Heonjong of Joseon

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Heonjong of Joseon
조선 헌종
King of Joseon
Reign13 December 1834 – 25 July 1849
Coronation18 December 1834
PredecessorSunjo of Joseon
SuccessorCheoljong of Joseon
RegentQueen Sunwon (1834 – 1841)
Born(1827-09-08)8 September 1827
Gyeongchunjeon, Changdeok Palace, Seoul, Joseon Korea
Died25 July 1849(1849-07-25) (aged 21)
Junghuidang, Changdeok Palace, Seoul, Joseon Korea
SpouseQueen Hyohyeon
Queen Hyojeong
IssueUnnamed daughter
Posthumous name
헌종경문위무명인철효대왕 憲宗經文緯武明仁哲孝大王
HouseHouse of Yi
FatherMunjo of Joseon
MotherQueen Sinjeong
Heonjong of Joseon
Revised RomanizationHeonjong
Art name
Revised RomanizationWonheon
Birth name
Revised RomanizationI Hwan
McCune–ReischauerI Hwan
Courtesy name
Revised RomanizationMuneung

Heonjong of Joseon (8 September 1827 – 25 July 1849) was the 24th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. He was the grandson of Sunjo. His father was Crown Prince Hyomyeong (posthumously named Munjo of Joseon), who died at the age of 20 before becoming king, and his mother was Queen Sinjeong of the Pungyang Jo clan. Heonjong was born three years before Hyomyeong's death.


Yi Hwan was born to Crown Princess Jo and Crown Prince Hyomyeong on 8 September 1827 in Gyeongchunjeon (경춘전, 景春殿) within Changdeok Palace. It was said that when the day before he was born, she dreamt of giving her son a box containing a tree carved with jade, and on the day of his birth, a group of cranes flew from the front room and went around for a long time. She and the others considered it to be strange.[1]

The young Heonjong ascended to the throne in 1834 at the age of 7 after his grandfather, King Sunjo, died. Like King Sunjo, Heonjong took the throne at a young age and his grandmother, Queen Sunwon served as queen regent. Although King Heonjong ascended to the throne, he had no political control over Joseon. When Heonjong reached adulthood, Queen Sunwon refused to give up control. In 1840, the control over the kingdom was then handed down to the Andong Kim clan, the family of his grandmother Queen Sunwon, following the anti-Catholic Gihae persecution of 1839.

King Heonjong died after reigning for 15 years in 1849 at the age of 21. He was buried at the Gyeongneung tomb within the Donggureung Tomb Cluster in Seoul, where several kings and queens of the Joseon Dynasty were buried, with Queen Hyohyeon and Queen Hyojeong.[2] As King Heonjong died without an heir, the throne passed to a distant descendant of King Yeongjo, King Cheoljong.

As was customary with the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty, the chronicle of Heonjong's reign was compiled after his death, in 1851. The compilation of the 16-volume chronicle was supervised by Jo In-yeong, her mother's uncle.


  1. Queen Hyohyeon of the Andong Kim clan (27 April 1828 – 18 October 1843) (효현왕후 김씨)[3][4]
  2. Queen Hyojeong of the Namyang Hong clan (6 March 1831 – 2 January 1904) (효정왕후 홍씨)[5]
  3. Royal Noble Consort Gyeongbin of the Gwangsan Kim clan (27 August 1832 – 21 April 1907) (경빈 김씨)[6]
  4. Royal Noble Consort Jeongbin of the Haepyeong Yun clan (정빈 윤씨) (1833 - ?)[7][8]
  5. Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Gimhae Kim clan (January 1814 – 12 November 1895) (숙의 김씨)[9][10]
    1. Unnamed daughter (옹주) (1848 - 1848); died prematurely

In popular culture[edit]

Full posthumous name[edit]

  • King Heonjong Jangsuk Chegeon Gyegeuk Jungjeong Gwangdae Jiseong Gwangdeok Hongun Janghwa Gyungmun Wimu Myeongin Cheolhyo the Great of Joseon
  • 헌종장숙체건계극중정광대지성광덕홍운장화경문위무명인철효대왕
  • 獻宗莊肅體健繼極中正光大至聖廣德弘運章化經文緯武明仁哲孝大王


See also[edit]


  1. ^ 헌종 대왕 행장(行狀)
  2. ^ "Donggureung Tombs, Gyeonggi, South Korea - 동구릉 (東九陵), 경기 구리시". Asian Historical Architecture. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  3. ^ Posthumously known as "Hyohyeon, The Seong Empress" (효현성황후)
  4. ^ Daughter of Kim Jo-geun and Lady Hanseong of the Hansan Yi clan
  5. ^ Daughter of Hong Jae-ryeong and Lady Yeonchang of the Juksan Ahn clan
  6. ^ Daughter of Kim Jae-cheong and Lady Sin of the Pungsan Sin clan
  7. ^ Her older brother, Yun Yong-seon, was the adoptive great-grandfather of Empress Sunjeong. Also making her the adoptive great-grandaunt of the empress.
  8. ^ Daughter of Yun Chi-hui and Lady Jo of the Pungyang Jo clan
  9. ^ Daughter of Kim Hak-seong
  10. ^ Posthumously called "Lady Kim Suk-ui Hwarakdang of the Gimhae Kim clan" (숙의 화락당 김씨)
Heonjong of Joseon
Born: 8 September 1827 Died: 25 July 1849
Regnal titles
Preceded by King of Joseon
with Queen Sunwon (1834–1841)
Succeeded by