List of monarchs of Korea

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Monarchs of Korea
Sunjong of the Korean Empire.jpg
Sunjong, the last Emperor of Korea
Details
First monarch Dangun (legendary)
Last monarch Sunjong
Formation 2333 BC (legendary)
Abolition August 29, 1910
Residence Varies according to Dynasty, most recently the Changdeokgung in Seoul.
Pretender(s) Disputed
Yi Won
Lee Haewon

The Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their fall.

This list includes the monarchs' Romanized posthumous or temple names and reign dates. Names are romanized according to the South Korean Revised Romanization of Korean. McCune-Reischauer romanizations may be found at the articles about the individual monarchs.

Gojoseon[edit]

Gojoseon (c. 2333 ? – 108 BCE) was the first Korean kingdom. It is said to have been founded by Dangun in 2333 BCE, although the foundation year is disputed among historians.[1]

Bronze age archaeological evidence of Gojoseon culture is found in northern Korea and Liaoning. By the 9th to 4th century BCE, various historical and archaeological evidence shows Gojoseon was a flourishing state and a self-declared kingdom.

Dangun Joseon[edit]

# Portrait Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Portrait of Dangun.jpg Dangun Wanggeom 단군왕검
檀君王儉
?–? BCE

Gija Joseon[edit]

# Portrait Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Gija 기자
箕子
1122?–1082? BCE
···
···
···
···
? King Jun 준왕
準王
?–194 BCE

Wiman Joseon[edit]

# Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Wi Man 위만 衛滿 194–? BCE
2 Unknown (Son of Wi Man) Unknown ?–?
3 King Ugeo 우거왕
右渠王
?–108 BCE

Buyeo[edit]

Buyeo (c. 2nd century BC – 494 CE) ruled in modern-day Northeast China. Although records are sparse and contradictory, it is speculated that in the 1st century BCE, Dongbuyeo (Eastern Buyeo) branched out, after which the original Buyeo is sometimes referred to as Bukbuyeo (Northern Buyeo). Its remnants were absorbed by the neighboring and brotherhood kingdom of Goguryeo in 494.

Early Eastern Buyeo[edit]

# Personal names Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Hae Buru 해부루 (解夫婁) ?–? BCE
2 Geumwa 해금와 (解金蛙) ?–? BCE
3 Daeso 해대소 (解臺素) ? BCE – 22 CE

Galsa Buyeo

# Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Founder of Galsa 갈사왕 (曷思王) 21 CE–?
? Hae Dodu 해도두 (解都頭) ?–68 CE

Later Northern Buyeo[edit]

Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
Butae 부태왕 (夫台王) ?–?, 2nd century
···
···
···
Wigutae 위구태왕 (慰仇太王) ?–?, 2nd century
Ganwigeo 간위거왕 (簡位居王) ?–?, 3rd century
Maryeo 마려왕 (麻余王) ?–?, 3rd century
···
···
···
Uiryeo 의려왕 (依慮王) ?–285 CE
Uira 의라왕 (依羅王) 286 CE–?
···
···
···
Hyeon 현왕 (玄王) ?–346 CE
Yeoul 여울왕 (餘蔚王) ?–384 CE
···
···
···
Jan 잔 (孱) ?–494 CE

Goguryeo[edit]

Goguryeo (37 BC – 668 AD) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Goguryeo rulers may have used the title of Taewang (太王, "Greatest King"). [1]

# Personal names[2][3] Period of reign Posthumous name [4]
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Go Jumong
Go Chumo
Go Sanghae
고주몽 (高朱蒙)
고추모 (高鄒牟)
고상해 (高象解)
37–19 BCE Dongmyeong
Dongmyeongseong
동명왕 (東明王)
동명성왕 (東明聖王) [5]
2 Hae Yuri
Hae Yuryu
Hae Nuri
해유리 (解琉璃, 類利)
해유류 (解孺留)
해누리 (解累利)
19 BCE – 18 CE Yuri
Yurimyeong
유리왕 (琉璃王)
유리명왕 (琉璃明王) [5]
3 Hae Muhyul 해무휼 (解無恤) 18–44 Daemusin
Daehaejuryu
대무신왕 (大武神王)
대해주류왕 (大解朱留王)
4 Hae Saekju 해색주 (解色朱) 44–48 Minjung 민중왕 (閔中王)
5 Hae U
Hae Aeru
Hae Mangnae
해우 (解憂)
해애루 (解愛婁)
해막래 (解莫來)
48–53 Mobon 모본왕 (慕本王)
6 Go Gung
Go Eosu
고궁 (高宮)
고어수 (高於漱)
53–146 Taejo
Gukjo
태조[대]왕 (太祖[大]王)
국조왕 (國祖王)
7 Go Suseong 고수성 (高遂成) 146–165 Chadae 차대왕 (次大王)
8 Go Baekgo
Go Baekgu
고백고 (高伯固)
고백구 (高伯句)
165–179 Sindae 신대왕 (新大王)
9 Go Nam-mu 고남무 (高男武) 179–197 Gogukcheon
Gukyang
고국천왕 (故國川王)
국양왕 (國襄王)
10 Go Yeon-u
Go Iimo
고연우 (高廷優)
고이이모 (高伊夷模)
197–227 Sansang 산상왕 (山上王)
11 Go Uwigeo
Go Wigung
Go Gyoche
고우위거 (高憂位居)
고위궁 (高位宮)
고교체 (高郊彘)
227–248 Dongcheon
Dongyang
동천왕 (東川王)
동양왕 (東襄王)
12 Go Yeonbul 고연불 (高然弗) 248–270 Jungcheon
Jungyang
중천왕 (中川王)
중양왕 (中襄王)
13 Go Yangno
Go Yagu
고약로 (高藥盧)
고약우 (高若友)
270–292 Seocheon
Seoyang
서천왕 (西川王)
서양왕 (西襄王)
14 Go Sangbu
Go Sapsiru
고상부 (高相夫)
고삽시루 (高插矢婁)
292–300 Bongsang
Chigal
봉상왕 (烽上王)
치갈왕 (雉葛王)
15 Go Eulbul
Go Ubul
고을불 (高乙弗)
고우불 (高憂拂)
300–331 Micheon
Hoyang
미천왕 (美川王)
호양왕 (好攘王)
16 Go Sayu
Go Yu
Go Soe
고사유 (高斯由)
고유 (高劉)
고쇠 (高釗)
331–371 Gogugwon 고국원왕 (故國原王)
17 Go Gubu 고구부 (高丘夫) 371–384 Sosurim 소수림왕 (小獸林王)
18 Go Yiryeon
Go Eojiji
고이련 (高伊連)
고어지지 (高於只支)
384–391 Gogugyang 고국양왕 (故國攘王)
19 Go Damdeok
Go An
고담덕 (高談德)
고안 (高安)
391–413 Gwanggaeto the Great 광개토왕 (廣開土王)
20 Go Georyeon
Go Yeon
고거련 (高巨連)
고연 (高璉)
413–491 Jangsu 장수왕 (長壽王)
21 Go Na-un
Go Un
고나운 (高羅雲)
고운 (高雲)
491–519 Munjamyeong 문자명왕 (文咨明王)
22 Go Heung-an
Go An
고흥안 (高興安)
고안 (高安)
519–531 Anjang 안장왕 (安藏王)
23 Go Bojeong
Go Jeong
고보정 (高寶廷)
고정 (高廷)
531–545 Anwon 안원왕 (安原王)
24 Go Pyeongseong 고평성 (高平成) 545–559 Yangwon
Yanggang
양원왕 (陽原王)
양강왕 (陽崗王)
25 Go Yangseong
Go Yang
Go Tang
고양성 (高陽成)
고양 (高陽)
고탕 (高湯)
559–590 Pyeongwon
Pyeonggang
평원왕 (平原王)
평강왕(平岡王)
26 Go Daewon
Go Won
고대원 (高大元)
고원 (高元)
590–618 Yeongyang
Pyeongyang
영양왕 (嬰陽王)
평양왕 (平陽王)
27 Go Geonmu
Go Mu
Go Seong
고건무 (高建武)
고무 (高武)
고성 (高成)
618–642 Yeongnyu 영류왕 (榮留王)
28 Go Bojang
Go Jang
고보장 (高寶藏)
고장 (高藏)
642–668 None None

Notes: [1] Some of Goguryeo's own records of individual kings, especially of the 19th (Gwanggaeto), use the title "Taewang" or "Hotaewang", roughly meaning Greatest King or Very Greatest King. Some argue that the title should be translated as "Emperor," equivalent of the Chinese title 皇帝, but this is not widely accepted. The most complete and oldest existing Korean history text, the Samguk Sagi and the Samguk Yusa, written centuries after Goguryeo was defeated, uses the title "Wang", meaning King.

[2] The king names generally derive from the location of the king's burial, and do not necessarily correspond to the Chinese concept of 諡號.

[3] Goguryeo kings had the surname Go, except for the second (Yuri) through fifth (Mobon), whose surnames are recorded as Hae. All of the kings are recorded to belong to the same patrilineal bloodline. It is not clear whether the two surnames are different transcription of the same name, or evidence of a power struggle.

[4] The Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa, and sometimes other records mention "other names," "birth names," "childhood names," or "personal names."

[5] The Jolbon line names and dates are from the Samguk Sagi. The Wei shu (History of the Wei dynasty) gives the following names: 朱蒙 Jumong, 閭達 Yeodal, 始閭諧 Shiryeohae, 如栗 Yeoyul, and 莫來 Mangnae. The legendary line had already been formed with some variants in the early 5th century when king Jangsu built a monument for his father and Goguryeo made contact with the Northern Wei. The inscription of that monument gives these names: 鄒牟 Chumo, 儒留 Yuryu, and 大朱留 Daejuryu. The connections between those names are not clear.

Sources: The Academy of Korean Studies,[6] Korea Britannica Corp.[7] and the Doosan Encyclopedia.[8]

Baekje[edit]

Baekje (18 BC – AD 660) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Temple names were the same as personal names, unless noted otherwise.

# Personal names Period of reign Posthumous name
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Buyeo Onjo 부여온조 (扶餘溫祚) 18 BCE – 28 CE Onjo 온조왕 (溫祚王)
2 Buyeo Daru 부여다루 (扶餘多婁) 28–77 Daru 다루왕 (多婁王)
3 Buyeo Giru 부여기루 (扶餘己婁) 77–128 Giru 기루왕 (己婁王)
4 Buyeo Gaeru 부여개루 (扶餘蓋婁) 128–166 Gaeru 개루왕 (蓋婁王)
5 Buyeo Chogo
Buyeo Sogo
Buyeo Sokgo
부여초고 (扶餘肖古)
부여소고 (扶餘素古)
부여속고 (扶餘速古)
166–214 Chogo
Sogo
Sokgo
초고왕 (肖古王)
소고왕 (素古王)
속고왕 (速古王)
6 Buyeo Gusu
Buyeo Guisu
부여구수 (扶餘仇首)
부여귀수 (扶餘貴須)
214–234 Gusu
Guisu
구수왕 (仇首王)
귀수왕 (貴須王)
7 Buyeo Saban
Buyeo Sabi
Buyeo Sai
부여사반 (扶餘沙泮)
부여사비 (扶餘沙沸)
부여사이 (扶餘沙伊)
234 Saban
Sabi
Sai
사반왕 (沙泮王)
사비왕 (沙沸王)
사이왕 (沙伊王)
8 Buyeo Goi
Buyeo Gui
Buyeo Gomo
부여고이 (扶餘古爾)
부여구이 (扶餘久爾)
부여고모 (扶餘古慕)
234–286 Goi
Gui
Gomo
고이왕 (古爾王)
구이왕 (久爾王)
고모왕 (古慕王)
9 Buyeo Chaekgye
Buyeo Cheonggye
부여책계 (扶餘責稽)
부여청계 (扶餘靑稽)
286–298 Chaekgye
Cheonggye
책계왕 (責稽王)
청계왕 (靑稽王)
10 Buyeo Bunseo 부여분서 (扶餘汾西) 298–304 Bunseo 분서왕 (汾西王)
11 Buyeo Biryu 부여비류 (扶餘比流) 304–344 Biryu 비류왕 (比流王)
12 Buyeo Gye 부여계 (扶餘契) 344–346 Gye 계왕 (契王)
13 Buyeo Gu 부여구 (扶餘句) 346–375 Geunchogo
Chogo
Sokgo
Jogo
근초고왕 (近肖古王)
초고왕 (肖古王)
속고왕 (速古王)
조고왕(照古王)
14 Buyeo Su 부여수 (扶餘須) 375–384 Geun-gusu
Geun-guisu
Guisu
Guiryu
Guso
근구수왕 (近仇首王)
근귀수왕(近貴首)
귀수왕 (貴首王)
귀류왕(貴流王)
구소왕(久素王)
15 Buyeo Chimnyu 부여침류 (扶餘枕流) 384–385 Chimnyu 침류왕 (枕流王)
16 Buyeo Jinsa
Buyeo Hwi
부여진사 (扶餘辰斯)
부여휘 (扶餘暉)
385–392 Jinsa 진사왕 (辰斯王)
17 Buyeo Asin
Buyeo Abang
Buyeo Ahwa
Buyeo Ami
부여아신 (扶餘阿莘)
부여아방 (扶餘阿芳)
부여아화 (扶餘阿花)
부여아미 (扶餘阿美)
392–405 Asin
Abang
Ahwa
Ami
아신왕 (阿莘王)
아방왕 (阿芳王)
아화왕 (阿花王)
아미왕 (阿美王)
18 Buyeo Yeong
Buyeo Jeon
부여영 (扶餘映)
부여전 (扶餘腆)
405–420 Jeonji
Jikji
Jinji
전지왕 (腆支王)
직지왕 (直支王)
진지왕 (眞支王)
19 Unknown Unknown 420–427 Gu-isin 구이신왕 (久爾辛王)
20 Buyeo Biyu
Buyeo Bi
부여비유 (扶餘毗有)
부여비 (扶餘毗)
427–455 Biyu
Gonyu
Piryu
비유왕 (毗有王)
곤유왕 (昆有王)
피류왕 (避流王)
21 Buyeo Gyeong
Buyeo Gyeongsa
부여경 (扶餘慶)
부여경사 (扶餘慶司)
455–475 Gaero
Geun-gaeru
개로왕 (蓋鹵王)
근개루왕(近蓋婁王)
22 Buyeo Do
Buyeo Modo
부여도 (扶餘都)
부여모도 (扶餘牟都)
475–477 Munju 문주왕 (文周王)
23 Buyeo Samgeun
Buyeo Samgeol
Buyeo Imgeol
부여삼근 (扶餘三斤)
부여삼걸 (扶餘三乞)
부여임걸 (扶餘壬乞)
477–479 Samgeun
Mun-geun
삼근왕 (三斤王)
문근왕 (文斤王)
24 Buyeo Modae
Buyeo Dae
Buyeo Mamo
Buyeo Malda
부여모대 (扶餘牟大)
부여대 (扶餘大)
부여마모 (扶餘摩牟)
부여말다 (扶餘末多)
479–501 Dongseong
Malda
동성왕 (東城王)
말다왕 (末多王)
25 Buyeo Sama
Buyeo Yung
부여사마 (扶餘斯麻 or 斯摩)
부여융 (扶餘隆)
501–523 Muryeong
Sama
무령왕 (武寧王)
사마왕 (斯麻王)
26 Buyeo Myeongnong
Buyeo Myeong
부여명농 (扶餘明禯 or 明穠)
부여명 (扶餘明)
523–554 Seong
Myeong
Seongmyeong
성왕 (聖王)
명왕 (明王)
성명왕 (聖明王)
27 Buyeo Chang 부여창 (扶餘昌) 554–598 Wideok
Chang
위덕왕 (威德王)
창왕 (昌王)
28 Buyeo Gye 부여계 (扶餘季) 598–599 Hye
Heon
혜왕 (惠王)
헌왕 (獻王)
29 Buyeo Seon
Buyeo Hyosun
부여선 (扶餘宣)
부여효순 (扶餘孝順)
599–600 Beop 법왕 (法王)
30 Buyeo Jang
Buyeo Seodong
부여장 (扶餘璋)
부여서동 (扶餘薯童)
600–641 Mu
Mugang
Mugwang
무왕 (武王)
무강왕 (武康王)
무광왕 (武廣王)
31 Buyeo Uija 부여의자 (扶餘義慈) 641–660 None None

Silla[edit]

Silla (57 BC – 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. In the early years, Silla was ruled by the Pak, Seok, and Kim families. Rulers of Silla had various titles, including Isageum, Maripgan, and Daewang. Like some Baekje kings, some declared themselves emperor.

  1. Hyeokgeose Geoseogan 혁거세 거서간 朴赫居世居西干 (57 BCE – 4 CE)
  2. Namhae Chachaung 남해 차차웅 南解次次雄 (4–24)
  3. Yuri Yisageum (24–57) 유리이사금 儒理尼師今 (Kings Yuri to Heurhae bore the Korean title Isageum, an old word for "ruler")
  4. Talhae Isageum 탈해이사금 脫解尼師今 (57–80)
  5. Pasa Isageum 파사이사금 婆娑尼師今 (80–112)
  6. Jima Isageum 지마이사금 祗摩尼師今 (112–134)
  7. Ilseong Isageum 일성이사금 逸聖尼師今 (134–154)
  8. Adalla Isageum 아달라이사금 阿達羅尼師今 (154–184)
  9. Beolhyu Isageum 벌휴이사금 伐休尼師今 (184–196)
  10. Naehae Isageum 내해이사금 奈解尼師今 (196–230)
  11. Jobun Isageum 조분이사금 助賁尼師今 (230–247)
  12. Cheomhae Isageum 첨해이사금 沾解尼師今 (247–261)
  13. Michu Isageum 미추이사금 味鄒尼師今 (262–284)
  14. Yurye Isageum 유례이사금 儒禮尼師今 (284–298)
  15. Girim Isageum 기림이사금 基臨尼師今 (298–310)
  16. Heulhae Isageum 흘해이사금 訖解尼師今 (310–356)
  17. Naemul Maripgan 내물마립간 奈勿麻立干 (356–402) (Kings Naemul to Soji bore the Korean title Maripgan, an old word for "ruler")
  18. Silseong Maripgan 실성마립간 實聖麻立干 (402–417)
  19. Nulji Maripgan 눌지마립간 訥祗麻立干 (417–458)
  20. Jabi Maripgan 자비마립간 慈悲麻立干 (458–479)
  21. Soji Maripgan 소지마립간 炤智麻立干 (479–500)
  22. King Jijeung 지증왕 智證王 (500–514) (Kings Jijeung to Gyeongsun bore the title Wang (the modern Korean word for "king"), with the exceptions noted below)
  23. King Beopheung 법흥왕 法興王 (514–540)
  24. King Jinheung 진흥왕 眞興王 (540–576)
  25. King Jinji 진지왕 眞智王 (576–579)
  26. King Jinpyeong 진평왕 眞平王 (579–632)
  27. Queen Seondeok 선덕왕 善德王 (632–647)
  28. Queen Jindeok 진덕왕 眞德王 (647–654)
  29. King Taejong Muyeol 태종무열왕 太宗武烈王 (654–661)

Unified Silla[edit]

  1. King Munmu 문무왕 文武王 (661–681)
  2. King Sinmun 신문왕 神文王 (681–692)
  3. King Hyoso 효소왕 孝昭王 (692–702)
  4. King Seongdeok 성덕왕 聖德王 (702–737)
  5. King Hyoseong 효성왕 孝成王 (737–742)
  6. King Gyeongdeok 경덕왕 景德王 (742–765)
  7. King Hyegong 혜공왕 惠恭王 (765–780)
  8. King Seondeok 선덕왕 宣德王 (780–785)
  9. King Wonseong 원성왕 元聖王 (785–798)
  10. King Soseong 소성왕 昭聖王 (798–800)
  11. King Aejang 애장왕 哀莊王 (800–809)
  12. King Heondeok 헌덕왕 憲德王 (809–826)
  13. King Heungdeok 흥덕왕 興德王 (826–836)
  14. King Huigang 희강왕 僖康王 (836–838)
  15. King Minae 민애왕 閔哀王 (838–839)
  16. King Sinmu 신무왕 神武王 (839)
  17. King Munseong 문성왕 文聖王 (839–857)
  18. King Heonan 헌안왕 憲安王 (857–861)
  19. King Gyeongmun 경문왕 景文王 (861–875)
  20. King Heongang 헌강왕 憲康王 (875–886)
  21. King Jeonggang 정강왕 定康王 (886–887)
  22. Queen Jinseong 진성왕 眞聖王 (887–897)
  23. King Hyogong 효공왕 孝恭王 (897–912)
  24. King Sindeok 신덕왕 神德王 (912–917)
  25. King Gyeongmyeong 경명왕 景明王 (917–924)
  26. King Gyeongae 경애왕 景哀王 (924–927)
  27. King Gyeongsun 경순왕 敬順王 (927–935)

Gaya confederacy[edit]

The Gaya confederacy (42–562) consisted of several small statelets. All rulers of Gaya bore the title Wang ("King").

Geumgwan Gaya[edit]

Geumgwan Gaya (42–532) was one of the Gaya confederacy.

# Name Period of reign[9]
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Suro 수로왕 (首露王) 42–199
2 Geodeung 거등왕 (居登王) 199–259
3 Mapum 마품왕 (麻品王) 259–291
4 Geojilmi 거질미왕 (居叱彌王) 291–346
5 Isipum 이시품왕 (伊尸品王) 346–407
6 Jwaji 좌지왕 (坐知王) 407–421
7 Chwihui 취희왕 (吹希王) 421–451
8 Jilji 질지왕 (銍知王) 451–492
9 Gyeomji 겸지왕 (鉗知王) 492–521
10 Guhyeong 구형왕 (仇衡王) 521–532

Daegaya[edit]

Daegaya (42–562) was one of the Gaya confederacy.

# Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Ijinasi 이진아시왕 (伊珍阿豉王) 42 CE–?
···
···
···
···
3 or 4 Geumnim 금림왕 (錦林王) ?–?
···
···
···
···
Unknown Haji 하지왕 (荷知王) ?–?
···
···
···
···
6 or 7 Gasil 가실왕 (嘉悉王 or 嘉實王) ?–?
···
···
···
···
9 Inoe 이뇌왕 (異腦王) ?–?
10 or 16
Wolgwang
or
Doseolji
월광태자 (月光太子)
or
도설지왕 (道設智王)
?–562

Balhae[edit]

Balhae (698–926) was an ancient Korean kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. Balhae occupied southern parts of Northeast China, Primorsky Krai, and the northern part of the Korean peninsula.

# Personal name Period of reign Posthumous name (諡號) Era name (年號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Dae Jo-yeong 대조영 (大祚榮) 698–719 Go 고왕 (高王) None None
2 Dae Mu-ye 대무예 (大武藝) 719–737 Mu 무왕 (武王) Inan 인안 (仁安)
3 Dae Heum-mu 대흠무 (大欽茂) 737–793 Mun 문왕 (文王) Daeheung
Boryeok
대흥 (大興)
보력 (寶曆)
4 Dae Won-ui 대원의 (大元義) 793 None None None None
5 Dae Hwa-yeo 대화여 (大華與) 793-794 Seong 성왕 (成王) Jungheung 중흥 (中興)
6 Dae Sung-rin 대숭린 (大嵩璘) 794–809 Gang 강왕 (康王) Jeongryeok 정력 (正曆)
7 Dae Won-yu 대원유 (大元瑜) 809–812 Jeong 정왕 (定王) Yeongdeok 영덕 (永德)
8 Dae Eon-ui 대언의 (大言義) 812–817? Hui 희왕 (僖王) Jujak 주작 (朱雀)
9 Dae Myeong-chung 대명충 (大明忠) 817?–818? Gan 간왕 (簡王) Taesi 태시 (太始)
10 Dae In-su 대인수 (大仁秀) 818?–830 Seon 선왕 (宣王) Geonheung 건흥 (建興)
11 Dae Ijin 대이진 (大彝震) 830–857 Unknown Unknown Hamhwa 함화 (咸和)
12 Dae Geonhwang 대건황 (大虔晃) 857–871 Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
13 Dae Hyeonseok 대현석 (大玄錫) 871–894 Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
14 Dae Wihae 대위해 (大瑋瑎) 894–906 None None Unknown Unknown
15 Dae Inseon 대인선 (大諲譔) 906–926 None None Unknown Unknown

Later Baekje[edit]

Hubaekje (900–936) was founded by Gyeon Hwon, who was a general during Later Silla's period of decline. Thus began the Later Three Kingdoms period. Hubaekje met its downfall at the hands of Gyeon Hwon himself, who later led the Goryeo armies alongside Taejo of Goryeo to capture Singeom, the prince of Hubaekje, who had betrayed Gyeon Hwon.

# Personal name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Gyeon Hwon 견훤 (甄萱) 900–935
2 Gyeon Singeom 견신검 (甄神劍) 935–936

Later Goguryeo[edit]

Later Goguryeo (901–918), also known as Ma-jin or Taebong, was established by Gung-ye, an outcast prince of Silla. Gung-Ye joined General Yang-Gil's rebellion, and rose through the ranks. He eventually assassinated Yang-Gil and established a new kingdom, naming it Later Goguryeo. Gung-Ye turned out to be a tyrant, and was overthrown by his generals, opening the way for General Wang Geon, who established Goryeo.

# Personal name Period of reign Era name (年號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Gung-ye 궁예 (弓裔) 901–918 Mutae
Seongchaek
Sudeok-Manse
Jeong-gae
무태 (武泰)
성책 (聖冊)
수덕만세 (水德萬歲)
정개 (政開)

Goryeo dynasty[edit]

Goryeo (918–1392) was ruled by the Wang Dynasty. The first ruler had the temple name Taejo, which means "great progenitor", and was applied to the first kings of both Goryeo and Joseon, as they were also the founders of the Wang and Yi Dynasties respectively. Starting with Gwangjong, rulers of Goryeo styled themselves emperors, with the first three rulers elevated to that title posthumously. With the Mongol conquest, however, the title of the ruler was demoted to a king, or "Wang."

The next twenty-three kings (until Wonjong) are also referred to by their temple names, ending in jong. Beginning with Chungnyeol (the twenty-fifth king), all the remaining kings of Goryeo had the title Wang ("King") as part of their temple names. Era names are in bracket where available.

# Portrait Personal name Period of reign Courtesy Name (C)/
Mongol name (M) /
Pseudonym (Ps)
Temple name (廟號) (T) /
Posthumous name (諡號) (P) /
Posthumous name given by Mongols (MP)
Era name (年號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Goryo Taejo Wangkun 2.jpg Wang Geon 왕건 (王建) 918–943 Yakcheon (C) 약천 (若天, C) Taejo (T)
Sinseong (P)
태조 (太祖, T)
신성 (神聖, P)
Cheonsu 천수 (天授)
2 Wang Mu 왕무 (王武) 943–945 Sunggeon (C) 승건 (承乾, C) Hyejong
Uigong (P)
혜종 (惠宗, T)
의공 (義恭, P)
3 Wang Yo 왕요 (王堯) 945–949 Uicheon (C) 의천 (義天, C) Jeongjong (T)
Munmyeong (P)
정종 (定宗, T)
문명 (文明, P)
4 Wang So 왕소 (王昭) 949–975 Ilhwa (C) 일화 (日華, C) Gwangjong (T)
Daesung (P)
광종 (光宗, T)
대성 (大成, P)
Gwangdeok
Junpung
광덕 (光德)
준풍 (峻豊)
5 Wang Yu 왕유 (王伷) 975–981 Jangmin (C) 장민(長民, C) Gyeongjong (T)
Heonhwa (P)
경종 (景宗, T)
헌화 (獻和, P)
6 Wang Chi 왕치 (王治) 981–997 On-go (C) 온고 (溫古, C) Seongjong (T)
Munui (P)
성종 (成宗, T)
문의 (文懿, P)
7 Wang Song 왕송 (王誦) 997–1009 Hyosin (C) 효신 (孝伸, C) Mokjong (T)
Seonyang (P)
목종 (穆宗, T)
선양 (宣讓, P)
8 Wang Sun 왕순 (王詢) 1009–1031 Anse (C) 안세 (安世, C) Hyeonjong (T)
Wonmun (P)
현종 (顯宗, T)
원문 (元文, P)
9 Wang Heum 왕흠 (王欽) 1031–1034 Wonryang (C) 원량 (元良, C) Deokjong (T)
Gyeonggang (P)
덕종 (德宗, T)
경강 (敬康, P)
10 Wang Hyeong 왕형 (王亨) 1034–1046 Sinjo (C) 신조 (申照, C) Jeongjong (T)
Yonghye (P)
정종 (靖宗, T)
용혜 (容惠, P)
11 Wang Hwi 왕휘 (王徽) 1046–1083 Chok-yu (C) 촉유 (燭幽, C) Munjong (T)
Inhyo (P)
문종 (文宗, T)
인효 (仁孝, P)
12 Wang Hun 왕훈 (王勳) 1083 Uigong (C) 의공 (義恭, C) Sunjong (T)
Seonhye (P)
순종 (順宗, T)
선혜 (宣惠, P)
13 Wang Un 왕운 (王運) 1083–1094 Gyecheon (C) 계천 (繼天, C) Seonjong (T)
Sahyo (P)
선종 (宣宗, T)
사효 (思孝, P)
14 Wang Uk 왕욱 (王昱) 1094–1095 None None Heonjong (T)
Hoehyo (P)
헌종 (獻宗, T)
사효 (懷孝, P)
15 Wang Ong 왕옹 (王顒) 1095–1105 Cheonsang (C) 천상 (天常, C) Sukjong (T)
Myeonghyo (P)
숙종 (肅宗, T)
명효 (明孝, P)
16 Wang U 왕우 (王俁) 1105–1122 Semin (C) 세민 (世民, C) Yejong (T)
Munhyo (P)
예종 (睿宗, T)
문효 (文孝, P)
17 Wang Hae 왕해 (王楷) 1122–1146 Inpyo (C) 인표 (仁表, C) Injong (T)
Gonghyo (P)
인종 (仁宗, T)
공효 (恭孝, P)
18 Wang Hyeon 왕현 (王晛) 1146–1170 Ilsung (C) 일승 (日升, C) Uijong (T)
Janghyo (P)
의종 (毅宗, T)
장효 (莊孝, P)
19 Wang Ho 왕호 (王皓) 1170–1197 Jidan (C) 지단 (之旦, C) Myeongjong (T)
Gwanghyo (P)
명종 (明宗, T)
광효 (光孝, P)
20 Wang Tak 왕탁 (王晫) 1197–1204 Jihwa (C) 지화 (至華, C) Sinjong (T)
Jeonghyo (P)
신종 (神宗, T)
정효 (靖孝, P)
21 Wang Yeong 왕영 (王韺) 1204–1211 Bulpi (C) 불피 (不陂, C) Huijong (T)
Seonghyo (P)
희종 (熙宗, T)
성효 (成孝, P)
22 Wang O 왕오 (王祦) 1211–1213 Daehwa (C) 대화 (大華, C) Gangjong (T)
Wonhyo (P)
강종 (康宗, T)
원효 (元孝, P)
23 Wang Cheol 왕철 (王澈) 1213–1259 Cheon-u (C) 천우 (天祐, C) Gojong (T)
Anhyo (P)
Chungheon (MP)
고종 (高宗, T)
안효 (安孝, P)
충헌 (忠憲, MP)
24 Wang Sik 왕식 (王倎) 1259–1274 Ilsin (C) 일신 (日新, C) Wonjong (T)
Sunhyo (P)
Chunggyeong (MP)
원종 (元宗, T)
순효 (順孝, P)
충경 (忠敬, MP)
25 Wang Geo 왕거 (王椹) 1274–1298
1298-1308
None None Chungnyeol (MP)
Gyeonghyo (P)
충렬 (忠烈, MP)
경효 (景孝, P)
26 Wang Jang 왕장 (王璋) 1298
1308–1313
Jungang (C)
Iǰirbuka (M)
중앙 (仲昻, C)
이지르부카 (益知禮普花, M)
Chungseon (MP)
Heonhyo (P)
충선 (忠宣, MP)
헌효 (憲孝, P)
27 Wang Man 왕만 (王燾) 1313–1330
1332–1339
Uihyo (C)
Aratnašri (M)
의효 (宜孝, C)
아라트나시리 (阿刺訥忒失里, M)
Chungsuk (MP)
Uihyo (P)
충숙 (忠肅, MP)
의효 (懿孝, P)
28 Wang Jeong 왕정 (王禎) 1330–1332
1339–1344
Buddhašri (M) 보탑실리 (普塔失里, M) Chunghye (MP)
Heonhyo (P)
충혜 (忠惠, MP)
헌효 (獻孝, P)
29 Wang Heun 왕흔 (王昕) 1344–1348 Padma dorji (M) 바스마도르지 (八思麻朶兒只, M) Chungmok (MP)
Hyeonghyo (P)
충목 (忠穆, MP)
현효 (顯孝, P)
30 Wang Jeo 왕저 (王蚳) 1348–1351 Misgen dorji (M) 미스젠도르지 (迷思監朶兒只, M) Chungjeong (MP) 충정 (忠靖, MP)
31 King Kongmin of Koryo.jpg Wang Jeon 왕전 (王祺) 1351–1374 Bayan Temür (M)
Ijae / Ikdang (Ps)
바얀 테무르 (伯顔帖木兒, M)
이재 / 익당 (Ps)
Gongmin (P)
Gyeonghyo (P)
공민 (恭愍, P)
경효 (敬孝, P)
32 Wang U 왕우 (王禑) 1374–1388 None None U None
33 Wang Chang 왕창 (王昌) 1388–1389 None None Chang None
34 Wang Yo 왕요 (王瑤) 1389–1392 None None Gongyang 공양 (恭讓, P)

Joseon dynasty[edit]

Joseon (1392–1910) followed Goryeo. In 1897, when Joseon became the Korean Empire, some of the Joseon kings were posthumously raised to the rank of emperors.

Joseon monarchs had temple names ending in jo or jong. Jo was given to the first kings/emperors of new lines within the dynasty, with the first king/emperor having the special name (Taejo), which means "great progenitor" (see also Goryeo). Jong was given to all other kings/emperors.

Two kings, Yeonsangun and Gwanghaegun, were not given temple names after their reigns ended.

Each monarch had a posthumous name that included either the title Wang ("King"), Hwangje ("Emperor"), Daewang ("King X the Great"), or Daeje ("Emperor X the Great"). For the sake of consistency, the title "King/Emperor" has been added to each monarch's temple name in the list below.

# Portrait Personal name Period of reign Courtesy Name (C) /
Pseudonym (Ps)
Temple name (廟號) (T) /
Posthumous name (諡號) (P)
Era name (年號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 King Taejo Yi 02.jpg Yi Seong-gye
Yi Dan
이성계 (李成桂)
이단 (李旦)
1392–1398 Gunjin (C)
Songheon (Ps)
군진 (君晋, C)
송헌 (松軒, Ps)
Taejo (T)
Emperor Go (P)
태조 (太祖, T)
고황제 (高皇帝, P)
2 Yi Bang-gwa
Yi Gyeong
이방과 (李芳果)
이경 (李曔)
1398–1400 Gwangwon (C) 광원 (光遠, C) Jeongjong (T)
Gongjeong (P)
정종 (定宗, T)
공정 (恭靖, P)
3 Yi Bang-won 이방원 (李芳遠) 1400–1418 Yudeok (C) 유덕 (遺德, C) Taejong (T)
Gongjeong (P)
태종 (太宗, T)
공정 (恭定, P)
4 Yi Do 이도 (李祹) 1418–1450 Wonjeong (C) 원정 (元正, C) Sejong (T)
Jangheon (P)
세종 (世宗, T)
장헌 (莊憲, P)
5 Yi Hyang 이향 (李珦) 1450–1452 Hwiji (C) 휘지 (輝之, C) Munjong (T)
Gongsun (P)
문종 (文宗, T)
공순 (恭順, P)
6 Yi Hong-wi 이홍위 (李弘緯) 1452–1455 None None Danjong (T)
Gongui (P)
단종 (端宗, T)
공의 (恭懿, P)
7 Yi Yu 이유 (李瑈) 1455–1468 Suji (C) 수지 (粹之, C) Sejo (T)
Hyejang (P)
세조 (世祖, T)
혜장 (惠莊, P)
8 Yi Gwang 이광 (李晄) 1468–1469 Myeingjo (C)
Pyeongnam (C)
명조 (明照, C)
평남 (平南, C)
Yejong (T)
Yangdo (P)
예종 (睿宗, T)
양도 (襄悼, P)
9 Yi Hyeol 이혈 (李娎) 1469–1494 None None Seongjong (T)
Gangjeong (P)
성종 (成宗, T)
강정 (康靖, P)
10 Yi Yung 이융 (李隆) 1494–1506 None None Yeonsangun 연산군 (燕山君)
11 Yi Yeok 이역 (李懌) 1506–1544 Nakcheon (C) 낙천 (樂天, C) Jungjong (T)
Gonghui (P)
중종 (中宗, T)
공희 (恭僖, P)
12 Yi Ho 이호 (李峼) 1544–1545 Cheonyun (C) 천윤 (天胤, C) Injong (T)
Yeongjeong (P)
인종 (仁宗, T)
영정 (榮靖, P)
13 Yi Hwan 이환 (李峘) 1545–1567 Daeyang (C) 대양 (對陽, C) Myeongjong (T)
Gongheon (P)
명종 (明宗, T)
공헌 (恭憲, P)
14 Yi Yeon 이연 (李蚣) 1567–1608 None None Seonjo (T)
Sogyeong (P)
선조 (宣祖, T)
소경 (昭敬, P)
15 Yi Hon 이혼 (李琿) 1608–1623 None None Gwanghaegun 광해군 (光海君)
16 Yi Jong 이종 (李倧) 1623–1649 Cheonyun (C)
Hwabaek (C)
Songchang (Ps)
천윤 (天胤, C)
화백 (和伯, C)
송창 (松窓, Ps)
Injo (T) 인조 (仁祖, T)
17 Yi Ho 이호 (李淏) 1649–1659 Jeongyeon (C)
Juk-o (Ps)
정연 (靜淵, C)
죽오(竹梧, Ps)
Hyojong (T) 효종 (孝宗, T)
18 Yi Yeon 이연 (李棩) 1659–1674 Gyeongjik (C) 경직 (景直, C) Hyeonjong (T) 현종 (顯宗, T)
19 Yi Sun 이순 (李焞) 1674–1720 Myeongbo (C) 명보 (明譜, C) Sukjong (T) 숙종 (肅宗, T)
20 Yi Yun 이윤 (李昀) 1720–1724 Hwiseo (C) 휘서 (輝瑞, C) Gyeongjong (T) 경종 (景宗, T)
21 Korea-Yeongjo-King of Joseon-c1.jpg Yi Geum 이금 (李昑) 1724–1776 Gwangsuk (C)
Yangseongheon (Ps)
광숙 (光叔, C)
양성헌 (養性軒, Ps)
Yeongjo (T) 영조 (英祖, T)
22 Yi San 이산 (李祘) 1776–1800 Hyeongun (C)
Hongjae (Ps)
형운 (亨運, C)
홍재 (弘齋, Ps)
Jeongjo (T) 정조 (正祖, T)
23 Yi Gong 이공 (李蚣) 1800–1834 Gongbo (C)
Sunjae (Ps)
공보(公寶, C)
순재 (純齋, Ps)
Sunjo (T) 순조 (純祖, T)
24 Yi Hwan 이환 (李奐) 1834–1849 Muneung (C)
Wonheon (Ps)
문응 (文應, C)
원헌 (元軒, Ps)
Heonjong (T) 헌종 (憲宗, T)
25 Cheoljong2.jpg Yi Byeon 이변 (李昪) 1849–1863 Doseung (C)
Daeyongjae (Ps)
도승 (道升, C)
대용재 (大勇齋, Ps)
Cheoljong (T) 철종 (哲宗, T)
26 Gojong of the Korean Empire 01.jpg Yi Myeong-bok
Yi Hui
이명복 (李命福)
이희 (李㷩)
1863–1897
(1897–1907) *
Seongrim (C)
Juyeon (Ps)
성림 (聖臨, C)
주연 (珠淵, Ps)
Gojong (T) *
Emperor Tae (P) *
고종 (高宗, T) *
태황제 (太皇帝, P) *
Gaeguk
Geonyang
Gwangmu *
개국 (開國)
건양 (建陽)
광무 (光武) *
27 Sunjong of the Korean Empire.jpg Yi Cheok 이척 (李拓) (1907–1910) * Gundang (C)
Jeongheon (Ps)
군방 (君邦, C)
정헌 (正軒, Ps)
Sunjong (T) *
Emperor Hyo (P) *
순종 (純宗, T) *
효황제 (孝皇帝, P) *
Yunghui * 융희 (隆熙) *

* see Korean Empire section

Korean Empire[edit]

In 1897, Joseon Dynasty became Korean Empire, which lasted until 1910. Technically, the emperors should be referred to by their era names rather than their temple names, but the latter are commonly used.

# Portrait Personal name Period of reign Courtesy Name (C) /
Pseudonym (Ps)
Temple name (廟號) (T) /
Posthumous name (諡號) (P)
Era name (年號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Gojong of the Korean Empire 01.jpg Yi Myeong bok
Yi Hui
이명복 (李命福)
이희 (李㷩)
1897–1907 Seongrim (C)
Juyeon (Ps)
성림 (聖臨, C)
주연 (珠淵, Ps)
Gojong (T)
Emperor Tae (P)
고종 (高宗, T)
태황제 (太皇帝, P)
Gwangmu 광무 (光武)
2 Sunjong of the Korean Empire.jpg Yi Cheok 이척 (李拓) 1907–1910 Gundang (C)
Jeongheon (Ps)
군방 (君邦, C)
정헌 (正軒, Ps)
Sunjong (T)
Emperor Hyo (P)
순종 (純宗, T)
효황제 (孝皇帝, P)
Yunghui 융희 (隆熙)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cumings (1997, p. 25) only indicates that Gojoseon was among the small peninsular states which emerged "by the fourth century BC." Lee (1984, p. 13) also only mentions Gojoseon as having emerged in the Liao and Taedong valleys by the 4th century. Some, like Kim (1997) do regard "Dangun Joseon" as having possibly existed during the Neolithic period, i.e. before the 13th century BCE; however, by the same token they reject the possibility that Gojoseon can be regarded as a "state" or even "tribal confederation" in the modern sense. Professor Yoon says that the Gojoseon had become an ancient nation at 2333 BCE(Yoon, 2002), which is most recent research
  2. ^ Goguryeo kings had the surname Go, except for the second Yuri through fifth Mobon, whose surnames are recorded as Hae. All of the kings are recorded to belong to the same patrilineal bloodline. It is not clear whether the two surnames are different transcription of the same name, or evidence of a power struggle.
  3. ^ The Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa, and sometimes other records mention "other names," "birth names," "childhood names," or "personal names."
  4. ^ The king names generally derive from the location of the king's burial, and do not necessarily correspond to the Chinese concept of 諡號.
  5. ^ a b The Jolbon line names and dates are from the Samguk Sagi. The Wei shu History of the Wei dynasty gives the following names: 朱蒙 Jumong, 閭達 Yeodal, 始閭諧 Shiryeohae, 如栗 Yeoyul, and 莫來 Mangnae. The legendary line had already been formed with some variants in the early 5th century when king Jangsu built a monument for his father and Goguryeo made contact with the Northern Wei. The inscription of that monument gives these names: 鄒牟 Chumo, 儒留 Yuryu, and 大朱留 Daejuryu. The connections between those names are not clear.
  6. ^ http://kdaq.empas.com/koreandb/history/koreanking/html/person/koguryeo_king.html (The Academy of Korean Studies)[dead link]
  7. ^ http://enc.daum.net/dic100//topView.do (Korea Britannica Corp.)
  8. ^ 고구려 (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2013-10-07. 
  9. ^ Il-yeon: Samguk Yusa: Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea, translated by Tae-Hung Ha and Grafton K. Mintz. Epilogue, page 354. Silk Pagoda (2006). ISBN 1-59654-348-5 - note: the dates for Geojilmi's reign go there until 344

References[edit]

  • Yoon, N.-H.(윤내현), The Location and Transfer of GO-CHOSUN's Capital(고조선의 도읍 위치와 그 이동), 단군학연구, 7, 207 - 238 (2002)
  • Byeon Tae-seop (변태섭) (1999). 韓國史通論 (Hanguksa tongnon) (Outline of Korean history), 4th ed. ISBN 89-445-9101-6. 
  • Cumings, Bruce (1997). Korea's place in the sun. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-31681-5. 
  • Kim, Jung Bae (1997). "Formation of the ethnic Korean nation and the emergence of its ancient kingdom states". Korean history: Discovery of its characteristics and developments. Seoul: Hollym. pp. 27–36. ISBN 1-56591-177-6. 
  • Nahm, Andrew C. (1988). Korea: Tradition and Transformation — A History of the Korean People. Hollym International. ISBN 0-930878-56-6. 
  • http://www.rootsinfo.co.kr/index_sub02.html (in Korean only)
  • http://www.rulers.org