Ise Grand Shrine
Ise Grand Shrine (伊勢神宮 Ise Jingū?), located in the city of Ise, Mie, Japan, is a Shinto shrine dedicated to the goddess Amaterasu. Officially known simply as Jingū (神宮?), Ise Jingū is in fact a shrine complex composed of a large number of Shinto shrines centered on two main shrines, Naikū (内宮?) and Gekū (外宮?).
The Inner Shrine, Naikū (also officially known as "Kotai Jingū"), is located in the town of Uji-tachi, south of central Ise, and is dedicated to the worship of Amaterasu. The Outer Shrine, Gekū (also officially known as "Toyouke Daijingu"), is located about six kilometers from Naikū and dedicated to Toyouke-Ōmikami, the deity of agriculture and industry. Besides Naikū and Gekū, there are an additional 123 Shinto shrines in Ise City and the surrounding areas, 91 of them connected to Naikū and 32 to Gekū.
Purportedly the home of the Sacred Mirror, the shrine is one of Shinto's holiest and most important sites. Access to both sites is strictly limited, with the common public allowed to see little more than the thatched roofs of the central structures, hidden behind four tall wooden fences. The chief priest or priestess of Ise Shrine must come from the Imperial House of Japan and is responsible for watching over the Shrine.
The two main shrines of Ise are joined by a pilgrimage road that passes through the old entertainment district of Furuichi. The region around the shrines consists of the Ise-Shima National Park and numerous other holy and historic sites including the "wedded rocks" (Meoto Iwa), and the Saikū (the site of the Heian period imperial residence).
|Part of a series on|
|Practices and beliefs|
- 1 The establishment of the Shrine
- 2 Chief priestess / chief priest
- 3 Shrine architecture
- 4 Rebuilding the Shrine
- 5 Annual festivals
- 6 Naikū - the inner shrine
- 7 Shrines and facilities
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The establishment of the Shrine
According to the Nihon Shoki, around 2000 years ago the divine Yamatohime-no-mikoto, daughter of the Emperor Suinin, set out from Mt. Miwa in modern Nara Prefecture in search of a permanent location to worship the goddess Amaterasu, wandering for 20 years through the regions of Ohmi and Mino. Her search eventually brought her to Ise, in modern Mie Prefecture, where she is said to have established Naikū after hearing the voice of Amaterasu saying "(Ise) is a secluded and pleasant land. In this land I wish to dwell." Before Yamatohime-no-mikoto's journey, Amaterasu had been worshiped at the imperial residence in Yamato, then briefly at Kasanui in the eastern Nara basin. When Princess Yamatohime-no-mikoto arrived at the village of Uji-tachi, she set up fifty bells to designate the area as enshrined for the goddess Amaterasu, which is why the river is called the Isuzu, or "fifty bells".
Besides the traditional establishment date of 4 BCE, other dates of the 3rd and 5th centuries have been put forward for the establishment of Naikū and Gekū respectively. The first shrine building at Naikū was erected by Emperor Tenmu (678-686), with the first ceremonial rebuilding being carried out by his wife, Empress Jitō, in 692.
The shrine was foremost among a group of shrines which became objects of imperial patronage in the early Heian period. In 965, Emperor Murakami ordered imperial messengers to be sent to report important events to the guardian kami of Japan. These heihaku were initially presented to 16 shrines including the Ise Shrine.
Chief priestess / chief priest
From the late 7th century until the 14th century, the role of chief priestess of Ise Shrine was carried out by a female member of the Imperial House of Japan known as a saiō. According to the Man'yōshū, the first saiō to serve at the shrine was Princess Ōku, daughter of Emperor Tenmu, during the Asuka period. Mention of Ise Shrine's saiō is also made in the Aoi, Sakaki and Yugao chapters of The Tale of Genji as well as in the 69th chapter of The Tales of Ise. The saiō system ended during the turmoil of the Nanboku-chō period.
During the Empire of Japan and the establishment of State Shinto, the position of chief priest of the Ise Shrine was fulfilled by the reigning emperor and the Meiji, Taisho and Shōwa Emperors all played the role of chief priest during their reigns.
Since the disestablishment of State Shinto during the Occupation of Japan, the offices of chief priest and most sacred priestess have been held by former members of the imperial family or their descendants. The current chief priest of the shrine is Takatsukasa Naotake, adoptive son of Kazuko Takatsukasa. He succeeded Kitashirakawa Michihisa, a great-grandson of the Meiji Emperor, in 2007. Kitashirakawa Michihisa succeeded his cousin Kuni Kuniaki, the eldest son of former Prince Kuni Asaakira (brother of Empress Kōjun), in 2001. Kitashirakawa's grandmother, Kitashirakawa Fusako, the seventh daughter of the Meiji Emperor, served as most sacred priestess of the Ise Shrine from 1947 until her death in 1974. She was succeeded in that post by Kazuko Takatsukasa, third daughter of the Shōwa Emperor, who held the post until ill health forced her retirement in 1988. Takatsukasa was succeeded by her younger sister, Atsuko Ikeda. In 2012, Ikeda was joined by her niece Sayako Kuroda, sole daughter of reigning Emperor Akihito, to serve as a high priestess under her.
The architectural style of the Ise shrine is known as shinmei-zukuri, characterized by extreme simplicity and antiquity: its basic principles date back to the Kofun period (250-538 C.E.). The shrine buildings use a special variant of this style called Yuitsu-shinmei-zukuri (唯一神明造?), which may not be used in the construction of any other shrine. The old shrines are dismantled and new ones built on an adjacent site to exacting specifications every 20 years at exorbitant expense, so that the buildings will be forever new and forever ancient and original. The present buildings, dating from 2013, are the 62nd iteration to date and are scheduled for rebuilding in 2033.
The shrine at Naikū is constructed of Japanese cypress. Built on pillars set directly in the ground, the shrine building measures 10.9 by 5.5 meters and includes a raised floor, verandahs all the way around the building and a staircase leading to a single central doorway. The roof is made of thatched reed with ten billets (katsuogi) located on the ridge of the roof, the bargeboards of which project beyond the roof to form the distinctive forked finials (chigi) at the ends of the ridge. The roof ridge is supported by two free-standing columns called the munamochi-bashira. The katsuogi, chigi and munamochi-bashira are stylised forms of older storehouse building techniques that pre-date the introduction of Buddhist architecture in Japan.
The empty site beside the shrine building, the site where the previous shrine once stood and where the next will be built, is called the kodenchi. This area is strewn with large white pebbles and is left totally empty apart from the oi-ya, a small wooden hut containing a wooden pole a little over 2 metres in height called the shin-no-mihashira (new sacred central pole). When a new shrine is built, it is built around the sacred central pole before the removal of the oi-ya, so that the central pole is never seen. The central pole of the old shrine will then have a new oi-ya erected so that the shin-no-mihashira also remains unseen.
The erection of a single post in the center of a sacred area strewn with stones represents the form taken by Japanese places of worship in very ancient times; the shin-no-mihashira would thus be the survival of a symbolism from a very primitive symbolism to the present day.
Rebuilding the Shrine
The shrine buildings at Naikū and Gekū, as well as the Uji Bridge, are rebuilt every 20 years as a part of the Shinto belief of the death and renewal of nature and the impermanence of all things and as a way of passing building techniques from one generation to the next. The twenty year renewal process is called the Sengu. In August, in a long-standing tradition the people who live in Ise are allowed to enter the area around the Inner Sanctum of the Naiku as well as the Geku. Some villages drag a wooden carriage laden with white stones up the Isuzu River onto the grounds of the Naiku. Each participant gets two white stones in a white handkerchief and these allow them to place the stones in the area around the Inner Sanctum. Other villages drag a huge wooden car or Noburi Kuruma laden with white stones to the Uji bridge at the entrance of the grounds of the Naiku. Participants receive two white stones which are also placed in the sacred space around the Inner Sanctum. The entire tradition is called Shiraisshiki and it is very colourful with every participant wearing a 'happi' coat representing a particular village. The rebuilding of the main shrine takes place on an adjacent site next to the old, and each rebuilding alternates between the two sites. The next scheduled rebuilding of Naikū is due in 2033 on the lower, northern site.
In the lead-up to the rebuilding of the shrines, a number of festivals are held to mark special events. The Okihiki Festival is held in the spring over two consecutive years and involves people from surrounding towns dragging huge wooden logs through the streets of Ise to Naikū and Gekū. In the lead-up to the 2013 rebuilding, the Okihiki festival was held in 2006 and 2007. A year after the completion of the Okihiki festival, carpenters begin preparing the wood for its eventual use in the Shrine.
From the late seventh century, when the festivals and offerings of Ise Shrine became more formalised, a number of annual events have been performed at both Naikū and Gekū. The Tsukinamisai, which was held in June and December, as well as the Kannamesai Festival in September, were the only three offerings performed by the Saiō, an imperial princess who served as high priestess of the shrine until the 14th century. These offerings are based on the cycle of the agricultural year and are still performed today.
The first important ceremony of the modern calendar year is the Kinensai, where prayers are offered for a bountiful harvest. Kannamesai, where prayers for fair weather and sufficient rains are made, is held twice a year in May and August at both Naikū and Gekū.
The most important annual festival held at Ise Shrine is the Kannamesai Festival 神嘗祭. Held in October each year, this ritual makes offerings of the first harvest of crops for the season to Amaterasu. An imperial envoy carries the offering of rice harvested by the Emperor himself to Ise, as well as five-coloured silk cloth and other materials, called heihaku.
Besides the agricultural ceremonies already mentioned, ceremonies and festivals are held throughout the year at both Naikū and Gekū to celebrate such things as the new year, the foundation of Japan, past emperors, purification rituals for priests and court musicians, good sake fermentation and for the Emperor's birthday. There are also daily food offerings to the shrine kami held both in the mornings and evenings.
Naikū - the inner shrine
The official name of the main shrine of Naikū is Kotaijingu and is the place of worship of the goddess Amaterasu. The grounds of Naikū contain a number of structures, including the following:
The Uji Bridge
This 100 meter wooden bridge, built in a traditional Japanese style, stretches across the Isuzu River at the entrance of Naikū. Like the shrine buildings of Naikū, it is rebuilt every 20 years as a part of the Shikinen Sengū ceremony. On crossing the bridge, the path turns to the right along the banks of the Isuzu river and passes through large landscaped gardens.
After crossing a short, wide bridge, pilgrims to the shrine encounter the Temizusha, a small, roofed structure containing a pool of water for use in ritual purification. Visitors are encouraged to wash their hands and rinse their mouths at Temizusha as a symbolic act to clean the mind and body of impurity. The first of two large torii gates stands just beyond the Temizusha.
Saikan and Anzaisho
After passing the first large torii gate, the Purification Hall (Saikan), and the hall for visitors from the imperial household (Anzaisho) is located to the left. The Saikan is used by shrine priests to purify themselves before performing ceremonies at the shrine. They are required to spend one or two nights to free their minds of worldly issues, partaking in baths and eating meals cooked with the sacred fire.
This hall for special prayer, located just after the second large torii gate, is open to the public for the offering of individual prayers to the kami, the giving of donations and the purchase of special talisman of protection, amulets and hanging scrolls of Amaterasu Omikami.
This hall contains the sacred fire used to cook all of the food offerings to the kami of Ise Shrine. Rice and other offerings cooked on the sacred fire are stored in a box made of Japanese cypress, then purified at the Haraedo immediately in front of the Imibiyaden before being offered to the kami.
Kotaijingu - the main shrine
The pilgrimage path then approaches the main shrine of Naikū by a set of large stone steps. Visitors are supposed to keep to the sides of the path as the middle is set aside for the goddess Amaterasu. Etiquette is the same as for most Shinto shrines. Though the actual shrine is hidden behind a large fence, pilgrims can approach the gate to offer their prayers. Photographs in this area are prohibited and this restriction is strictly policed.
Kotaijingu is said to hold the Sacred Mirror, one of three members of the Imperial Regalia of Japan said to have been given to the first emperor by the gods. From a path that follows the line of the outer wall, the distinctive roof of the shrine building can be seen through the trees. In front of the walled shrine compound can be seen an open area which was the location of the rebuilding of the shrine in 2013.
Shrines and facilities
There are 125 shrines within Ise Shrine.
|Kōtai Jingū (Naikū)||皇大神宮||Amaterasu Ōmikami
Ameno Tajikarao no kami
Yorozuhata-Toyoakitsuhime no mikoto
|Ujitachi, Ise city|
|Toyouke Daijingū (Gekū)||豊受大神宮||Toyouke no Ōmikami
3 Mitomo no kami
|Toyokawa, Ise city|
|1||Aramatsuri no miya||荒祭宮||Amaterasu Ōmikami no Aramitama||天照大御神荒御魂||in Naikū|
|2||Tsukiyomi no miya||月讀宮||Tsukiyomi no mikoto||月讀尊||Nakamura, Ise city|
|3||Tsukiyomi no Aramitama no miya||月讀荒御魂宮||Tsukiyomi no mikoto no Aramitama||月讀尊荒御魂||in Tsukiyomi no miya|
|4||Izanagi no miya||伊佐奈岐宮||Izanagi no mikoto||伊佐奈岐尊||in Tsukiyomi no miya|
|5||Izanami no miya||伊佐奈弥宮||Izanami no mikoto||伊佐奈弥尊||in Tsukiyomi no miya|
|6||Takihara no miya||瀧原宮||Amaterasu Ōmikami no Mitama||天照大御神御魂||Takihara, Taiki town,
|7||Takihara no narabi no miya||瀧原竝宮||Amaterasu Ōmikami no Mitama||天照大御神御魂||in Takihara no miya|
|8||Izawa no miya||伊雑宮||Amaterasu Ōmikami no Mitama||天照大御神御魂||Isobe-chō-Kaminogō,
|9||Yamatohime no miya||倭姫宮||Yamatohime no miya||倭姫命||Kusube, Ise city|
|10||Kazahinomi no miya||風日祈宮||Shinatsuhiko no mikoto
Shinatobe no mikoto
|1||Taka no miya||多賀宮||Toyouke no Ōmikami no Aramitama||豊受大御神荒御魂||in Gekū|
|2||Tsuchi no miya||土宮||Ōtsuchi no mioya no kami||大土御祖神||in Gekū|
|3||Tsukiyomi no miya||月夜見宮||Tsukiyomi no mikoto
Tsukiyomi no mikoto no Aramitama
|Miyajiri, Ise city|
|4||Kaze no miya||風宮||Shinatsuhiko no mikoto
Shinatobe no mikoto
|1||Asakuma jinja||朝熊神社||Ōtoshi no kami
Kokemushi no kami
Asakuma no mizu no kami
|Asama, Ise city|
|2||Asakuma mimae jinja||朝熊御前神社||Asakuma no mimae no kami||朝熊御前神||in Asakuma jinja|
|3||Sonai (Sonō) jinja||園相神社||Sonahihiko no mikoto
Mimae no kami
|Tsumura, Ise city|
|4||Kamo jinja||鴨神社||Ishikorowake no mikoto
Mimae no kami
|5||Tanoe jinja||田乃家神社||Ōkami no Misamukawa no kami||大神御滄川神||Yano, Tamaki,
|6||Tanoe mimae jinja||田乃家御前神社||Mimae no kami||御前神||same as Tanoe jinja|
|7||Kano jinja||蚊野神社||Ōkami no mikage no-
kawa no kami
|8||Kano mimae jinja||蚊野御前神社||Mimae no kami||御前神||same as Kano jinja|
|9||Yuta jinja||湯田神社||Ōtoshi no mioya no mikoto
Mimae no kami
|10||Ōtsuchi mioya jinja||大土御祖神社||Ōkunitama no mikoto
Mizusasarahiko no mikoto
Mizusasarahime no mikoto
|Kusube, Ise city|
|11||Kunitsu mioya jinja||国津御祖神社||Ujihime no mikoto
Tamurahime no mikoto
|in Ōtoshi mioya jinja|
|12||Kuchira jinja||朽羅神社||Chiyorihime no mikoto
Chiyorihiko no mikoto
|13||Ujiyōda jinja||宇治山田神社||Yamatahime no mikoto||山田姫命||Nakamura, Ise city|
|14||Tsunaga jinja||津長神社||Sunagahime no mikoto||栖長比賣命||Uji-Imazaike, Ise city
(in front of Kōtai Jingū)
|15||Katada jinja||堅田神社||Samitsuhime no mikoto||佐見都比女命||Futami-chō-Chaya,
|16||Ōmizu jinja||大水神社||Ōyamazumi no mioya no mikoto||大山祇御祖命||Uji-imazaike, Ise city
(in front of Kōtai Jingū)
|17||E jinja||江神社||Nagakuchime no mikoto
Ōtoshi no mioya no mikoto
Ukano mitama no mikoto
|Futami-chō-E, Ise city|
|18||Kōzaki jinja||神前神社||Arasakihime no mikoto||荒崎比賣命||Futami-chō-Matsushita,
|19||Awamiko jinja||粟皇子神社||Susanō no mikoto no Mitama no-
michinushi no mikoto
|20||Kawara jinja||川原神社||Tsukiyomi no mikoto no Mitama||月讀尊御魂||Sōchi, Ise city|
|21||Kugutsuhime jinja||久具都比賣神社||kugutsuhime no mikoto
kugutsuhiko no mikoto
MImae no kami
|Kamikugu, Watarai town,
|22||Narahara jinja||奈良波良神社||Naraharahime no mikoto||那良原比女命||Miyako, Tamaki town,
|23||Sugihara jinja||棒原神社||Ama no subarume no mikoto-
Mimae no kami
|Kami-Tanui, Tamaki town,
|24||Mifune jinja||御船神社||Ōkami no mikage no-
kawa no mikoto
|大神御蔭川神||Toba, Taki town,
|25||Sakatekunari jinja||坂手国生神社||Takaminakami no mikoto
(Takaminakami no kami)
|高水上命 (高水上神)||Kami-Tanui, Tamaki town,
|26||Satakunari jinja||狭田國生神社||Hayakawahiko no mikoto
Hayakawahime no mikoto
Yamazue no Mitama
|Sata, Tamaki town,
|27||Takihara jinja||多岐原神社||Manako no Kami||真奈胡の神||Misegawa, Taiki town,
|1||Kusanagi jinja||草奈伎神社||Mishirushi no tsurugi no kami||御剣仗神 (標劔仗神)||Tokiwa, Ise city|
|2||Ōmakunari jinja||大間国生神社||Ōwakako no mikoto
Otowakako no mikoto
|Tokiwa, Ise city|
|3||Watarai kuimii jinja||度会国御神社||Hikokunimigakitakeyotsuka no mikoto||彦国見賀岐建與束命||in Gekū|
|4||Watarai ōkunitamahime jinja||度会大国玉比賣神社||Ōkunitama no mikoto
Mizusasarahime no mikoto
|5||Tanoe ōmizu jinja||田上大水神社||Ogoto kan-nushi||小事神主||Fujisato, Ise city|
|6||Tanoe ōmizu mimae jinja||田上大水御前神社||Miyako||宮子||in Tanoe ōmizu jinja|
|7||Shitomi jinja||志等美神社||Kukunochi no kami||久久能智神||Tsujikuru, Ise city|
|8||Ōkōchi jinja||大河内神社||Ōyamazumi no kami||大山祇神||in Shitomi jinja|
|9||Kiyonoiba jinja||清野井庭神社||Kayanohime no mikoto||草野姫命||Tokiwa, Ise city|
|10||Takagawara jinja||高河原神社||Tsukiyomi no mikoto no Mitama||月夜見尊御魂||in Tsukiyomi no miya
|11||Kawara jinja||河原神社||Kawa no kami||川神||Misono-chō-Shingai,
|12||Kawarabuchi jinja||河原淵神社||Sawahime no mikoto||澤姫命||Funae, Ise city|
|13||Yamazue jinja||山末神社||Ōyamatsuhime no mikoto||大山津姫命||in Gekū|
|14||Usunono jinja||宇須乃野神社||Usunome no mikoto||宇須乃女命||Misono-chō-Takabuku,
|15||Mike jinja||御食神社||Minato no miketsu kami||水戸御饗都||Kamiyashiro, Ise city|
|16||Obata jinja||小俣神社||Uka no Mitama no kami||宇賀御魂神||Obata-chō-motomachi,
|1||Kamoshimo jinja||鴨下神社||Ishikorowake no mikoto
Kamohiko no mikoto
Kamohime no mikoto
|2||Tsubura jinja||津布良神社||Tsuburahiko no mikoto
Tsuburahime no mikoto
|3||Ashihara jinja||葦原神社||Sasatsuhiko no mikoto
Ukano Mitama no mioya no mikoto
Ikarihime no mikoto
|in Tsukiyomi no miya
|4||Ogoso jinja||小社神社||Takaminakami mikoto)||高水上命||Ogoso-Sone, Tamaki,
|5||Komori jinja||許母利神社||Awashima no kami no mitama||粟嶋神御魂||same as Kōzaki jinja|
|6||Niikawa jinja||新川神社||Niikawahime no mikoto||新川比賣命||same as Tsunaga jinja|
|7||Iwai jinja||石井神社||Takaminakami no mikoto||高水上命||same as Tsunaga jinja|
|8||Uji no nuki jinja||宇治乃奴鬼||Takaminakami no mikoto||高水上命||Ōtoshi mioya jinja|
|9||Kanumi jinja||加努弥神社||Inayorihime no mikoto||稲依比女命||Kanome (Kanomi), Ise city
|10||Kawaai jinja||川相神社||Hosokawa no mizu no kami||細川水神||same as Ōmizu jinja|
|11||Kumabuchi jinja||熊淵神社||Takiōtoji no kami||多支大刀自神||same as Ōmizu jinja|
|12||Arasaki jinja||荒前神社||Arasakihime no mikoto||荒前比賣命||same as Kōzaki jinja|
|13||Najime jinja||那自売神社||Ōminakami no mioya no mikoto
Mimonosusohime no mikoto
|same as Ujiyōda jinja|
|14||Ashidate jinja||葦立弖神社||Tamayarahime no mikoto||玉移良比女命||same as Kunitsu mioya jinja|
|15||Mumino jinja||牟弥乃神社||Samukawahiko no mikoto
Samukawahime no mikoto
|same as Mifune jinja|
|16||Kagaminomiya jinja||鏡宮神社||Iwanoue no futatsu no mikagami no mitama||岩上二面神鏡霊||Asama, Ise city|
|1||Igari jinja||伊我理神社||Igarihime no mikoto||伊我理比女命||in Gekū|
|2||Agata jinja||縣神社||Agata no kami||縣神||same as Usuno no jinja|
|3||Inaka jinja||井中神社||Inaka no kami||井中神||same as Ikari jinja|
|4||Uchikake jinja||打縣神社||Uchikake myōjin||打縣名神||in Shitomi jinja|
|5||Akasaki jinja||赤崎神社||Arasakihime no mikoto||荒崎姫命||Toba, Toba city|
|6||Mori jinja||毛理神社||Ki no kami||木神||same as Kawara jinja
|7||Ōtsu jinja||大津神社||Ashihara kami
(Ashihara no kami)
|8||Shioya jinja||志宝屋神社||Shiotsuchi no oji||塩土老翁||Ōminato, Ise city|
|1||Takimatsuri no kami||滝祭神||Takimatsuri no Ōkami||瀧祭大神||in Naikū
|2||Okitama no Kami||興玉神||Okitama no Kami||興玉神||in Naikū Shogū
|3||Miyabi no kami||宮比神||Miyabi no kami||宮比神||in Naikū Shogū
|4||Yanohahiki no kami||屋乃波比伎神||Yanohahiki no kami||屋乃波比伎神||in Naikū Shogū
|5||Misakadono||御酒殿||Misakadono no kami||御酒殿神||in Naikū|
|6||Mishine no mikura||御稲御倉||Mishine no mikura no kami||御稲御倉神||in Naikū|
|7||Yuki no mikura||由貴御倉||Yuki no mikura no kami||由貴御倉神||inNaikū|
|8||Miya no meguri no kami||四至神||Miya no meguri no kami||四至神||in Naikū
|9||Kan-Hatori hatadono jinja||神服織機殿神社||Kan-hatori hatadono no-
mamori no kami
|神服織機殿神社鎮守神||Ōgaito, Matsusaka city|
|10||Massha of Kan-Hatori hatadono jinja; 8 shrines||神服織機殿神社末社8所||Kan-hatori hatadono no-
mamori no mimae no kami
|神服織機殿神社鎮守御前神||in Kan-Hatori hatadono jinja|
|11||Kan-Omi hatadono jinja||神麻績機殿神社||Kan-Omi hatadono no-
mamori no kami
|神麻績機殿神社鎮守神||Iguchinaka, Matsusaka city|
|12||Massha of Kan-Omi hatadono jinja; 8 shrines||神麻績機殿神社末社8所||Kan-Omi hatadono no mamori no-
mimae no kami
|神麻績機殿神社鎮守御前神||in Kan-Omi hatadono jinja|
|13||Mishiodono jinja||御塩殿神社||Mishiodono no mamori no kami||御塩殿神社鎮守神||Futami-chō-Shō, Ise city|
|14||Aedohashihime jinja||饗土橋姫神社||Ujibashi no mamori no kami||宇治橋鎮守神||Uji-Imazaike, Ise city
(in front of Kōtai Jingū)
|15||Ōyamatsumi jinja||大山祇神社||Ōyamazumi no kami||大山祇神||in Naikū|
|16||Koyasu jinja||子安神社||Konohanasakuyahime no mikoto||木華開耶姫命||in Naikū
(side of Ōyamatsumi jinja)
|1||Misakadono||御酒殿||Misakadono no kami||御酒殿神||in Gekū|
|2||Miya no meguri no kami||四至神||Miya no meguri no kami||四至神||in Gekū
|3||Kami no mii no jinja||上御井神社||Kami no mii no mamori no kami||上御井鎮守神||in Gekū|
|4||Shimo no mii no jinja||下御井神社||Shimo no mii no mamori no kami||下御井鎮守神||in Gekū|
|1||Wakamiya jinja||若宮神社||Wakamiya no kami||若宮神||in Takihara no miya|
|2||Nagayuke jinja||長由介神社||Nagayuke no kami||長由介神||in Takihara no miya|
|3||Kawashima jinja||川島神社||Kawashima no kami||川島神||same as Nagayuke jinja|
|4||Saminaga jinja||佐美長神社||Shimonomii no mamori no kami||大歳神||Isobe-chō-Erihara, Shima city|
|5||Saminaga mimae jinja; 4 shrines||佐美長御前神社||Saminaga mimae no kami||佐美長御前神||in Saminaga jinja|
|1||Yahirodono of Kan-Hatori hatadono jinja||神服織機殿神社八尋殿||Nigitae (silk)||和妙||in Kan-Hatori hatadono jinja|
|2||Yahirodono of Kan-Omi hatadono jinja||神服麻績殿神社八尋殿||Aratae (hemp)||荒妙||in Kan-Omi hatadono jinja|
|神宮神田||Goryō-mai (rice)||御料米||Kusube-chō, Ise city|
|4||Izawa no miya no omita
|伊雑宮の御神田||Goryō-mai (rice)||御料米||Isobe-chō-Erihara, Shima city
(side of Izawa no miya)
|御塩浜||brine||御塩||Futami-chō-Nishi, Ise city|
|Mishio (salt)||御塩||in Mishiodono jinja|
|神宮御園||vegetables and fruits||野菜・果物||Futami-chō-Mizoguchi, Ise city|
|鰒調製所||noshi awabi (dried abalone)||熨斗鰒||Kuzaki-chō, Toba city|
|干鯛調製所||Hidai (dried sea bream)||干鯛||Shinojima, Minamichita town,
Chita District, Aichi Prefecture
|土器調製所||earthenwares||土器||Minomura, Meiwa town,
- Ise Jingu official homepage, http://www.isejingu.or.jp/english/gegu/gegu.htm
- Ise Jingu official homepage
- Hoffman, Michael, "Symbols of heaven on Earth", Japan Times, March 14, 2010, p. 8.
- Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697, trans. W. G. Aston (Rutland, Vt.: Charles E. Tuttle, 1972), 176.
- Bocking 2013, p. 51.
- Encyclopædia Britannica - Ise Shrine http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9368233
- Sacred Places - Ise Shrine http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/ise.html
- Teeuwen 2000, pp. 74-75.
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1962). Studies in Shinto and Shrines, pp. 116-117.
- Sir Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture (p724), Architectural Press (1996), ISBN 0-7506-2267-9
- Kenzo Tange and Noboru Kawazoe, Ise: Prototype of Japanese Architecture (p 167), Cambridge, Massachusetts: M.I.T. Press, 1965.
- Saikū Historical Museum information booklet, "A Town of Bamboo Illumined Once Again".
- http://www.isejingu.or.jp/english/maturi/maturi5.htm - Annual Cycle of Ceremonies and Rice, Official Ise Jingu homepage.
- http://www.isejingu.or.jp/english/maturi/maturi2.htm - Annual Cycle of Ceremonies, Official Ise Jingu homepage.
- The official Ise Jingu homepage: Naiku, http://www.isejingu.or.jp/english/naigu/naigu.htm
- "Oise mairi" (『お伊勢まいり』, Jingū-shichō, Ise-Jingū-sūkei-kai, July 1, 2006) p.105-118
- "Oise mairi" p.72
- "Oise mairi" p.9
- "Jingū sessha massha junhai" (『神宮摂社末社順拝』, Sarutahiko jinja, March 31, 1989) The second volume (下巻) p.87
- "Jingū sessha massha junhai", The second volume (下巻) p.31, No Hiragana in "Oise mairi" .
- Katada jinja is written at "伊勢市二見町江 (Futami-chō-E, Ise city)" in "Oise mairi", but this shrine is in Futami-chō-Chaya. Futami-chō-Chaya was independent of Futami-chō-E on November 1st 2005, and Futami-chō-Chaya is often writeen Futami-chō-E by a mistake. Katada jinja is mapped "二見町茶屋 (Futami-chō-Chaya)" in these maps, not Futami-chō-E.
- "Jingū sessha massha junhai", The second volume (下巻) p.69
- "Jingū sessha massha junhai", The first volume (上巻) p.65
- "Oisesan wo arukō (『お伊勢さんを歩こう』, Ise-Jingū-sūkei-kai, April 1, 2005) p.15, No Hiragana in "Oise mairi" and "Jingū sessha massha junhai".
- "Oisesan wo arukō" p.21
- "Jingū sessha massha junhai", The second volume (下巻) p.15
- "Jingū sessha massha junhai", The second volume (下巻) p.4
- "Jingū sessha massha junhai", The second volume (下巻) p.37
- "Oisesan wo arukō" p.16
- "Oisesan wo arukō" p.17
- "Oisesan wo arukō" p.15
- "Oisesan wo arukō" p.8
- "Oisesan wo arukō" p.4
- "Oisesan wo arukō" p.5
- "Oisesan wo arukō" p.24
- "Oisesan wo arukō" p.24
- "Oisesan wo arukō" p.27
- "Oisesan wo arukō" p.31
- "Oisesan wo arukō" p.29
- "Oise mairi" p.98-103
- Aston, William George (1896). Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697. Society.
- Bocking, Brian (2013). The Oracles of the Three Shrines: Windows on Japanese Religion. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-136-84552-9.
- Breen, John; Teeuwen, Mark (2000). Shinto in History: Ways of the Kami. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2363-4.
- Fletcher, Sir Banister; Cruickshank, Dan (1996). Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture. Architectural Press. ISBN 978-0-7506-2267-7.
- Hvass, Svend M. (1998). Ise - Japan's Ise Shrines - Ancient yet New. Copenhagen. Aristo Publishing. ISBN 87-985103-3-9
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1962). Studies in Shinto and Shrines.] Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 399449
- Kenzo Tange; Noboru Kawazoe (1965). Ise: Prototype of Japanese Architecture. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-20006-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ise Shrine.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ise.|
- Official website
- Jingu - Mie Tourism Guide (Mie Prefecture)
- Ise Jingu - Iseshima General Sightseeing Guide
- Ise City Tourist Industry Society
- New York Public Library Digital Gallery, early photograph of Ise Shrine compound