Children 1

Doris Roberts (born Doris May Green; November 4, 1925 – April 17, 2016) was an American actress, author, and philanthropist whose career spanned six decades of television. She appeared as a guest on many talk and variety shows, along with appearing as a panelist on several game shows. She was an advocate of animal rights and animal-rights activism, supporting groups such as the United Activists for Animal Rights.

Roberts started in films in 1968, and had prominent roles in movies, including playing opposite Shirley Stoler in The Honeymoon Killers (1969), Elliott Gould in Little Murders (1971), Steven Keats in Hester Street (1975), Billy Crystal in Rabbit Test (1978), Robert Carradine in Number One with a Bullet (1987), and Cady McClain in Simple Justice (1989), among many others. She received five Emmy Awards and a Screen Actors Guild award during her acting career, which began in 1951. She achieved continuing success for her co-starring role as Raymond Barone's mother, Marie Barone, on the long-running CBS sitcom, Everybody Loves Raymond (1996–2005). She played Mildred Krebs in Remington Steele, a role she played from 1983 to 1987. Towards the end of her acting career, she also had a prominent role opposite Tyler Perry in Madea's Witness Protection (2012).

Early life[edit]

Roberts was born Doris May Green on November 4, 1925, in St. Louis, Missouri, to a family of Russian Jewish immigrants. She was raised by her mother, Ann (née Meltzer),[1] and her maternal grandparents in The Bronx, New York, after her father, Larry Green, deserted the family.[2] Roberts' stepfather, whose surname she took as her own, was Chester H. Roberts. Chester and Roberts' mother operated the Z.L. Rosenfield Agency, a stenographic service catering to playwrights and actors.[3]

Career[edit]

Roberts with Rip Taylor in November 2010

Film and television[edit]

Roberts' acting career began in 1952 with a role on the TV series Studio One. She appeared in episodes of The Naked City (1958–63), Way Out (1961), Ben Casey (1963), and The Defenders (1962–63). In 1961, she made her film debut in Something Wild (1961).

She appeared in such 1960s and 1970s films as A Lovely Way to Die, No Way to Treat a Lady, The Honeymoon Killers, Such Good Friends, Little Murders, and The Taking of Pelham One Two Three. In 1978, she appeared in a film about John F. Kennedy's assassination, Ruby and Oswald, in which she played Jack Ruby's sister. She also appeared very briefly in The Rose, as the mother of the title character (played by Bette Midler).

Roberts in December 2010

In an interview with the Archive of American Television, Rue McClanahan confirmed that in 1972 she was approached by Norman Lear during the taping of an All In The Family episode to be a late replacement for Roberts, who was originally intended for the role of Vivian in Maude.[4] (Roberts later guest starred in a 1976 All in the Family episode, "Edith's Night Out".) Roberts played Theresa Falco on Angie, and later appeared as Mildred Krebs on Remington Steele.

Roberts in 1980 at the premiere of Seems Like Old Times taken by Alan Light.

After Remington Steele ended, she starred in the TV movie remake of If It's Tuesday, It Still Must Be Belgium (1987) and the National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation (1989). She appeared on Alice, playing the mother of the title character (played by her former Broadway co-star Linda Lavin), on Barney Miller as the wife of a man who secretly went to a sex surrogate, and on Full House as Danny Tanner's mother, Claire. She played the unhinged "Flo Flotsky" on four episodes of Soap; Dorelda Doremus, a faith healer, on Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman; and lonely Aunt Edna on Step by Step.

Roberts achieved much of her fame for her role as Marie Barone on Everybody Loves Raymond. She was reportedly one of 100 actresses considered for the role.[5] For her work on the series, she was nominated for seven Emmy Awards (and won four times) for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series. She had previously won an Emmy for a guest appearance on St. Elsewhere, playing a homeless woman, and was also once nominated for her role on Remington Steele.[6] She was nominated for appearances on Perfect Strangers and a PBS special called The Sunset Gang. In 2003, she made a guest appearance as Gordo's grandmother in Lizzie McGuire. The same year, she received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In 2006, she starred in Our House where she portrayed a wealthy woman who took homeless people in her house, and in Grandma's Boy. In 2007, she made a guest appearance on Law & Order: Criminal Intent.[6] In 2008, she appeared in the romantic comedy Play the Game alongside Andy Griffith, who plays a lonely widowed grandfather re-entering the dating world after a 60-year hiatus.

Roberts appeared in the 2009 film Aliens in the Attic, which was filmed in Auckland, New Zealand. She played George Needleman's mother in Tyler Perry's Madea's Witness Protection (2012). On September 23, 2010, she played Ms. Rinsky, Brick Heck's schoolteacher in the second season premiere episode of The Middle. This appearance reunited her with Patricia Heaton, her co-star from Everybody Loves Raymond. Roberts returned in two other episodes that season, "The Math Class" and the finale, "Back to Summer".

Stage[edit]

Roberts' stage career began in the 1950s on Broadway. She appeared in numerous Broadway shows including William Marchant's The Desk Set (with Shirley Booth), Neil Simon's The Last of the Red Hot Lovers (with James Coco and Linda Lavin) and Terrence McNally's Bad Habits. She starred in McNally's Unusual Acts of Devotion at the LaJolla Playhouse in June 2009.[7]

Honors[edit]

In May 2005, Roberts received an honorary doctorate of fine arts from the University of South Carolina.[8] She was awarded the Ellis Island Medal of Honor on May 7, 2011.[9] She was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in February 2003, at 7021 Hollywood Blvd.[10]

Advocacy and other work[edit]

On September 4, 2002, Roberts testified before a U.S. Congressional panel that age discrimination was prevalent in Hollywood.[11] She was a registered Democrat.[12]

An animal rights advocate, Roberts worked with the group Puppies Behind Bars, which works with inmates in training guide dogs and assistance dogs for the physically disabled and elderly, as well as dogs trained in explosives detection to be used by law enforcement agencies.[13] She was also active with the Children with AIDS Foundation, where she served as chairwoman.[13]

With Danelle Morton, Roberts wrote Are You Hungry, Dear? Life, Laughs, and Lasagna. The book was published by St. Martin's Press in 2003, and serves as a memoir as well as a collection of some of Roberts' recipes.[14][15]

Personal life[edit]

Roberts married Michael Cannata in 1956; they divorced in 1962. Their son, Michael Cannata, Jr. (born 1957) is her only child. She had three grandchildren: Kelsey, Andrew and Devon. Her second husband was writer William Goyen and they were married from 1963 until his death from leukemia in 1983.[16]

Death[edit]

Roberts died in Los Angeles, California, on April 17, 2016 in her sleep due to a stroke at age 90.[17][18] She also suffered from hypertension for many years before her death. Just a month after her death she was also memorialized in New York City, where the public memorial tribute was held at the Ambassador Theatre where she appeared in 1972 in The Secret Affairs of Mildred Wild with Maureen Stapleton. Among the stars attending the service were David Hyde Pierce and Patricia Heaton, who played Roberts's unfavorable daughter-in-law. Ray Romano, said about her, prior to death: "Doris Roberts had an energy and a spirit that amazed me. She never stopped. Whether working professionally or with her many charities, or just nurturing and mentoring a green young comic trying to make it as an actor, she did everything with such a grand love for life and people and I will miss her dearly."[19] In another interview Romano jokingly responded about the kissing thing that Roberts did off-camera: "You know how great she was then!" He also added: "We had a little get together for her. She was one of a kind. She can outwork it, outdrink it, good kisser, I was joking! I appreciated her."[20] Just a month after her death he added: "Here's how good she was: She played the most intrusive, overbearing, noisy woman — always starting fights and whatnot and meddling in our business — and yet when I asked the fans who their favorite character was, all the time it was her," said Romano, "She was so good at portraying the love that was underneath."[21] She was interred at Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles, California.

Filmography[edit]

Key
Tiles that have not yet been released Denotes titles that have not yet been released

Film[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
1961 Something Wild Mary Ann's Co-Worker Independent rape and revenge drama film directed by Jack Garfein.[22]
1967 Barefoot in the Park Hotel Maid
Divorce American Style Hypnotic Subject
1968 No Way to Treat a Lady Sylvia Poppie Black comedy thriller directed by Jack Smight.[25]
A Lovely Way to Die Feeney Mystery film crime-drama directed by David Lowell Rich.[26]
1970 The Honeymoon Killers Bunny Crime film written and directed by Leonard Kastle.[27]
1971 Little Murders Mrs. Chamberlain Black comedy film directed by Alan Arkin.[28]
A New Leaf Mrs. Traggert Black comedy film directed by Elaine May[29] and based on the short story The Green Heart by Jack Ritchie.
Such Good Friends Mrs. Gold Comedy-drama film directed by Otto Preminger.[30]
1972 The Heartbreak Kid Mrs. Cantrow Dark romantic comedy film directed by Elaine May[31] and based on the short story A Change of Plan written by Bruce Jay Friedman.
1974 The Taking of Pelham One Two Three Jessie Thriller film directed by Joseph Sargent[32] and adapted by Peter Stone from the 1973 novel of the same name written by Morton Freedgood.
1975 Hester Street Mrs. Kavarsky Romantic film based on the 1896 novella Yekl: A Tale of the New York Ghetto and was adapted and directed by Joan Micklin Silver.[33]
1978 Rabbit Test Mrs. Carpenter Comedy film directed by Joan Rivers.[34]
1979 Good Luck, Miss Wyckoff Marie Drama film directed by Marvin J. Chomsky[35] and based on the 1970 novel of the same title by William Inge.[36]
The Rose Mrs. Foster Drama film directed by Mark Rydell[37] and loosely based on the life of singer Janis Joplin.
1987 Number One with a Bullet Mrs. Barzak Police detective film directed by Jack Smight.[38]
1989 National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation Frances Christmas comedy film directed by Jeremiah S. Chechik.[39]
1992 Used People Aunt Lonnie Romantic comedy film directed by Beeban Kidron[40] and adapted by Todd Graff from his 1988 off-Broadway play The Grandma Plays
1995 The Grass Harp Mrs. Richards Comedy-drama film directed and co-produced by Charles Matthau.[41]
Taffy Starring role Drama film directed by Martin Placer.[42]
1997 Walking to Waldheim Mina Goldblatt Short drama film directed and written by Sharyn C. Blumenthal.
1998 My Giant Doris Robert Comedy drama film directed by Michael Lehmann.[43]
1999 A Fish in the Bathtub Frieda Comedy film directed by Joan Micklin Silver.[44]
2001 All Over the Guy Esther Gay-themed romantic comedy film written by Dan Bucatinsky and directed by Julie Davis.[45]
2003 Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star Peggy Roberts Comedy film directed by Sam Weisman.[46]
2006 Grandma's Boy Grandma Lilly Stoner comedy film directed by Nicholaus Goossen.[47]
Keeping Up with the Steins Rose Fielder Comedy film directed by Scott Marshall.[48]
2009 Play the Game Rose Sherman Romantic comedy film Marc Fienberg.[49]
Aliens in the Attic Nana Rose Pearson Family science fiction comedy film directed by John Schultz.[50]
2010 Another Harvest Moon Alice Drama film directed by Greg Swartz.[51]
2011 Margarine Wars Grandma Betty Johansson Comedy-drama film directed and co-written by David Rich.[52]
2012 Madea's Witness Protection Barbara Comedy film directed, written and produced by Tyler Perry.[53]
2014 The Little Rascals Save the Day Grandma
The Secret of Joy Grandma Short film directed and written by Max Bartoli.
2015 Zizi and Honeyboy Zizi Short drama film directed by Brett Donowho.
2016dagger Job's Daughter Ruth Morrison Drama film directed by Emilio Roso.
The Escort Margaret Short film directed by Jared Hillman.
Old Soldiers Gracie McBee Adventure-drama film directed and co-written by David Rotan.
The Red Maple Leaf Mrs. Samantha Adams Drama film directed and written by Frank D'Angelo.

Television[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
1951 Starlight Theatre Operator Episode: "Act of God Notwithstanding"
1952 Studio One in Hollywood The Madwoman Episode: "Jane Eyre"
Suspense Woman Episode: "A Time on Innocence"
1954 Look Up and Live Minnah Episode: "Rider Number Six"
1962 Naked City Miss Tresant Episode: "One of the Most Important Men in the Whole World"
1963 Ben Casey Claire Forest Episode: "Father Was an Intern"
Naked City (Uncredited) Episode: "Color Schemes Like Never Before"
1969 CBS Playhouse Shimmy Episode: "Shadow Game"
1975 The Mary Tyler Moore Show Helen Ferrell Episode: "Phyllis Whips Inflation"
Medical Center Gladys Callahan Episode: "Two Against Death"
Baretta Mrs. Asher Episode: "Sharper Than a Serpent's Tooth"
1976 All in the Family Marge Episode: "Edith's Night Out"
Viva Valdez Gladys Episode: "The Nurse's Pipes"
Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman Dorelda Doremus 3 episodes
The Streets of San Francisco Mrs. Strauss 2 episodes
Family Etta Episode: "Home Movie"
Rhoda Sylvia Levy Episode: "Meet the Levy's"
1977 It Happened One Christmas Ma Bailey Television film
1978–1980 Barney Miller Harriet Brauer 3 episodes
1978 Soap Flo Flotsky 4 episodes
1979–1980 Angie Theresa Falco 36 episodes
1979 Fantasy Island Marjorie Gibbs Episode: "Goose for the Gander/The Stuntman"
1980 The Diary of Anne Frank Mrs. Van Daan Television film
1981 Fantasy Island Madam Clooney Episode: "Delphine/The Unkillable"
1981–1982 Maggie Loretta 8 episodes
Alice Mona Spivak 2 episodes
1982 St. Elsewhere Cora Episode: "Cora and Arnie"
1983 Romance Theatre Maggie 5 episodes
Cagney & Lacey Helen Freitas Episode: "Jane Doe #37"
1983–1987 Remington Steele Mildred Krebs 71 episodes
1985 California Girls Mrs. Bowzer Television film
1986 Mr. Belvedere Judge Westphall Episode: "Deportation: Part 2"
1990 Full House Claire Tanner Episode: "Granny Tanny"
Murder, She Wrote Helen Owens Episode: "Shear Madness"
Blind Faith Tessie McBride Miniseries
A Mom for Christmas Philomena Made-for-TV-Movie directed by George T. Miller.[55]
1991 Empty Nest Aunt Retha Episode: "The Last Temptation of Laverne"
American Playhouse Mimi Finkelstein Episode: "The Sunset Gang"
1993 The Boys Doris Greenblat 6 episodes
The John Larroquette Show Mrs. Shenker Episode: "Pilot"
1993–1995 Dream On Angie Pedalbee 6 episodes
1994 Murder, She Wrote Mrs. Leah Colfax Episode: "The Murder Chanel"
Step by Step Aunt Edna Episode: "I'll Be Home for Christmas"
A Time to Heal Maddy Television film directed by Michael Toshiyuki Uno.[56]
1995 Walker, Texas Ranger Elaine Portugal Episode: "The Big Bingo Bamboozle"
1996–2005 Everybody Loves Raymond Marie Barone 210 episodes
1997 A Thousand Men and a Baby Sister Philomena Television film directed by Marcus Cole.[57]
1999 The King of Queens Marie Barone Episode: "Rayny Day"
2000 The Wild Thornberrys Cow #1 Episode: "Critical Masai"
One True Love Lillian Drama film directed by Lorraine Senna.[58]
2001 The Sons of Mistletoe Margie Television film directed by Steven Robman.[59]
2002 Touched by an Angel Rose Episode: "The Bells of St. Peters"
2003 Lizzie McGuire Grandma Ruth Episode: "Grand Ole' Grandma"
A Time to Remember Maggie Calhoun Television film
2004 Raising Waylon Great Aunt Marie Television film directed by Sam Pillsbury.[60]
2006 Our House Ruth Television film directed by Mark Griffiths.[61]
2007 Law & Order: Criminal Intent Virginia Harrington Episode: "Privilege"
2009 Mrs. Miracle Mrs. Merkle Television film directed by Michael Scott.[62]
2010 Miracle in Manhattan Mrs. Miracle
  • Television film directed by Michael Scott.[63]
  • Originally titled Call Me Mrs. Miracle.
2010–2011 The Middle Mrs. Rinsky 3 episodes
2011 Grey's Anatomy Gladys Polcher Episode: "It's a Long Way Back"
Hot in Cleveland Lydia Episode: "Dancing Queens"
Phineas and Ferb the Movie: Across the 2nd Dimension Mrs. Thompson Disney Channel Original Movie
2012 Desperate Housewives Doris Hammond Episode: "Lost My Power"
2013–2014 Melissa & Joey Sofia 3 episodes
2014 Touched Norma Television film directed by Bradford May.
2015 Merry Kissmas Mrs. Billing Television film directed by Michael Feifer.[64]
2016dagger Adam Astra Casting Dame Daisy Phillips / Lois Willard / Lana delPeno / Carla Lockwood / Cleo Benington Television film directed, written, and co-starring Mitch Hara.

Stage[edit]

Year Title Role Theatre Dates Notes
1955 The Time of Your Life The Streetwalker's Sidekick[65] CityCenter[65] January 19, 1955 – January 30, 1955[65]
The Desk Set Miss Rumple[67] Broadhurst Theatre[67] October 24, 1955 – July 7, 1956[67]
1963 Marathon '33 Rae Wilson[68] ANTA Playhouse[68] December 22, 1963 – February 1, 1964[68]
1966 Malcolm Standby for:
Shubert Theatre[70] January 11, 1966 – January 15, 1966[70]
The Office Miss Punk[72] Henry Miller's Theatre[72] Never Officially Opened – April 30, 1966[72]
Under the Weather Standby for: Shelley Winters as Flora Sharkey / Marcella Vankuchen / Hilda[73] Cort Theatre[73] October 27, 1966 – November 5, 1966[73]
1967 The Natural Look Edna[74] Longacre Theatre[74] March 11, 1967 – March 11, 1967[74]
  • Directed by Martin Fried[74]
  • Written by Lee Thuna[74]
1969 Last of the Red Hot Lovers Jeanette Fisher[75][76] Eugene O'Neill Theater Center[75] December 28, 1969 – September 4, 1971[75]
1972 The Secret Affairs of Mildred Wild
Ambassador Theatre[77] November 14, 1972 – December 2, 1972[77]
1974 Bad Habits Dolly Scupp[78] Booth Theatre[78] May 5, 1974 – October 5, 1974[78]
1978 Cheaters Grace[80] Biltmore Theatre[80] January 15, 1978 – February 11, 1978[80]

Awards and nominations[edit]

Year Award Category Work Result Ref.
1983 35th Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series St. Elsewhere Won [82]
1985 37th Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series Remington Steele Nominated [83]
1989 41st Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series Perfect Strangers Nominated [84]
1991 43rd Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or Special American Playhouse Nominated [85]
1999 51st Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series Everybody Loves Raymond Nominated [86]
2000 52nd Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series Nominated [87]
2001 53rd Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series Won [88]
Online Film & Television Association Award Best Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series Nominated [89]
2002 American Film Institute Awards 2001 Actor of the Year – Female – TV Series Nominated [90]
54th Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series Won [91]
Online Film & Television Association Award Best Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series Nominated [92]
2003 55th Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series Won [93]
2004 10th Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Comedy Series Nominated [94]
56th Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series Nominated [95]
2005 11th Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Comedy Series Nominated [96]
57th Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series Won [97]
2015 Hang Onto Your Shorts Film Festival Best Actress in a Short Film Zizi and Honeyboy Nominated [98]
CineRockom International Film Festival Lifetime Achievement Award Won [99]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Doris Roberts profile at Film Reference.com". Filmreference.com. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  2. ^ Kelly Wilson (November 6, 2008). "Doris Roberts in the News". Members.aol.com. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  3. ^ "Mrs. Chester Roberts". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. June 19, 1974. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  4. ^ (via YouTube)"Rue McClanahan Interview, part 2 of 5". Archive of American Television. Academy of Television Arts & Sciences Foundation. Retrieved June 3, 2010. 
  5. ^ "'Larry King Live' transcript, interview with Everybody Loves Raymond Cast". CNN.com. CNN. March 8, 2002. Retrieved April 28, 2016. 
  6. ^ a b "Doris Roberts, Star Of 'Everybody Loves Raymond,' Dead At 90". The Huffington Post. AOL (Verizon Communications). April 18, 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  7. ^ Mandell Weiss Theatre (June 28, 2009). "Unusual Acts of Devotion". La Jolla Playhouse. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  8. ^ Webster, Jacintha (April 18, 2016). "Remembering Doris Roberts". Inquisitr. Retrieved April 18, 2016. 
  9. ^ "Best of Entertainment". Getty Images. The Carlyle Group. Retrieved April 18, 2016. 
  10. ^ BBC News Staff (April 19, 2016). "Doris Roberts: Everybody Loves Raymond star dies at 90". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  11. ^ "Hearings on Ageism". CNN. September 4, 2002. Retrieved April 18, 2016. 
  12. ^ "Profile". The Hollywood Reporter. Tribune Publishing. Retrieved April 5, 2016. 
  13. ^ a b Levitt, Hayley (April 18, 2016). "Everybody Loves Raymond Star Doris Roberts Dies at 90". Theater Mania. Los Angeles. Retrieved April 18, 2016. 
  14. ^ "Are you hungry, dear? : life, laughs, and lasagna". World Cat. United States. Retrieved April 18, 2016. 
  15. ^ Roberts, Doris; Morton, Danelle (2004). Are You Hungry, Dear? Life, Laughs, and Lasagna. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0312312275. 
  16. ^ "Doris Roberts profile at". Biography.com. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  17. ^ D'Zurilla, Christie (April 18, 2016). "Doris Roberts dies at 90; Italian mamma from 'Everybody Loves Raymond'". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Publishing. 
  18. ^ "Doris Roberts Died of a Stroke". TMZ. May 6, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2016. 
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  25. ^ "No Way to Treat a Lady". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  26. ^ "A Lovely Way to Die". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  27. ^ "The Honeymoon Killers". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  28. ^ "Little Murders". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  29. ^ "A New Leaf". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  30. ^ "Such Good Friends". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  31. ^ "The Heartbreak Kid". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  32. ^ "The Taking of Pelham One Two Three". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  33. ^ "Hester Street". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  34. ^ "Rabbit Test". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
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  39. ^ "National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  40. ^ "Used People". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  41. ^ "The Grass Harp". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  42. ^ "Taffy". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  43. ^ "My Giant". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 23, 2016. 
  44. ^ "A Fish in the Bathtub". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  45. ^ "All Over the Guy". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  46. ^ "Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  47. ^ "Grandma's Boy". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  48. ^ "Keeping Up with the Steins". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  49. ^ "Play the Game". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  50. ^ "Aliens in the Attic". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  51. ^ "Another Harvest Moon". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  52. ^ "Margarine Wars". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 23, 2016. 
  53. ^ "Madea's Witness Protection". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  54. ^ "The Little Rascals Save the Day". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 19, 2016. 
  55. ^ "A Mom for Christmas". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved August 22, 2016. 
  56. ^ "A Time to Heal". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 23, 2016. 
  57. ^ "A Thousand Men and a Baby". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 23, 2016. 
  58. ^ "One True Love". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved April 23, 2016. 
  59. ^ "The Sons of Mistletoe". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 23, 2016. 
  60. ^ "Raising Waylon". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved April 23, 2016. 
  61. ^ "Our House". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 23, 2016. 
  62. ^ "Mrs. Miracle". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 23, 2016. 
  63. ^ "Call Me Mrs. Miracle". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 23, 2016. 
  64. ^ "Merry Kissmas". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Retrieved April 23, 2016. 
  65. ^ a b c d e "The Time of Your Life". Internet Broadway Database. The Broadway League. Retrieved April 28, 2016. 
  66. ^ Saroyan, William (2008). The Time of Your Life. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1408113943. 
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  68. ^ a b c d e "Marathon '33". Internet Broadway Database. The Broadway League. Retrieved April 28, 2016. 
  69. ^ Havoc, June (2011). Marathon '33. Whitefish, Montana: Literary Licensing, LLC. ISBN 978-1258187491. 
  70. ^ a b c d e f g "Malcolm". Internet Broadway Database. The Broadway League. Retrieved April 28, 2016. 
  71. ^ (Reissue edition)Purdy, James (2015). Malcom. Boni & Liveright. ISBN 978-0871409577. 
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  73. ^ a b c d e "Under the Weather". Internet Broadway Database. The Broadway League. Retrieved April 28, 2016. 
  74. ^ a b c d e "The Natural Look". Internet Broadway Database. The Broadway League. Retrieved April 28, 2016. 
  75. ^ a b c d e "Last of the Red Hot Lovers". Internet Broadway Database. The Broadway League. Retrieved April 28, 2016. 
  76. ^ Simon 1970, p. 3.
  77. ^ a b c d e f "The Secret Affairs of Mildred Wild". Internet Broadway Database. The Broadway League. Retrieved April 28, 2016. 
  78. ^ a b c d e "Bad Habits". Internet Broadway Database. The Broadway League. Retrieved April 28, 2016. 
  79. ^ McNally, Terrence (1990). Bad Habits. New York City: Dramatists Play Service. ISBN 978-0822214359. 
  80. ^ a b c d e "Cheaters". Internet Broadway Database. The Broadway League. Retrieved April 28, 2016. 
  81. ^ Jacobs, Michael (2013). Cheaters. New York City: Samuel French, Inc. ISBN 978-0573702129. 
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