Frostburg State University
State Teachers College at Frostburg |
|Motto||"One University. A World of Experiences."|
|Type||Public, University System of Maryland|
|Endowment||US$22.3 million (2017)|
|Provost||Elizabeth Throop |
|Undergraduates||4725 (Fall 2017)|
|Postgraduates||589 (Fall 2017)|
|Location||101 Braddock Road, Frostburg, Maryland, USA|
|Campus||Rural, 260 acres (1.1 km2)|
Red, Black, and White|
|Athletics||NCAA Division III, CAC, NJAC|
Frostburg State University (FSU) is a public university in Frostburg, Maryland. The university is the only four-year institution of the University System of Maryland west of the Baltimore-Washington passageway, positioned in the state's Appalachian highlands, an area rich in its mining and educational heritage. Founded in 1898 by Maryland Governor Lloyd Lowndes, Jr., Frostburg was selected because the site offered the best suitable location without a cost to the state. Today, the institution is a largely residential university, offering a wide assortment of distinctive programs at the undergraduate and graduate levels.
With an enrollment of approximately 5,396 students, the university offers 47 undergraduate majors, 16 graduate programs, and a doctorate in educational leadership. The institution draws its students from all counties in Maryland, from other states and countries, promoting diversity among its students, faculty, and staff through incorporating its Cultural Diversity Program strategies that focus on the effective enrollment.
Accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, the university places primary emphasis on its role as a teaching and learning institution. Major areas of concentration are offered in education, business, science and technology, the creative and performing arts, and selected programs in the humanities and social sciences.
- 1 History
- 2 Academics
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Athletics
- 5 Student life
- 6 Arts and culture
- 7 Notable alumni
- 8 References
- 9 External links
What was "Frostburg State Normal School No. 2" was founded by an act of the Maryland General Assembly, House Bill 742, from the General Appropriation Bill, on March 31, 1898. The bill was offered on the floor by John Leake of Vale Summit in Allegany County:
"For the direction of the erection of a building in Frostburg, Allegany County to be known as The State Normal School No. 2, for the sum of $20,000; and for the support of said school when established $5,000 annually, provided, the people of the town of Frostburg furnish the ground for the site of said building and deed the same to the state."
The cornerstone was laid in a ceremony on September 4, 1899.The Normal School's first building, Old Main, was positioned in Beall Park to face Loo Street (now known as College Avenue) and to look down Wood Street toward the downtown area of Frostburg. State Normal School No. 2, the first institution being located in Baltimore and then Towson, opened with its first class on September 15, 1902, with 57 students with Frostburg's first administrator, Principal Dr. Edward D. Murdaugh (18 November 1853 - May 1925). In 1904, eight students became the first graduates of the college, receiving a diploma and a lifetime teaching certificate. In 1912, a new gymnasium was authorized and completed in 1914. In 1919, a dormitory was opened. In 1925, a second dormitory was opened. In 1927, Allegany Hall, a new auditorium, gymnasium, and heating plant was added. In 1930, a six-room practice elementary school known as the new laboratory school was opened and the campus was extended to 40 acres, taking over the Brownsville area of Frostburg.
The institution's original mission was to train teachers for public school systems statewide. In 1935, the school was renamed "State Teachers' College at Frostburg" (also called Frostburg State Teachers College) and began offering a four-year degree program leading to a bachelor of science in elementary education, after expanding the curriculum from two to three years in 1931 and 1934, respectively. Lillian Cleveland Compton served as the first female president of the college from 1945 to 1954. Compton replaced the 21-year President John L. Dunkle. Her mission as president was essentially to prepare the college for its planned closing. Enrollment stood at a mere 62 students in 1945. With outdated facilities and inadequate funding, the college was accredited only by the State Department of Education. As early as 1943, there had arisen in the General Assembly a movement to close the institution, which eventually culminated in the Marbury Report.
The end of World War II brought a drastic change in the college's environment. In 1946, enrollment increased to 274 students, many being admitted under the new G.I. Bill. Though the movement to close the college persisted, it seemed misguided to those on the scene and was roundly opposed by both private citizens and civic groups in Frostburg and Western Maryland. With the strong support of State Superintendent of Schools Thomas Granville Pullen, Jr. and Governor William Preston Lane Jr., the General Assembly was petitioned to keep the School open and the Marbury Commission's recommendations died without ever being acted upon.In 1947, the American Council on Education suggested that Frostburg State Teachers College be closed. The report states:
"Your Commission does feel obligated to recommend the prompt discontinuance of the State Teachers College at Frostburg. We are convinced that the cost of operating this unit is not justified by the very small number of its graduates who are entering the school system of the state as teachers. In reaching this conclusion, we have been strongly influenced by the report of our survey staff as to the present condition of the physical facilities at Frostburg. It is apparent that the state faces a heavy capital expenditure if operations at that location are to be continued. Frankly, such an outlay seems to us to be an indefensible waste of public money....The facilities in Towson are adequate to care for all the students at Frostburg who are now studying to become teachers." 
Under Compton's leadership, the institution celebrated its 50th anniversary in the 1949-1950 academic year, enrollment grew from 62 students in 1945 to 500 in 1954, the faculty increased from 13 to 34 members, and the size of the campus increased from eight to 40 acres of land. In addition to plant expansion, she initiated programs in curriculum development, adding a program to train junior high school teachers. R. Bowen Hardesty replaced Compton as President in 1955. The continued southern expansion of the college caused the Brownsville Schools and homes along Park Avenue to be demolished by 1955 to make way for Compton, Allen, and Simpson Halls. A new school-also known as the Lincoln School, and the current home of the University's Public Safety office-was constructed in the late 1950s. However, the building was used for only two years until national integration laws reassigned students to other Frostburg elementary schools. Marking a shift in the educational mission of the institution, the college was granted the right to grant bachelor of arts degrees and the master of education degree in 1960. The school was again renamed in July 1963, this time as Frostburg State College. Frostburg received university status in July 1987, thus being renamed to what it is today, i.e. Frostburg State University.  Continuing the shift and growth of the university, the institution opened a campus in Hagerstown in 1988, which became the University System of Maryland at Hagerstown in January 2005, and offered its first doctoral degree in 2012.
|Edward D. Murdaugh||1902–1909|
|Reginald H. Ridgely||1909–1912|
|Edward F. Webb||1909–1916|
|C. L. Staple||1916–1917|
|John L. Dunkle||1924–1945|
|Lillian Cleveland Compton||1945–1954|
|R. Bowen Hardesty||1955–1964|
|John H. Morey||1965–1969|
|Nelson P. Guild||1969–1985|
|Herbert F. Reinhard, Jr.||1986–1991|
|Catherine R. Gira||1991–2006|
|Jonathan C. Gibralter||2006–2015|
|Name of College||Dean|
|College of Business||Dr. Sudhir Singh|
|College of Education||Dr. Boyce Williams|
|College of Arts and Sciences||Dr. Dorothy Campbell|
Frostburg State University holds institutional accreditation through The Middle States Commission on Higher Education and is recognized by the U.S. Secretary of Education and (CHEA) Council for Higher Education Accreditation. The College of Business holds accreditations from the (AACSB) Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. The College of Education, specified with respective degree programs, holds accreditations from (NCATE) National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education,(CAAHEP) Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs respectively, (CAATE) Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education, and The Council on Accreditation of Parks, Recreation, Tourism and Related Professions (COAPRT).
Frostburg also incorporates for students, the ability to study 140 locations worldwide. Exchange programs and partnerships has included Mary Immaculate College Exchange Program (Ireland), Beijing Normal University in Beijing (China), ESC Rennes School of Business (France), Nagasaki University Exchange Program (Japan), Baden-Wurttemberg Cooperative State University Exchange Program (Germany), Kyung Hee University Exchange Program (Korea).
Established in January 2005, the University System of Maryland at Hagerstown (USM-H) is a regional higher-education system center located in downtown Hagerstown, Maryland. The center offers upper-level undergraduate classes, as well as master’s-level programs. Frostburg State University is one of five universities offering courses at the center. Baccalaureate programs offered by FSU at USMH include: business administration, early childhood education, psychology, sociology, and liberal studies. Graduate programs include: elementary and secondary education.
The Adventure Sports Concentration is offered as a collaborative program with Garrett College in Western Maryland. Ethnobotany, introduced in 2007, is one of only two of programs in the United States on the cultural use of plants. The program emphasizes experiential learning and practical experiences.
The average GPA of an undergraduate student accepted at Frostburg State University is 3.11. Additionally, the combined reading and math SAT scores range from 870–1040 when looking at the 25th though 75th percentiles. In 2008 there was one professor for every 17 students. In 2008, the retention rate was 72%. It takes an average of 4.6 years for students to earn their undergraduate degree. In 2009, Frostburg State University accepted 59% of all 4,495 applicants.
The 2009 undergraduate population was made up of 51% male and 49% female students; the following chart shows the recent change in enrollment of undergraduates.
|Gender||Fall 05||Fall 06||Fall 07||Fall 08||Fall 09|
The graduate population is made up of 30% male and 70% female students; the following chart shows the recent change in enrollment of graduate students.
|Gender||Fall 05||Fall 06||Fall 07||Fall 08||Fall 09|
Geography of students
At Frostburg State, the largest class as of 2009 is the freshman class. However, the classes are fairly evenly distributed. In the 2009 academic year, 1,610 undergraduates lived on campus, while 3,145 lived off campus. Additionally, nine graduate students live on campus, while 629 live off campus.
|Maryland counties||Fall 05||Fall 06||Fall 07||Fall 08||Fall 09|
The top six counties in Maryland from where graduate students come are Allegany, Washington, Garrett, Frederick, Montgomery, and Anne Arundel.
|Maryland Counties||Fall 05||Fall 06||Fall 07||Fall 08||Fall 09|
|States||Fall 05||Fall 06||Fall 07||Fall 08||Fall 09|
The top five states from where graduate students come are Maryland, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Foreign, and Virginia.
|States||Fall 05||Fall 06||Fall 07||Fall 08||Fall 09|
On July 5, 2018, the Mountain East Conference announced that Frostburg State University has accepted an offer of membership beginning with the 2019-20 academic year. Full membership will be contingent upon Frostburg State achieving active membership status in NCAA Division II.
Frostburg State University currently participates in the NCAA Division III level and is a member of the Capital Athletic Conference, as well as participating as an associate member of the New Jersey Athletic Conference for football. However, prior to 2010, FSU was competing as a member of the Allegheny Mountain Collegiate Conference. FSU’s football team was a member of the ACFC, but has moved to Empire 8 in 2011. FSU teams have participated in and won many championships, Baseball having the most championship victories. There will be a total of 19 varsity teams during the 2010–2011 academic year. Various club and intramural sports are available on campus.
The Bobcat Natatorium is located in the Cordts PE Center and houses the men’s and women’s swimming and diving teams.
Bob Wells Field is home to the FSU baseball team, and is long through center field and long down the sidelines. In addition, it has 250-person seating next to the field.
The FSU softball team plays in the Bobcat Field, which opened in 2001. The seating holds around 250.
The Cordts Tennis Complex is home to FSU’s men’s and women’s tennis teams and is located behind the Cordts PE Center. It contains six courts.
The Bobcat Stadium was opened in 1974 and has an eight-lane track, with 4,000 seats. It is home to the FSU football, men’s and women’s soccer, field hockey, men’s and women’s lacrosse, and men’s and women’s track and field teams.
The Bottom Line is the official news outlet of Frostburg State University. Founded in 1948, the newspaper delivers current news, sports, and entertainment, it is primarily ran by its students. The weekly circulation had print peaks of up to 2,500 copies. As of 2013, The Bottom Line relies on web based multimedia as its primary platform. The journalistic intent of the organization is to report news and information that relates to the campus community.
All students are represented by the two branches of the Student Government Association: the Executive Council and the Senate. The SGA develops and administers student self-government policies, provides services to students, communicates with faculty and administration, and decides how the student activity fees are spent.
FSU-TV3 is Frostburg State University's 24-hour educational access channel. It is programmed and operated by students in the Department of Mass Communication, located in the Center for Communication and Information Technology. The Frostburg studio is equipped with state-of-the-art equipment, programmed and operated by both students and faculty each semester. FSU-TV3 presents programming including documentaries, concerts, guest speakers, sports, and city council meetings.
WFWM radio is a public service of Frostburg State University in Frostburg, Maryland. It broadcasts informational, educational, and cultural programming 24 hours a day to the westernmost counties of Maryland and adjacent areas in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. WFWM operates at an assigned frequency of 91.9 MHz. It also operates a translator station, W242AD (96.3 MHz), in Oakland, Maryland. Some of WFWM's daily programming includes locally produced programming and news, as well as the public syndicate network of National Public Radio, the Associated Press, and National Weather Service. Main transmission facilities are located on Dan's Mountain in Midland, Maryland. WFWM also maintains and assists XFSR, the FSU student intranet radio station.
Greek letter organizations
Frostburg State University has a large number of nationally and internationally recognized fraternities, sororities, academic clubs, and student associations’ on-campus. Greek life organizations consist of the National Interfraternity Conference Fraternities, the National Panhellenic Conference Sororities, the National Pan-Hellenic Conference, the Professional Greek Organizations, and the Collegiate Interfraternity Music Council.:
|National Fraternities||National Sororities||National Pan-Hellenic Conference (NPHC)||Professional Fraternities||Collegiate Interfraternity Music Council (CIMC)|
Arts and culture
Performing Arts Center
The Woodward D. Pealer Performing Arts Center (PAC) at Frostburg State University is a $19 million facility constructed in 1994. The PAC features three acoustic rehearsal halls and two drama theaters. The three state-of-the-art performing accommodations contain a 458-seat recital hall, a 338-seat drama theater, and a 150-seat studio theater. It is complete with scenic and costume shops, a box office, practice rooms, faculty and staff offices, dressing rooms, two separate dedicated computer labs and various production facilities. The PAC showcases major performances in ballet, dance, musicals, plays, vocal and instrumental performances from professional to student performers. 
Mountain City Traditional Arts
Mountain City Traditional Arts is dedicated to the education, sales, documentation, and perpetuation of regional art and cultural heritage, and is a partnership of the Allegheny Arts Council, Folklore and Folk life Programming at Frostburg State University, and the Frostburg First Main Street Program.
Children's Literature Centre
The Children's Literature Centre at Frostburg State University is housed within the College of Education. This centre was founded by Dr. William Bingman in 1982 to honor two former education faculty members.
Each year, the centre sponsors the Spring Festival of Children's Literature, which brings together nationally and internationally recognized children's authors and illustrators with teachers, librarians, media specialists, and lovers of children's literature. In 2009, the festival included featured speakers Kadir Nelson, Doreen Rappaport, Matt Tavares, and Gennifer Cholendenko. The centre sponsors several free community events for children, based around children's literature.
- Kristine Vetulani-Belfoure (1962), Nazi concentration camps survivor, author, and teacher
- James A. Graham (1963), USMC, Medal of Honor recipient
- Henry B. Heller (1964), Democrat, member of Maryland House of Delegates
- Donald P. Hutchinson (1967), Baltimore County Executive, 1978–86; member of Maryland House of Delegates, 1967–74; and State Senate, 1975–78.
- John N. Bambacus (1970), former Maryland State Senator, former Mayor of Frostburg
- Debra Monk (1973), Tony and Emmy award-winning actress, has appeared in movie and television: Bulworth, NYPD Blue, Law and Order, Desperate Housewives, and Grey's Anatomy
- Bob Maddox (1973), defensive end, Cincinnati Bengals and Kansas City Chiefs
- John Ellinger (1973), American soccer coach, formerly of the Under 17 United States men's national soccer team and Real Salt Lake of Major League Soccer
- Jim Riggleman (1974), MLB manager, Cincinnati Reds (2018–present), Washington Nationals (2009–2011), Seattle Mariners (2008), Chicago Cubs (1995–1999), and San Diego Padres (1992–1994)
- Kevin Kelly (1975), member of Maryland House of Delegates
- Richard Robert "Ricky" Arnold II (1985), NASA astronaut, selected in 2004 as an Educator Mission Specialist
- Gary Howell (1990), Republican, member of West Virginia House of Delegates
- Robert A. McKee (1991), former member of the Maryland House of Delegates
- Gregory Thomas Garcia (1992), Emmy-winning writer and TV producer, has referenced Frostburg State University in episodes of Yes, Dear, My Name Is Earl, and Raising Hope
- Mike Longabardi (1996), NBA Assistant coach, Cleveland Cavaliers (2016–present), Phoenix Suns (2013–2015), Boston Celtics (2007–2013), and Houston Rockets (2003–2007)
- "History of the university". frostburg.edu. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- "Annual report fy2017" (PDF). Frostburg state university foundation, inc. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- "Dr. Elizabeth Throop Named Provost at Frostburg State University - Frostburg State University". www.frostburg.edu.
- "Frost burg state university". Maryland manual on-line. Maryland state arhives. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
- "ENROLLMENT MONITOR, Fall 2017 -- OFFICIAL CENSUS DATA" (PDF). Frostburg.edu. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- Peck, J. (29 August 2002). "Frost burg State University". www.baltimoresun.com. The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
But the 260-acre Western Maryland...
- "History of the university". www.frostburg.edu. Frostburg State University. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
The Maryland General Assembly authorized...
- "Academic programs". frostburg.edu. Frostburg state university. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- "The university at a glance - fall 2017". frostburg.edu. Frostburg state university. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- "Mission of the university". www.frostburg.edu. Frostburg state university. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
The University draws its students...
- "University accreditation". www.frostburg.edu. Frostburg State University. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Frostburg State University Institutional Identity". www.frostburg.edu. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
The academic experience of undergraduate students includes...
- Journal of proceedings. King Bros., State Printers. 1902. p. 42. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Dunkle, j.l. (1953). Early history of the state teachers college, frost burg, maryland. Ruth Enlow Library, Oakland. p. 72. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "History". Retrieved March 24, 2013.
- "Frostburg Gets Normal School". The Washington Post. August 10, 1898.
- "SCHOOLS AND POLITICS.: Gov. Lowndes, in Address at Corner-stone Laying". The Washington Post. September 5, 1899.
- "Western Maryland historical Library". Retrieved March 27, 2013.
- Andrews, Ronald W. "Historic Site Survey" (PDF). OLD MAIN building. Tri-County Council for Western Maryland, Inc. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
- "100 commencement history". Archived from the original on July 23, 2014. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- "Edmund Dandridge Murdaugh". Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- "History of the University - Frostburg State University".
- "Allegany County Historical Women". Western Maryland Regional Library.
- Dunkle, Jr., john (1953). Early history of State Teachers College, Frostburg. p. 3.
- "Woman to Head Frostburg College". The Washington Post. January 31, 1945.
- "Maryland Manual". Maryland State Archives. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
- "Marylands woman's Hall of fame". Maryland State Archives, 2001. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
- American Council on Education (1947). Higher education in Maryland; a report of a survey with recommendations of the Maryland Commission on Higher Education, 1947. Maryland: Maryland State Government. p. 364.
- "History of the University". Frostburg State University.
- Annual Report of the Commissioner of Education , Volume 1. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1909. p. 593.
- "College Head Quits". The Washington Post. October 21, 1944.
- "Former Presidents FSU". Maryland Government. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- "R. Bowen Hardesty". The Washington Post. February 26, 1964.
- "Faculty Unrest and Resignation Reported at Frostburg State College". The Washington Post. May 1, 1966.
- "Frostburg College Picks Guild as New President". The Washington Post. July 22, 1969.
- "Frostburg State College Gets a New President". The Washington Post. April 20, 1986.
- "FORMER PRESIDENT". Maryland State Government. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- "Graduate Study at FSU". Frostburg State University.
- "Academic programs". Frostburg state university. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
- "Message from the dean of the college of business". frostburg.edu. Frostburg state university. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
- "contact information". frostburg.edu. Frostburg state university. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
- "A message from the dean". frostburg.edu. Frostburg State University. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
- "Accrediting agencies". frostburg.edu. Frostburg state university. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- "AACSB Accreditation". frostburg.edu. Frostburg state university. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
- "Frostburg state university college of education nationally accredited" (PDF). College of education newsletter. 1 (1). Retrieved 3 June 2018.
- "Study abroad programs". frostburg.edu. Frostburg state university. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
- raley, j. (18 February 2008). "Frostburg state wants to expand educational opportunities with china". Cumberland times-news. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
- Frostburg State University. "Recreation and Parks Management" Archived May 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., frostburg.edu.
- Frostburg State University. "Department of Biology" Archived May 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., frostburg.edu.
- "ENROLLMENT PROFILE : FALL 2005-2009" (PDF). Frostburg.edu. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "Frostburg State Set To Join Mountain East Conference" (Press release). Bridgeport, West Virginia: Mountain East Conference. July 5, 2018. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
- "Capital Athletic Conference Adds Frostburg State University For the 2010-11 Season; Gallaudet Withdraws After 2009-10 To Join NEAC - Capital Ath. Conf". Cacsports.com.
- "Frostburg State University and Salisbury University Join Empire 8 Football; Teams Will Play Full Conference Schedule Starting in 2011". Empire8.com.
- "Frostburg State University - Frostburg State Championships & Postseason Appearances". Frostburgsports.com.
- "About us". The bottom line. The bottom line. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
- Student Government Organization Archived June 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- Lombardi, M. "About FSU-TV3". www.frostburg.edu. Frostburg State University. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
FSU-TV3 is Frostburg State University's 24-hour...[permanent dead link]
- "Mass communication department". mirror.frostburg.edu. Frostburg State University. Retrieved 20 October 2015.[permanent dead link]
- "About FSU-TV3". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
The Frostburg studio is now equipped...
- Lombardi, M. "About FSU-TV3". mirror.frostburg.edu. Frostburg State University. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
These shows include documentaries...[permanent dead link]
- "WFWM Public Radio - Frostburg State University". Wfwm.org.
- "Greek Life - Frostburg State University". Involvement.frostburg.edu.
- Skidmore, T. "Woodward d. pealer performing arts center (PAC)". facilities. Frostburg state university. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- Arnold, T. "Performing arts center". frostburg.edu. Frostburg state university. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- "Facilities at FSU - Frostburg State University". Frostburg.edu.
- "Children's Literature Centre - Frostburg State University". Frostburg.edu.
- "Eve K. Belfoure, 79, survivor of nazi labor camp, teacher". The baltimore sun. The baltimore sun. 29 March 2004. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "Eve kristine vetulani (belfoure)". Unites states holocaust memorial museum. Unites states holocaust memorial museum. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "Foundation" (PDF). Frostburg.edu. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "Henry B. Heller". Copyright February 20, 2013 Maryland State Archives. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Donald P. Hutchinson". Copyright September 25, 2013 Maryland State Archives. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "John N. Bambacus". Maryland State Archives. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Debra Monk". 2014 CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "NFL.com Draft 2016 – NFL Draft History: Full Draft Year". Nfl.com.
- "John Ellinger". 2014 MLS. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Jim Riggleman". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Kevin Kelly". 2014 Niche.com Inc. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Richard Robert "Ricky" Arnold II". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Gary Howell". 2014 West Virginia Legislature. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Robert A. McKee". Copyright February 20, 2013 Maryland State Archives. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Gregory Thomas Garcia". 2014 CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Cavaliers hire mike longabardi as assistant coach". NBA. NBA Media Ventures, LLC. 27 January 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "Mike longabardi". NBA. NBA Media Ventures, LLC. 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2018.