ELAM (Cyprus)

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National Popular Front
Εθνικό Λαϊκό Μέτωπο
LeaderChristos Christou
HeadquartersNicosia, Cyprus
Youth wingYouth Front
Women's wingWomen's Front
National conservatism[2][3][4]
Political positionFar-right[5][6]
Colours  Black   Blue   White
House of Representatives
4 / 56
European Parliament
0 / 6
Municipal Councils
7 / 478
Party flag

The National Popular Front (also known as the National People's Front; Greek: Εθνικό Λαϊκό Μέτωπο (ΕΛΑΜ), Ethniko Laiko Metopo (ELAM)) is a far-right,[7][8] ultranationalist movement (and later, political party), founded in 2008 in the Republic of Cyprus. It describes its ideology as "popular and social nationalism". As of May 2011, it has been approved as a legal political party.[9][10] ELAM is a Eurosceptic political party which also praises Greek former prime minister Ioannis Metaxas.[11][12][13]


Prior to the official formation of the National Popular Front, the organisation existed under the name "Golden Dawn: Cypriot Kernel".[6] The kernel was established in late 2000,[6][14] and was led by the current ELAM president Christos Christou, who was an active member of the Golden Dawn political party in Greece.[15][16] The kernel attempted to register as a political party with the same name, but the name was rejected by the state's authorities, resulting in the use of the name "National Popular Front" as an alternative.[17]


The party's 2011 manifesto proclaims that the party promotes a strict anti-federalist line concerning the Cyprus dispute, a zero-toleration anti-immigration policy concerning illegal immigration, a strict Greek-centered public education to counter the "slavery of globalization"; and an energy policy that would take full advantage of Cyprus' exclusive economic zone.[18]

In 2019, The Party submitted a bill seeking to impose a ban on all Muslim headgear in public spaces, including schools.[19]

The party's MPs walked out on a parliamentary moment of silence for the more than 500 dead refugees from the 2023 Messenia migrant boat disaster which happened close to Cyprus' waters. The party stated that the moment of silence was "political exploitation" and "The aim is so that society will feel guilty for a crime committed by traffickers."[20]

The party claims to be influenced by Friedrich Nietzsche, Johann Gottfried Herder and Julius Evola.[21] Ideologically, it belongs to the neo-fascist or nationalist-revolutionary currents, and is internationally close to the GUD in France and Golden Dawn in Greece.[21]

Violence involving ELAM[edit]

The party has been the subject of controversy in the Cypriot media and the broader political scene. It has been repeatedly accused of promoting racism and being involved in acts of violence. In July 2010, it was reported that after the condemnation ceremonies against the Turkish invasion of 1974 on 20 July, people with ELAM T-shirts attacked a Nigerian man in Makariou street in Nicosia.[22] On 19 March 2011, eyewitnesses reported that members of ELAM beat up a lottery seller in Lidras street in Nicosia after a disagreement in political views.[23] Furthermore, it was reported that eight ELAM members, one of which ranked as a second lieutenant in the Cypriot National Guard, were arrested by the police in connection to an attack against university students during the student elections of the University of Nicosia on 6 December 2011.[24] In addition, local newspaper Haravgi reported that on 11 May 2012, a second lieutenant was found training ELAM members in shooting mortars in a National Guard's shooting ground.[25][26][27] The Ministry of Defense confirmed that an officer had been charged for calling a non-authorized person for shooting in a shooting ground, but specified that it was a rifle shooting. The Ministry made no comment on possible political connections to the incident.[28]

On 26 March 2014, ELAM members attempted to interrupt and stop a reunification conference in Limassol, in which one of the speakers was the Turkish Cypriot politician Mehmet Ali Talat.[29] It was reported that members of ELAM broke through the police lines, broke a window and threw a flare in the conference hall,[29][30] while a Turkish Cypriot journalist was slightly injured.[31] ELAM was protesting against the presence of Mehmet Ali Talat in the conference, calling him a "war criminal".[31]

ELAM has officially opposed its association with the incidents mentioned, stating that no ELAM members have been convicted for the specific crimes that its members have been accused of. It further accused the media and other organisations for intentionally connecting the movement with the incidents, in order to damage its public image.[32][33]

Past connections with Golden Dawn[edit]

ELAM had been openly connected with Greek far-right political party Golden Dawn, which it described in the past as a "brother movement".[9] Members and supporters of ELAM celebrated in the streets after the Greek legislative electoral results of May 2012, which gave Golden Dawn representation in the Greek parliament for the first time.[9][34] The party officially congratulated the leader of Golden Dawn, Nikolaos Michaloliakos, for their electoral success.[35][36] ELAM's anti-occupation march against the ongoing Turkish occupation that was held on 20 July 2012 at Ledra Palace was also attended by Golden Dawn MP Polibios Zisimopoulos, who was invited by ELAM and gave a speech concerning the Greek economic crisis and the Turkish occupation of Cyprus.[37] In late December of 2012, ELAM announced its candidate Georgios Charalambous; for the upcoming presidential elections; in the presence of two notable members of Golden Dawn, Giannis Lagos and Ilias Kasidiaris.[38] It was reported that in the presentation Ilias Kasidiaris stated that "ELAM and Golden Dawn are not simply brother parties" and that "ELAM is the Golden Dawn of Cyprus".[39]

In October 2013 Greek Golden Dawn MPs Ilias Kasidiaris and Artemis Matheopoulos stated that ELAM is being financed by Golden Dawn.[40][41] In June 2020, ELAM explained it had officially cut ties with Golden Dawn.[42] Its leader, Christos Christou, cited that the party was following its own strategy, acting independently.[43] Regardless, western media, such as The Guardian still describe the party as linked to Golden Dawn and as neo-Nazis.[44]

Electoral results[edit]

President of Cyprus[edit]

Election Round 1 Candidate Win
# % Rank
2013 3,899 0.88 4th Georgios Charalampous No
2018 21,846 5.65 4th Christos Christou No
2023 23,988 6.04 4th Christos Christou No

House of Representatives[edit]

Election Votes Seats
# % Rank # ±
2011 4,354 1.1 7th new
2016 13,041 3.7 8th Increase 2
2021 24,255 6.8 4th Increase 2

European Parliament[edit]

Election Votes Seats
# % Rank # ±
2009 663 0.2 9th new
2014 6,957 2.7 7th Steady 0
2019 23,167 8.3 5th Steady 0


  1. ^ Cyprus and the roadmap for peace - A critical interrogation of the conflict. p.87. Edited by Michalis S. Michael and Yucel Vural. Chapter authors - Yucel Vural, Sertac Sonan and Michalis S. Michael. Published by Edward Elgar Publishing in Cheltenham, UK. Published in 2018.
  2. ^ "ΘΕΣΕΙΣ". 23 June 2023.
  3. ^ "Cyprus: Parties at a glance".
  4. ^ "Parties and Elections in Europe". www.parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 2021-09-18.
  5. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2016). "Cyprus". Parties and Elections in Europe.
  6. ^ a b c Katsourides, Yiannos (December 2013). "Determinants of extreme right reappearance in Cyprus: The National Popular Front (ELAM), Golden Dawn's sister party". South European Society and Politics. 18 (4): 567–589. doi:10.1080/13608746.2013.798893. S2CID 153418352.
  7. ^ Samaras, Georgios (6 August 2021). "Cyprus: what is Elam, the far-right nationalist party seeking success after the demise of Golden Dawn?". The Conversation. Retrieved 2021-08-07.
  8. ^ Nikolaos, Prakas (February 5, 2023). "Slight rise for far-right Elam". Cyprus Mail. Retrieved 2023-02-07.
  9. ^ a b c "ELAM seeks to echo Golden Dawn's success: Will Greek vote boost nationalism in Cyprus?". news.pseka.net. International Coordinating Committee "Justice for Cyprus" (PSEKA). 2012-05-13. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  10. ^ "O Γενικός Εισαγγελέας ξεκαθάρισε τί εστί κόμμα". Sigma Live. 2 May 2011. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  11. ^ Πισώπλατη μαχαιριά της Ε.Ε στην Κύπρο! Ερντογάν: “Ανοίγει το 17 Κεφάλαιο των ενταξιακών” Archived 2016-04-28 at the Wayback Machine, ELAM 30-11-2015
  12. ^ Η Ε.Ε. καραδοκεί για τον φυσικό μας πλούτο Archived 2016-06-03 at the Wayback Machine, ELAM 28-01-2016
  13. ^ "Αφιέρωμα: Ιωάννης Μεταξάς (1871-1941), εκείνος που είπε το "ΟΧΙ"" [Tribute: Ioannis Metaxas (1871-1941), the one who said "NO"]. elamcy.com (in Greek). 27 October 2014.
  14. ^ "Danger from Golden Dawn (Κίνδυνος από τη "Χρυσή Αυγή")". Platform of Greek and Turkish Cypriot Teachers, "United Cyprus". 8 November 2003. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  15. ^ "ELAM: The Golden Dawn of Cyprus (ΕΛΑΜ: Η Χρυσή Αυγή της Κύπρου)". tvxs.gr. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  16. ^ "Cyprus: ELAM, Like Golden Dawn (ΚΥΠΡΟΣ: ΕΛΑΜ ΟΠΩΣ ΧΡΥΣΗ ΑΥΓΗ)". Iskra.gr. 5 January 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  17. ^ "Είμαστε η Χρυσή Αυγή της Κύπρου λέει το ΕΛΑΜ" [We are the Golden Dawn of Cyprus]. Phileleftheros. 20 September 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  18. ^ "Δελτίο Τύπου - Βουλευτικές εκλογές 2011" [Press Release - Parliamentary Elections 2011]. Εθνικό Λαϊκό Μέτωπο - Ε.ΛΑ.Μ. (ELAM Blog) (in Greek). 18 March 2011. Archived from the original on 15 August 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
  19. ^ "Elam tables bill seeking ban on Muslim headgear in public spaces". Cyprus Mail.
  20. ^ Hazou, Elias. "Elam MPs reportedly walked out during minute silence for shipwreck victims". Cyprus Mail. Retrieved 21 August 2023.
  21. ^ a b Tristan Berteloot et Jean-Yves Camus (28 May 2019). "Européennes : tour d'Europe des droites eurosceptiques, populistes et radicales". Liberation..
  22. ^ "Racism went out in the Streets (Ο ρατσιμός βγήκε στους δρόμους)". Politis. 2010-07-22. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  23. ^ ""We are Heating the Egg of the Snake" ("Ζεσταίνουμε το αβγό του φιδιού")". Politis. 2011-03-23. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  24. ^ "Eight Suspects, All Members of ELAM for the Attack at the University of Nicosia (Οκτώ ύποπτοι όλοι μέλη του ΕΛΑΜ για την επίθεση στο Πανεπιστήμιο Λευκωσίας)". Phileleftheros. 9 December 2011. Archived from the original on 31 January 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  25. ^ "Αξιωματικός της Ε.Φ. φέρεται να εκπαίδευε ΕΛΑΜΙΤΕΣ". Sigma Live. 13 May 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  26. ^ "Ανθυπίλαρχος εκπαίδευε στα όπλα μέλη του ΕΛΑΜ". iKypros. 13 May 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-11-21. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  27. ^ "Ανθυπίλαρχος εκπαίδευε στα όπλα μέλη του ΕΛΑΜ". Εμπροσθοφύλακας. 13 May 2012. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  28. ^ "Επιβεβαιώνει τη "Χ" το Υπουργείο Αμυνας". Haravgi. 15 May 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  29. ^ a b "Far right extremists disrupts reunification event". Cyprus Mail. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  30. ^ "ELAM Members Threw a Lighted Torch at Talat in Limassol (Ελαμίτες έριξαν αναμμένο πυρσό στον Ταλάτ στη Λεμεσό)". Kathimerini. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  31. ^ a b "Επεισόδια σε εκδήλωση με ομιλητή τον Ταλάτ στη Λεμεσό". Sigma Live. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  32. ^ ""ELAM has no Connection With the Attack at the University" ("Το ΕΛΑΜ δεν έχει καμία σχέση με την επίθεση στο Πανεπιστήμιο")". Sigma Live. 7 December 2011. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  33. ^ "ELAM:"The article of Haravgi is Slanderus" (Ε.ΛΑ.Μ.:" Συκοφαντικό το δημοσίευμα της Χαραυγής")". Sigma Live. 14 May 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  34. ^ "The Cypriot "Golden Dawn" Excuses Kasidiaris (Η κυπριακή "Χρυσή Αυγή" δικαιολογεί τον Κασιδιάρη)". Lifo.gr. 9 June 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  35. ^ "Congratulations of ELAM to Golden Dawn (Συγχαρητήρια Ε.ΛΑ.Μ. προς Χρυσή Αυγή)". Sigma Live. 7 May 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  36. ^ "Congratulations of ELAM towards Golden Dawn (Συγχαρητήρια Ε.ΛΑ.Μ σε Χρυσή Αυγή)". ANT1. 7 May 2012. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  37. ^ "Anti-occupation event 20/07/2012 - Speech by the Golden Dawn MP (Αντικατοχική 20/07/2012 - Ομιλία από τον βουλευτή της Χρυσής Αυγής)". National Popular Front. 26 July 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  38. ^ "ELAM announces its candidate". Cyprus Mail. 1 January 2013. Archived from the original on 4 February 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  39. ^ "ELAM, as Golden Dawn (ΕΛΑΜ όπως Χρυσή Αυγή)". Prin. 6 January 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  40. ^ "Revelation: Golden Dawn Finances ELAM! This is what was stated by Kasidiaris and Matheopoulos! (Αποκάλυψη: Η Χρυσή Αυγή χρηματοδοτεί και το ΕΛΑΜ! Αυτό δήλωσαν Κασιδιάρης και Ματθαιόπουλος!)". To Thema. 25 October 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  41. ^ "AKEL: Golden Dawn Financed ELAM (ΑΚΕΛ: Η Χρυσή Αυγή χρηματοδοτούσε το ΕΛΑΜ)". Sofokleous In. 30 October 2013. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  42. ^ "O Xρίστου εξηγεί: Γιατί το ΕΛΑΜ διέκοψε τις σχέσεις με την Χρυσή Αυγή (ΒΙΝΤΕΟ)". AlphaNews.Live (in Greek). Retrieved 2020-08-07.
  43. ^ "O Xρίστου εξηγεί: Γιατί το ΕΛΑΜ διέκοψε τις σχέσεις με την Χρυσή Αυγή (ΒΙΝΤΕΟ) | AlphaNews.Live".
  44. ^ "Cyprus election: far-right party linked to Greek neo-Nazis doubles vote share". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 August 2023.

Further reading[edit]

  • Katsourides, Yiannos (December 2013). "Determinants of extreme right reappearance in Cyprus: The National Popular Front (ELAM), Golden Dawn's sister party". South European Society and Politics. 18 (4): 567–589. doi:10.1080/13608746.2013.798893. S2CID 153418352.