Dorothy Howell Rodham
Rodham in January 2009
|Born||Dorothy Emma Howell
June 4, 1919
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
|Died||November 1, 2011
Washington, D.C., U.S.
|Cause of death||Heart failure|
|Known for||Mother of Hillary Clinton|
|Spouse(s)||Hugh E. Rodham (m. 1942–1993; his death)|
|Children||Hillary, Hugh, Tony|
Dorothy Emma Rodham (née Howell; June 4, 1919 – November 1, 2011) was an American homemaker and mother of former First Lady, U.S. Senator, and U.S. Secretary of State, Hillary Rodham Clinton.
Dorothy Howell was born in Chicago, the daughter of Edwin John Howell, Jr. (1897–1946), a Chicago firefighter, and Della Murray (1902–1960). She had a younger sister, Isabelle (born 1924). Her family ancestry included Welsh, English, Scottish, French, and distant Dutch; her paternal grandfather was an immigrant from Bedminster, Bristol in England, and many of her recent forebears had lived in Canada.
Her childhood has been described as Dickensian. The family lived as boarders in a crowded house. The parents were dysfunctional and unhappy and prone to sometimes violent fights; they moved Dorothy among various schools, and paid only sporadic attention to the children before divorcing in 1927.
The children were then sent on a train by themselves, unsupervised (Dorothy was eight, Isabelle younger), to live with their paternal grandparents in the Los Angeles suburb of Alhambra, California. The sisters endured harsh and unloving treatment from their grandparents. The grandmother favored black Victorian dress and punished the girls for trifling acts. After Dorothy was caught trick-or-treating during one Halloween, an activity the grandparents forbade, she was confined to her room for an entire year except for attending school, and was not even allowed to eat in the kitchen or play in the yard.
President Barack Obama after a ceremony in the White House on the life of Dorothy Rodham, November 1, 2011
Video of President Obama discussing the life of Dorothy Rodham.
President Barack Obama after a ceremony in the White House on the life of Dorothy Rodham (November 1, 2011)
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Having had enough, Dorothy left home at age 14 in the depths of the Great Depression, working as a $3-per-week housekeeper, cook, and nanny for a San Gabriel, California family. Encouraged by her employer to read and go to school, Dorothy attended Alhambra High School, where she joined several clubs and benefited from two teachers. After graduating from Alhambra in 1937, she moved to Chicago for a failed reunion with her mother, who by then had gotten married to Max Rosenberg. Subsequently, she moved into her own apartment there and took office jobs to support herself. She later said, "I'd hoped so hard that my mother would love me that I had to take the chance and find out. When she didn't, I had nowhere else to go." Hillary Rodham Clinton later attributed her interest in children's welfare to her mother's life as well as her belief that caring adults outside of family can fill a child's emotional voids.
Marriage and family
While applying for a job as a clerk typist at a textile company, she met traveling salesman Hugh Ellsworth Rodham, eight years her senior, in 1937. After a lengthy courtship, they married in early 1942.
Their first child, Hillary Diane, was born in 1947; at the time they were living in a one-bedroom apartment in the Edgewater neighborhood of Chicago. The second child, Hugh, was born in 1950 and during that year the family moved to a two-story, three-bedroom house in suburban Park Ridge, Illinois. The couple's third child, Tony, was born in 1954. Dorothy was a full-time homemaker.
Dorothy encouraged Hillary to have a love for learning and to pursue an education and a career, though she had never done so herself. As she later recalled, "I never saw any difference in gender, as far as capabilities or aspirations were concerned. Just because [Hillary] was a girl didn't mean she should be limited." In contrast to her husband's staunch Republican views, Dorothy Rodham was, as her daughter later wrote, essentially a Democrat, "although she kept it quiet in Republican Park Ridge." She taught Sunday school at the First United Methodist Church of Park Ridge.
During the 1970s, once her children were grown, Rodham took courses at Oakton Community College in a variety of subjects, receiving high grades and earning an associate's degree in liberal arts. She was among the first mothers of that generation to return to school. In 1987, Rodham and her husband moved to Little Rock, Arkansas, to be closer to their daughter and help care for their granddaughter, Chelsea. She took courses in subjects that happened to interest her, focusing on psychology but including logic and child development, although she never gained a further degree. Her daughter later wrote in her 2003 memoir Living History, "I'm still amazed at how my mother emerged from her lonely early life as such an affectionate and levelheaded woman."
Hugh Rodham died in 1993, shortly after their daughter became First Lady of the United States. Dorothy Rodham remained active but valued her privacy and almost never spoke to the media. She spent more time at the White House and accompanied Hillary and Chelsea on trips to France, India, and China; she also enjoyed life in Washington, D.C.
At the 1996 Democratic National Convention, when her husband was nominated for re-election, she appeared in a video message, saying "Everybody knows there is only one person in the world who can really tell the truth about a man, and that's his mother-in-law." Following the Lewinsky scandal she reportedly was angry at the president and encouraged her daughter to seek her own political career.
When her daughter was elected to the U.S. Senate in 2000, she moved to Washington, D.C., living along Connecticut Avenue. She appeared on The Oprah Winfrey Show in 2004. Once living alone became too much for her, in 2006, she moved into the Clintons' large Whitehaven house in the Kalorama neighborhood of Washington, D.C. There she would often sit and discuss the day when her daughter came home from work.
Starting in December 2007, she made a rare public appearance in Iowa and other early primary states to campaign for her daughter's presidential nomination bid. She appeared at some events concerning women's issues and also appeared in a Clinton campaign television advertisement. She was in attendance when her daughter was sworn in as Secretary of State on January 21, 2009.
In her final years, her health began to fail due to heart problems.
Dorothy Rodham died at George Washington University Hospital on November 1, 2011, in Washington, D.C., with Secretary Clinton cancelling a foreign trip in order to be by her side. Other family members were present as well. A small memorial service was held for her at Whitehaven.
The William J. Clinton Presidential Center held an exhibit featuring Dorothy Howell Rodham and Virginia Clinton Kelley, the mother of Bill Clinton, in 2012. It was introduced by a video from Chelsea Clinton in which she talked about the influence her two grandmothers had had on her.
In her 2014 memoir Hard Choices, Hillary Rodham Clinton wrote of Dorothy Howell Rodham, "No one had a bigger influence on my life or did more to shape the person I became." The struggles that she went through became a major theme of the June 2015 kickoff event to Clinton's unsuccessful 2016 presidential campaign. They were repeated when Clinton gave a victory speech upon becoming the party's presumptive nominee in early June 2016, saying, "I wish she could see her daughter become the Democratic nominee for President of the United States."
- 1920 Cook Co., IL, U.S. Federal Census, Chicago, 2956 Michigan Ave., Jan. 8 & 9, Enumeration Dist. 66, sheet 4 A, page 73 A, line 34, Dorothy Howell, 7 mons. old.
- In Hillary Rodham Clinton's June 3, 2008, campaign appearance in New York City following the final primaries of her presidential campaign, she said her mother would be turning 89 the following day.
- "Dorothy Rodham, mother of Hillary Clinton, dies at 92". Chicago Tribune. November 1, 2011. Archived from the original on November 3, 2011.
- Clinton, Hillary Rodham (2003). Living History. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 2–11. ISBN 0-7432-2224-5.
- Reitwiesner, William Addams. "The Ancestors of Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton". wargs.com. Retrieved July 8, 2007.
- McFadden, Robert D. (November 1, 2011). "Dorothy Rodham, Mother and Mentor Of Hillary Clinton, Is Dead at 92". The New York Times.
- Kornblut, Anne E. (September 23, 2007). "A Mother's Strength, a Candidate's Ambition". The Washington Post.
- Williams, Brian (November 1, 2011). "Nightly broadcast". NBC Nightly News.
- 1930 Los Angeles Co., CA, U.S. Federal Census, San Gabriel Township, Alhambra City, 320 E. Park St., April 4, Enumeration Dist. 1406, sheet 5 B, page 108 B, line 57.
- Haberman, Maggie (May 11, 2014). "Hillary Clinton reflects on her mom in memoir". Politico.
- Chozick, Amy (June 13, 2015). "Clinton Embraces Her Mother's Emotional Tale". The New York Times. p. A1.
- Alhambra High School Yearbook, The Alhambran, 1937.
- Bernstein, Carl (2007). A Woman in Charge: The Life of Hillary Rodham Clinton. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 14, 23–25, 34. ISBN 0-375-40766-9.
- "Reader Q&A". The Times-Tribune. Scranton. June 19, 2007.
- Hanson, Cynthia (September 1994). "I Was a Teenage Republican". Chicago Magazine.
- Brock, David (1996). The Seduction of Hillary Rodham. New York: The Free Press. p. 5. ISBN 0-684-83451-0.
- Parker, Suzi (July 19, 2012). "Arkansas Exhibit Highlights Bill and Hillary Clinton's Mothers". The Washington Post.
- Clinton, Hillary Rodham (May 11, 2014). "An Exclusive Excerpt from Hillary Clinton's Upcoming Book, Hard Choices". Vogue.
- Hakim, Danny (October 11, 2006). "New Resident at Clinton Home, And She Has a Familiar Name". The New York Times.
- Gerth, Jeff; Van Natta, Jr., Don (2007). Her Way: The Hopes and Ambitions of Hillary Rodham Clinton. New York: Little, Brown and Company. p. 221. ISBN 0-316-01742-6.
- McAuliff, Michael (December 9, 2007). "Chelsea Clinton and Hillary's mom join the campaign in Iowa". New York Daily News.
- Phillips, Kate (December 13, 2007). "Clinton Ad: Dorothy Speaks". The New York Times.
- Daniel, Douglass K.; Lee, Matthew (November 1, 2011). "Clinton's mother, Dorothy Rodham, dies at 92". NBC News. Associated Press.
- Lee, MJ; Merica, Dan (June 8, 2016). "The hero of Clinton's speech: Her mother". CNN.