Haplogroup O-P31

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Haplogroup O-P31
Ancestor O-M175
Defining mutations P31, M268

In human genetics, Haplogroup O-P31 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup O-P31 is a descendant branch of the greater Haplogroup O-M175.


Haplogroup O-P31 is notable for the peculiarities of its geographical distribution. Like all clades of Haplogroup O-M175, Haplogroup O-P31 is found only among the males of modern Eastern Eurasian populations. However, Haplogroup O-P31 is generally found only among certain populations, such as the Austroasiatic peoples of India, Bangladesh and Southeast Asia, the Nicobarese of the Nicobar Islands in the Indian Ocean, Koreans, and Japanese.

Besides its widespread and patchy distribution, Haplogroup O-P31 is also notable for the fact that it can be divided into two major subclades that show almost completely disjunct distribution. One of these subclades, Haplogroup O-M95, is found among some (mostly tribal) populations of South and Southeast Asia, as well as among the Khmers of Cambodia and the Balinese of Indonesia. The other major subclade, Haplogroup O-M176, is found almost exclusively among the Japanese, Koreans, and some Manchurians.[citation needed]


Phylogenetic History[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
O-M175 26 VII 1U 28 Eu16 H9 I O* O O O O O O O O O O
O-M119 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1* O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a
O-M101 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1a O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1 O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a
O-M50 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H10 H O1b O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2
O-P31 26 VII 1U 33 Eu16 H5 I O2* O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2
O-M95 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H11 G O2a* O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a1 O2a1
O-M88 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H12 G O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1a O2a1a
O-SRY465 20 VII 1U 35 Eu16 H5 I O2b* O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b
O-47z 5 VII 1U 26 Eu16 H5 I O2b1 O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1a O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1
O-M122 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3* O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3
O-M121 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3a O3a O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1a O3a1a
O-M164 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3b O3b O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a1b O3a1b
O-M159 13 VII 1U 31 Eu16 H6 L O3c O3c O3a3a O3a3a O3a3 O3a3 O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a
O-M7 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d* O3c O3a3b O3a3b O3a4 O3a4 O3a3b O3a3b O3a3b O3a2b O3a2b
O-M113 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d1 O3c1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 - O3a4a O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a2b1 O3a2b1
O-M134 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e* O3d O3a3c O3a3c O3a5 O3a5 O3a3c O3a3c O3a3c O3a2c1 O3a2c1
O-M117 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1* O3d1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a5a O3a5a O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a2c1a O3a2c1a
O-M162 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1a O3d1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a5a1 O3a5a1 O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a2c1a1 O3a2c1a1

Original Research Publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

Phylogenetic Trees[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup O subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree (Karafet 2008) and subsequent published research.

  • O-P31 (P31, M268)
    • O-M95 (M95)
      • O-M88 (M88, M111)
    • O-P49 (SRY465, P49, 022454)
      • O-47z (47z)

See also[edit]


Y-DNA O Subclades[edit]

Y-DNA Backbone Tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
IJ   K
I J    LT [χ 5]  K2
L T [χ 6] NO [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]     K2c  K2d  K2e [χ 9]
N   O   K2b1 [χ 10]     P
K2b1a [χ 11]   K2b1b  K2b1c  M P1 P2
K2b1a1   K2b1a2   K2b1a3 S [χ 12] Q   R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present Haplogroup K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a, also known as Haplogroup NO).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is similar to the former Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup K2b1a has also been known as Haplogroup S-P405.
  12. ^ Haplogroup S (S-M230), also known as K2b1a4, was previously known as Haplogroup K5.



Works Cited[edit]



Further reading[edit]