|Manufacturer||Government Aircraft Factories|
|First flight||28 August 1952|
The GAF Jindivik is a target drone produced by the Australian Government Aircraft Factories (GAF). The name is from an Aboriginal Australian word meaning the hunted one. Two manned prototypes, were built as the GAF Pika (Project C) as a proof of concept to test the aerodynamics, engine and radio control systems, serialled A92-1/2, 'B-1/2'. The unmanned variant was initially designated the Project B and received serials in the A93 series. Pika is an Aboriginal Australian word meaning flier.
Design and development
The Jindivik was developed as a result of a bilateral agreement between Australia and the UK regarding guided missile testing. While the UK provided the missiles, Australia provided test facilities, such as the Woomera Test Range. As a result of the talks, Australia gained the contract for developing an unmanned target aircraft to Ministry of Supply specification E.7/48. The specification called for an aircraft capable of a 15-minute sortie at 40,000 ft (12 200 m). Development began in 1948, with the first flight of the Pika in 1950 and the first flight of the Jindivik Mk.1 in August 1952.
The manned prototype, known as the Pika, had side air intakes (to make room for the cockpit) and retractable undercarriage operated from a pneumatic reservoir. The unmanned version, the Jindivik, followed the same basic form except that it had a single skid instead of an undercarriage and a dorsal air intake located where the Pika's cockpit was. The Jindivik Mk.1 was powered by an Armstrong Siddeley Adder (ASA.1) turbojet, which had been developed as a disposable engine for the project. Only 14 Mk.1s were ever made. The Mk.2 was powered by a 1,640 lb Armstrong Siddeley Viper engine. The Viper was also intended for a short lifespan – about 10 hours, but a "long life" version was also produced for conventional aircraft.
The control systems were manufactured by various firms including Elliott Brothers, GEC and McMichael, with assistance from the Royal Aircraft Establishment. Control was maintained through an autopilot that received radio commands from the ground, rather than direct flight by a ground controller. Eighteen commands could be issued to the autopilot with six further commands for the operation of other onboard equipment. The drone was launched via a self-steering trolley. At 110 knots (200 km/h; 130 mph), the drone was designed to apply its flaps, push the elevators up and release the trolley. Landing was made at 150–125 knots (278–232 km/h; 173–144 mph). Two controllers (azimuth and elevation) were used to align the drone on the runway. On landing it touched down on its skid and banking would cause the wingtip "shoes" to touch the runway, which controlled its path down the runway as it slowed.
Between 1952 and 1986, a total of 502 aircraft were produced. Examples for use in the United Kingdom were shipped by surface transport, and assembled and tested by Fairey Aviation at Hayes, Middlesex, and Manchester Airport. In 1997, the production line was re-opened to build another 15 for Britain.
Since production began, the Jindivik has been used by the Royal Australian Air Force, the Royal Australian Navy's Fleet Air Arm, and the Royal Air Force. The last Australian Jindiviks were taken out of service in the late 1990s and were replaced by the Kalkara. Most UK tests were conducted by the Royal Aircraft Establishment at their Llanbedr establishment and fired over the nearby Aberporth Airport test range in west Wales. In the UK, the drone was used in the development of the Bristol Bloodhound, English Electric Thunderbird, and Seaslug surface-to-air missiles, and the de Havilland Firestreak air-to-air missile. Small numbers of the aircraft have also been operated by both Sweden, who used the Jindivik 2, and the United States.
- United States Navy – 42 Mk 303B
- Jindivik 1
- Initial aircraft powered by Armstrong Siddeley ASA.1 Adder, 14 built.
- Jindivik 2
- Jindivik Mk 102
- Jindivik 2 modified by Fairey Aviation for use in United Kingdom.
- Jindivik 2A
- development model with 1,750 lbf (7.78 kN) Armstrong Siddeley ASV.8 Viper (1,750 lbf) new intake and wider wings, three built.
- Jindivik 2B
- production model of 2A, 76 built.
- Jindivik Mk 102B
- as for Mk 102 based on 2B airframe
- Jindivik 3A
- ASV.11 Viper engine, with new equipment for higher altitude
- Jindivik 3B
- as 3A but ASV.8 Viper engine
- Mk 103B
- for the United Kingdom
- Mk 203B
- for the Royal Australian Navy
- Mk 303B
- for the United States Navy
Specifications (Jindivik 3B – short span wings)
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1980–81
- Crew: None
- Length: 26 ft 8¾ in (8.15 m)
- Wingspan: 20 ft 9 in (6.32 m)
- Height: 6 ft 9⅞ in (2.08 m)
- Wing area: 76.0 ft² (7.06 m²)
- Airfoil: NACA 64A-106
- Empty weight: 2,900 lb (1,315 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 3,650 lb (1,655 kg)
- Powerplant: 1 × Armstrong Siddeley Viper Mk 201 turbojet, 2,500 lbf (11.1 kN)
- Maximum speed: 490 knots (564 mph, 908 km/h)
- Range: 670 nm (771 mi, 1,240 km)
- Service ceiling: 57,000 ft (17,375 m)
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- RAAF Museum Point Cook, article on GAF Jindivik
- Flight 1952
- Bridgman, Leonard, compiler and editor, "Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1952–53", McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1952, pages 91–92.
- Flight Jindivik in theory and practice
- Directory of U.S. Military Rockets and Missiles Appendix 4: Undesignated Vehicles Jindivik
- Flight 1952 p. 512
- Flight 1956
- Flight 17 February 1961 p. 211
- The Bulletin: Bird of Prey[permanent dead link]
- Dennis et al 2008, p. 294.
- Taylor, H.A., Fairey Aircraft since 1915, 1974, Putnam & Company Limited, ISBN 0-370-00065-X
- Taylor 1980, pp.616–617.
- including nose probe
- Short span wings.
- Dennis, Peter; Grey, Jeffrey; Morris, Ewan; Prior, Robin; Bou, Jean (2008). The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (Second ed.). Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195517842.
- Taylor, John W.R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1980–81. London:Jane's Publishing, 1980. ISBN 0-7106-0705-9.
- "Jindivik in theory and practice". Flight. 1961.
|Jindavik A92-511 at Woomera, South Australia|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to GAF Jindivik.|
- The 'Aerial Target' and 'Aerial Torpedo' in Australia
- GAF Jindivik Target Drone Gallery at adf-serials.com
- ADF Aircraft Serial Numbers
- GAF Jindivik A92-47
- GAF Jindivik Mk.3B, (N11-806) at Australias' Museum of Flight
- Extract from Directory of U.S. Military Rockets and Missiles (Appendix 4: Undesignated Vehicles)
- "Pika and Jindivik" a 1952 Flight article on the two aircraft
- "Jindivik Pilotless Target" a 1959 advertisement in Flight
- "Jindivik – in Theory and Practice" a 1961 Flight article