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For other uses, see GHA (disambiguation).

The letter Ƣ (minuscule: ƣ) has been used in the Latin orthographies of various, mostly Turkic languages, such as Azeri or the Jaᶇalif orthography for Tatar.[1] It usually represents a voiced velar fricative [ɣ] but is sometimes used for a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ]. All orthographies using it have been phased out, so the letter is not well-supported in fonts. It can still be seen on pre-1983 books published by the People’s Republic of China.

Letters Q and q of Sütterlin script

Historically, it is derived from a handwritten form of the small Latin letter q, around 1900. The majuscule is then based on the minuscule. Its use for [ɣ] stems from the linguistic tradition of representing such sounds (and similars) by q in Turkic languages and in transcriptions of Arabic or Persian (compare kaf and qaf).[2]

In alphabetical order, it comes between G and H.

Unrelated letters transcribed gh, typically representing a voiced aspirated stop /gʱ/ rather than a fricative, occur in scripts descended from Brāhmī script.

Modern replacements[edit]

  • Azeri: Ğ, ğ
  • Tatar: Г, г (Cyrillic), Ğ, ğ (Latin)
  • Bashkir: Ғ, ғ
  • Kazakh: Ғ, ғ
  • Uyghur: غ (Arabic), Ғ, ғ (Cyrillic), Gh gh (Latin)
  • Yakut: Ҕ, ҕ
  • Uzbek: , gʻ
  • Tajik: Ғ, ғ


In Unicode, the majuscule Ƣ is encoded in the Latin Extended-B block at U+01A2 and the minuscule ƣ is encoded at U+01A3.[3] The assigned names, "LATIN CAPITAL LETTER OI" and "LATIN SMALL LETTER OI" respectively, are acknowledged by the Unicode Consortium to be mistakes, as gha is unrelated to the letters O and I.[4]