Hydrogen station

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Hydrogen fueling nozzle

A hydrogen station is a storage or filling station for hydrogen, usually located along a road or hydrogen highway, or at home as part of the distributed energy resources (DER) concept.[1] The stations are usually intended to provide fuel for hydrogen-powered vehicles, but the hydrogen can also be used to power small devices.[2] Vehicles use hydrogen as fuel in one of several ways, including fuel cells and mixed fuels like HCNG. The hydrogen fuel dispensers measure the fuel dispensed by weight.[3][4]

Hydrogen filling stations by country[edit]

Hydrogen station pump

A global map of hydrogen filling stations is available.[5]

Asia[edit]

Japan[edit]

Japan built a number of hydrogen filling stations under the JHFC project from 2002 to 2010 to test various technologies of hydrogen generation.[6] By the end of 2012 there were 17 hydrogen stations and 19 new stations were expected to be installed by 2015[7]. The Japanese government expects to add up to 100 hydrogen stations under a budget of $460 million. That amount covers 50% of the installation costs, with the last stations operational by 2015.[8][9] JX Energy expects to install 40 stations by 2015,[10] and another 60 between 2016 and 2018.[11] Toho Gas and Iwatani Corp[12] After that, they expect to install an additional 20 stations.[13] Toyota Tsusho and Air Liquide made a joint venture to build 2 hydrogen stations, which were planned to be ready by 2015.[14] Osaka Gas planned 2 stations for 2014–15.[15] A task force led by Yuriko Koike, Japan's former environment minister, and supported by the country's Liberal Democratic Party, was set up to oversee the process.[16]

South Korea[edit]

As of 2018, approximately 18,000 full cell electric vehicles (FCEV) were produced in Korea (domestic demand: 9,000 vehicles), which means that more hydrogen recharging stations are required across the country. In response to the rising demand for FCEVs, the Korean government established plans to increase the number of hydrogen recharging stations to 310 by 2022.[17] According to the Ministry of Environment, there are 14 stations at the moment, with 10 more coming by the end of 2018.

Europe[edit]

As of 2020, there are more than 49 stations in Europe capable of filling 4–5 cars per day.[18][19]

Denmark[edit]

There were two public stations in the hydrogen link network in 2014. Four more were expected to open in 2015. H2 Logic, a part of Nel ASA, is building a factory in Herning to manufacture 300 stations per year, with each station capable of dispensing 200 kg of hydrogen per day, and 100 kg in 3 hours.[18]

Finland[edit]

There were three hydrogen stations in 2016, one of which was movable.[20] None of these stations are currently in operation. The stations could fill a car with 5 kg in three minutes, based on international standard SAE J2061 with refueling pressures of 350 or 700 bar. Europe's second largest electrolysis (of water, capacity 1,400,000 kg/a high-purity hydrogen) hydrogen production plant is operating in Kokkola, Finland.[21]

Germany[edit]

As of September 2013, there are 15 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[22] Most, but not all of these stations are operated by partners of the Clean Energy Partnership.[23] The number of stations nationwide was expected to increase to 50 by 2015 under a letter of intent[24][25] through its public private partnership Now GMBH.[26] program NIP[27] with a subsidy of 20 Million Euro.[28] This was accomplished in 2018. H2 Mobility GmbH & Co. KG wants to raise that number to 100 stations from 2015 to 2019 and to 400 stations as the number of hydrogen cars increases, at a cost of €350 million Euro.[29]

Iceland[edit]

Iceland opened its first commercial hydrogen station in 2003 as part of the country's initiative to implement a hydrogen economy.[30]

Italy[edit]

The first commercial hydrogen station was opened in 2015 in Bolzano.[31]

Netherlands[edit]

The Netherlands opened its first public refuelling station on September 3, 2014, in Rhoon near Rotterdam. The station uses hydrogen from a pipeline that runs from Rotterdam to Belgium. Two private stations in Amsterdam and Arnhem were set to open to the public before 2017, while the station at Helmond is not open for public access.[32]

Norway[edit]

Norway's first Hynor hydrogen fuelling station was opened in February 2007,[33] as part of the Scandinavian hydrogen highway partnership.[34][35] Uno-X, in partnership with Nel Asa, planned to build 20 stations before 2020, including a station with on-site hydrogen production from excess solar energy, which would be the first such station in existence.[18]

Turkey[edit]

UNIDO launched in May 2010 on behalf of the International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies. They plan to build a station on The Golden Horn in Istanbul. This station will be used for the refuelling of a hydrogen fuel cell driven passenger boat, as well as for a hydrogen-powered bus.[36]

United Kingdom[edit]

In 2011 the first public hydrogen station opened in Swindon.[37] In 2014 HyTec opened the London Hatton Cross station.[38] On March 11, 2015, the London Hydrogen Network Expansion project opened the first supermarket-located hydrogen refuelling station at Sainsbury's in Hendon.[39] Aberdeen opened its first hydrogen station in 2015, in Kittybrewster, for buses and council vehicles. In 2018 this station opened to the public, and in 2017 a second station was opened in the suburb of Cove Bay.[citation needed] Hydrogen stations in Bedfordshire and Stratford were scheduled to open to the public before 2016.[40] The HyFive project had 3 stations planned for London by 2015.[41] On October 9, 2014, the British government announced funding of £11 million to have 15 public hydrogen refuelling stations built at the end of 2015.[42] In September 2015, Shell and ITM Power announced a strategic siting partnership for the placement of an initial three ITM hydrogen refuelers on Shell forecourts in London and the South East of the UK.[43]

North America[edit]

Canada[edit]

Five stations have been built in British Columbia since 2005. There are no official plans to build any more fuelling stations in Canada, as the hydrogen fuelling project ended in March 2011.[44] In 2018, Shell Canada launched an initiative to build more hydrogen fuelling stations starting with the first in Vancouver. They currently plan on building at least two more within the city.[45]

United States[edit]

Delivery methods[edit]

Hydrogen recharging stations can be divided into off-site stations and on-site stations depending on how they supply hydrogen to vehicles (whether they produce their own hydrogen or not). Hydrogen recharging stations that have been built across Korea at the moment are mostly off-site (tube trailer-type) stations. Moving forward however, stations for large capacity hydrogen buses are expected to be on-site stations.

Sort Method
Off-site hydrogen recharging station

(Hydrogen supplied from an external source)

Hydrogen supplied from an external source

Hydrogen produced from a plant is supplied via pipelines, tube trailers, etc.

On-site hydrogen recharging station

(Hydrogen produced directly at the station)

Hydrogen produced by extracting (reforming) natural gas, electrolysis, etc. at the recharging station

Types of recharging stations[edit]

Hydrogen highway[edit]

Hydrogen fueling pump

A hydrogen highway is a chain of hydrogen-equipped filling stations and other infrastructure along a road or highway. Italy and Germany are collaborating to build a hydrogen highway between Mantua in northern Italy and Munich in southern Germany.[citation needed]

Hydrogen home stations[edit]

Hydrogen home stations come in different types.

  • A more complete home station would combine the solar home system on the inlet with natural gas and a Steam reformer,[66] and convert the storage tank to a fuel cell microCHP system to produce heat and electricity for the house. (The excess electricity would go back to the grid to become part of a distributed generation resource.)
  • Integrated systems that convert solar energy photo electrochemically are more efficient than splitting water.[67]

Daily recharging capacity[edit]

Currently, the hydrogen recharging stations built by Hyundai Motor Group can recharge up to 70 Hyundai Nexo[68] vehicles per day, assuming that the station is open for 14 hours daily.[69] However, hydrogen recharging stations without high-pressure (900bar) storage tanks may require some additional downtime to repressurize the hydrogen in its recharging system if they refuel too many vehicles in a day. In the future, hydrogen recharging stations moving forward will feature more robust equipment (minimum 1,200kg/day for a 24-hour business day) to make sure they can serve a greater number of FCEVs.

Disadvantages[edit]

Volatility[edit]

Hydrogen fuel is hazardous because of its low ignition energy, high combustion energy, and because it easily leaks from tanks.[70] Explosions at hydrogen filling stations have been reported.[71]

Supply[edit]

Hydrogen fuelling stations generally receive deliveries from hydrogen suppliers. An interruption at a hydrogen supply facility can shut down multiple hydrogen fuelling stations due to an interruption of the supply of hydrogen.[72]

Costs[edit]

Since the turn of the millennium, filling stations offering hydrogen have been opening worldwide. However, they are far from replacing the existing extensive gasoline fuel station infrastructure, which in the US alone numbered 168,000 gas stations, [73] in 2004, which generated revenues of US$536 billion in 2014.[74] According to Joseph Romm in a book he wrote in 2004,[75] replacing these would cost a half trillion U.S. dollars.

The cost of the necessary European-wide hydrogen fueling infrastructure could be five times lower than the cost of the charging network required for battery and plug-in hybrid vehicles.[76] When viewed as cost per station, EV stations are cheaper than the $3 million per hydrogen station.[77] However, the reason that hydrogen infrastructure is less expensive than electric, even though the individual station cost is higher, is quicker vehicle fueling and longer refueling intervals, thus needing far fewer hydrogen stations per million fuel cell cars than charging stations per million battery electric cars.[78]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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