Hydrogen station

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Hydrogen fueling nozzle

A hydrogen station is a storage or filling station for hydrogen, usually located along a road or hydrogen highway, or at home as part of the distributed generation resources concept.[1] The stations are usually intended to power hydrogen vehicles, but can also be used to power small devices.[2] Vehicles use hydrogen as fuel in one of several ways, including fuel cells and mixed fuels like HCNG. The hydrogen fuel dispensers[3] dispense the fuel by the kilogram.[4]

Hydrogen filling stations[edit]

Hydrogen station pump

Asia[edit]

Japan had a number of hydrogen filling stations under the JHFC project from 2002 to 2010 to test various technologies of hydrogen generation.[5] At the end of 2012 there were 17 hydrogen stations, 19 new stations are expected to be installed by 2015.,[6] the Government expects to add up to 100 hydrogen stations under a budget of 460 million dollars covering 50% of the installation costs with the last ones operational in 2015.[7][8] JX Energy expects to install 40 stations by 2015.[9] and another 60 in the period 2016-2018[10] Toho Gas and Iwatani Corp[11] expect to install an additional 20 stations.[12] Toyota Tsusho and Air Liquide made a joint venture to build 2 hydrogen stations to be ready by 2015.[13] Osaka Gas planned 2 stations for 2014-2015.[14] A "task force" led by Yuriko Koike, Japan's former environment minister, and supported by the country's Liberal Democratic Party was set up to guide the process.[15]
South Korea had 11 hydrogen stations in operation in 2014 another 10 stations are planned for 2020.[16]

Europe[edit]

As of 2016, there are more than 25 stations in Europe capable of filling 4-5 cars per day.[17]

There were 2 public stations in the hydrogen link network in 2014. Four more are expected to open in 2015. H2 Logic, a part of NEL ASA, is building a factory in Herning to manufacture 300 stations per year, each capable of dispensing 200 kg of hydrogen per day, and 100 kg in 3 hours.[17]
As of September 2013, there are 15 publicly available hydrogen fuel station in operation.[18] Most but not all of these stations are operated by partners of the Clean Energy Partnership.[19] The stations nationwide are expanded to 50 by 2015 under a letter of intent[20][21] through its public private partnership Now GMBH.[22] program NIP[23] with a subsidy of 20 Million Euro.,[24] the H2 Mobility initiative wants to raise that number to 100 stations from 2015 to 2017 and to 400 stations in 2023 at a cost of €350 million Euro.[25]
Iceland opened the first commercial hydrogen station in 2003 as part of the country's initiative to implement a hydrogen economy.[26]
The Netherlands had its first public refueling stationed opened on September 3rd 2014 in Rhoon near Rotterdam. The station uses hydrogen from the pipeline from Rotterdam to Belgium. 2 private stations in Amsterdam and Arnhem are going public before 2017, Helmond is not open for public access.[27]
Norway's first Hynor hydrogen fueling station was opened in February 2007.[28] which is part of the Scandinavian hydrogen highway partnership.[29] June 2008 - The Handbook for approval of hydrogen refuelling stations (HyApproval) project, FP6 N° 019813 developed a universal handbook to facilitate the approval process of Hydrogen Refuelling Stations (HRS) in Europe.[30] Uno-X in partnership with NEL ASA plans to build 20 stations before 2020, includig a station with on-site hydrogen production from excess solar energy, the first of its kind. [17]
UNIDO launched in May 2010 on behalf of the International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies, a call for tender related to the supply and installation by the end of 2011 of a hydrogen production, storage and filling facility on the Golden Horn, in Istanbul. This station will be used for the refueling of a hydrogen fuel cell driven passenger boat as well as for that of a hydrogen internal combustion bus.[31]
In 2011 the first public station in Swindon opened.[32] In 2014 HyTec opened the London Hatton Cross station.[33] On 11th March 2015 the London Hydrogen Network Expansion project opened the first supermarket located hydrogen refuelling station at Sainsbury's Hendon.[34] Bedfordshire and Stratford are going public before 2016.[35] The HyFive project has 3 stations planned for London in 2015.[36] On 9 October 2014 the Government announced funding of £11 million to have 15 public hydrogen refuelling stations at the end of 2015.[37] In September 2015, Shell and ITM Power announced a strategic siting partnership for the placement of an initial three ITM hydrogen refuellers on Shell forecourts in London and the South East of the UK.[38]

North America[edit]

Five stations have been built in British Columbia since 2005, one each in Whistler, at the University of British Columbia, in Burnaby, and two that were later moved to Surrey. There are no official plans to build any more fuelling stations In Canada as the project ended in March 2011.[39]
In 2000, Ford and Air Products opened the first hydrogen station in North America in Dearborn, MI.[40] A hydrogen filling station opened in 2007 on the campus of The Ohio State University at the Center for Automotive Research. This station is the only one in Ohio.[41] Stations in California opened by the California Fuel Cell Partnership, and under Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's California Hydrogen Highway program.[42][43] Missouri's only Hydrogen Filling Station is located at the Missouri University of Science and Technology campus.[44] A prototype hydrogen fueling station was built in compliance with all of the prevailing safety, environmental and building codes in Phoenix to demonstrate that such fueling stations could be built in urban areas.[45][46] A hydrogen station was built in 2004 in Evermont in Burlington, VT. The project was partially funded through the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hydrogen Program.[47] In 2013 Governor Brown signed AB 8, a bill to fund 20 million a year for 10 years for up to 100 stations.[48] The California Energy Commission funded $46.6 million for 28 stations to be completed in 2016, making significant progress towards the goal of establishing a 100-station refueling network in California.[49]
  • Hawaii opened its first hydrogen station at Hickam in 2009.[50][51] In 2012 Aloha Motor Company opened its hydrogen station in Honolulu[52]

Hydrogen highway[edit]

Hydrogen fueling pump
Main article: Hydrogen highway

A hydrogen highway is a chain of hydrogen-equipped filling stations and other infrastructure along a road or highway. Italy and Germany are collaborating to build a hydrogen highway between Mantua in northern Italy and Munich in southern Germany. Italy completed building a hydrogen filling station in Mantua on 21 September 2007 (see Zero Regio).

Costs[edit]

See also: Hydrogen fuel

Since the turn of the millennium, filling stations offering hydrogen have been opening worldwide. However, this does not begin to replace the existing extensive gasoline fuel station infrastructure, which in the US alone numbered 168,000 retail outlets [53] in 2004, with revenues for 2014 of US$536 billion.[54] According to Joseph Romm in 2004[55] replacing these would cost a half trillion U.S. dollars. The cost of the necessary European-wide hydrogen fuelling infrastructure could be five times lower than the cost of the charging network required for battery and plug-in hybrid vehicles.[56] When viewed as cost per station, EV stations are cheaper than the $3 million per hydrogen station.[57]

Hydrogen home stations[edit]

Hydrogen home stations come in different types.

  • A more complete home station would combine the solar home system on the inlet with natural gas and a reformer[62] and from the storage tank to a fuel cell microCHP system to produce heat and electricity for the house and the excess electricity to the grid to become part as a distributed generation resource.
  • Integrated systems that convert solar energy photoelectrochemically are more efficient than splitting water.[63]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Personal hydrogen station
  2. ^ Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies HydroFILL intended for the powering of small devices
  3. ^ SAE International publishes new standard, SAE J2601, to establish worldwide basis for H2 fueling of fuel cell electric vehicles
  4. ^ LA gas station gets hydrogen fuel pump
  5. ^ JHFC
  6. ^ New Japanese joint venture to focus on hydrogen infrastructure
  7. ^ Initiative to Promote a Diffusion of Hydrogen Fuel Cell
  8. ^ Hysut Japan
  9. ^ JX Energy Planning 40 Hydrogen Refuelling Stations in Japan by 2015
  10. ^ JX Nippon Oil to build 100 hydrogen stations in Japan
  11. ^ Developing hydrogen infrastructure ahead of the start of widespread adoption of fuel cell vehicles in 2015
  12. ^ Iwatani 2012
  13. ^ Japan: Air Liquide signs partnership with Toyota Tsusho for hydrogen supply of fuel cell electric vehicles
  14. ^ Osaka Gas to build two hydrogen stations for fuel-cell cars
  15. ^ Japanese task force supports hydrogen fuel for transportation
  16. ^ Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Korea
  17. ^ a b c Per Erlien Dalløkken. "Dersom fem hydrogenbiler ankommer en fyllestasjon samtidig, er det bare drivstoff nok til fire av dem". Teknisk Ukeblad. Retrieved 13 May 2016. 
  18. ^ Leading industrial companies agree on an action plan for the construction of a hydrogen refuelling network in Germany
  19. ^ "The Clean Energy Partnership is growing: with new hydrogen filling stations, new regions and a new international automobile partner in Toyota" (PDF) (Press release). Clean Energy Partnership. 2010-03-05. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  20. ^ The propagation of hydrogen stations
  21. ^ German Government announces support for 50 urban hydrogen refuelling stations
  22. ^ Bundesverkehrsministerium und Industriepartner bauen überregionales Tankstellennetz (German)
  23. ^ NIP
  24. ^ {German} Bundesregierung und industrie errichten netz von 50 wasserstoff-tankstellen
  25. ^ H2 Mobility initiative: Leading industrial companies agree on an action plan for the construction of a hydrogen refuelling network in Germany
  26. ^ "Hydrogen-filling station opens ... in Iceland". USA Today. April 25, 2003. Retrieved 2007-05-21. 
  27. ^ http://mobilityintransition.blogspot.nl/2014/09/first-dutch-public-hydrogen-station.html
  28. ^ Hynor Stations
  29. ^ Hydrogen Sweden
  30. ^ HyApproval - Handbook for the approval of hydrogen refuelling stations
  31. ^ "Golden Horn Refuelling Station". 
  32. ^ Is hydrogen the future of motoring?
  33. ^ "Continuing HyTEC progress in London for hydrogen fueling". Fuel Cells Bulletin 2014 (5): 6–7. 2014. doi:10.1016/S1464-2859(14)70135-X. ISSN 1464-2859. 
  34. ^ [1]
  35. ^ LHNE project kick-starts UK hydrogen refuelling network
  36. ^ Three new hydrogen refuelling stations for London
  37. ^ Multi-million pound fund to get hydrogen cars moving
  38. ^ [2]
  39. ^ Jones, Nicola. "Whatever happened to the hydrogen highway?", Pique Publishing, February 9, 2012, accessed November 20, 2013
  40. ^ Motavalli, Jim (2001). Breaking Gridlock: Moving Towards Transportation That Works. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. p. 145. ISBN 1-57805-039-1. 
  41. ^ "Center for Automotive Research unveils first hydrogen refueling station in Ohio". Ohio State University College of Engineering. April 20, 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-23. 
  42. ^ California's hydrogen transportation initiatives
  43. ^ [3]
  44. ^ "Missouri's First Hydrogen Fuel Station Welcomes Cars on Tour". Environment News Service. August 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-22. 
  45. ^ Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report (Report INEEL / EXT-O3-00976 of the Idaho National Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy)
  46. ^ Idaho National Laboratory
  47. ^ EVermont renewable hydrogen fueling station
  48. ^ Governor Brown Signs AB 8
  49. ^ California investing nearly $50 million in hydrogen refueling stations
  50. ^ Hawaii hydrogen power park
  51. ^ First solar-powered hydrogen plant in AF complete on Hickam
  52. ^ Fuel cell scooters and solar hydrogen refuelling station launched in Hawaii
  53. ^ http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/quizzes/answerQuiz16.shtml
  54. ^ http://www.census.gov/econ/currentdata/dbsearch?program=MARTS&startYear=2014&endYear=2014&categories=447&dataType=SM&geoLevel=US&notAdjusted=1&submit=GET+DATA
  55. ^ Romm, Joseph (2004). The Hype about Hydrogen, Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate. New York: Island Press. ISBN 1-55963-703-X.  Chapter 5
  56. ^ Infrastructure and cost reduction key to European deployment of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles
  57. ^ "Global Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Market Buoyed as OEMs Will Launch 17 Vehicle Models by 2027, IHS Says". IHS Inc. 4 May 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016. 
  58. ^ "Hydrogen Purification" (PDF). Home Power 67: 42. 
  59. ^ "Diaphragm Compressors". Pressure Products Industries, Inc. Retrieved 2007-06-23. 
  60. ^ See, for example, Lincoln Composites Tuffshell tanks, as recommended by Roy McAlister in the "Hydrogen Car and Multi Fuel Engine" DVD)
  61. ^ "Solar Hydrogen Production by Electrolysis" (PDF). Home Power 39. Feb–March 1994. Retrieved 2007-06-23.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  62. ^ "Fuel cell". Honda. Retrieved 2006-08-04. 
  63. ^ John Gartner (December 7, 2004). "Sunlight to Fuel Hydrogen Future". Wired magazine. Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  64. ^ CSIRO Solar homestation
  65. ^ A Stand Alone 2 kW Class PEM Electrolyser Integrated with Solar PV System for Hydrogen Generation
  66. ^ HydroFILL
  67. ^ ITM Power Green-box
  68. ^ Daniel Nocera working on hydrogen station
  69. ^ Nico Hotz' hydrogen station
  70. ^ YouTube - Solar hydrogen home Michael Strizki
  71. ^ Stuart Island Energy Initiative
  72. ^ NFCRC: Hydrogen Program - Hydrogenics Home Fueler

http://www.prweb.com/releases/2014/07/prweb12042788.htm

External links[edit]