Hydrogen station

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hydrogen fueling pump

A hydrogen station is a storage or filling station for hydrogen fuel.[1] The hydrogen is dispensed by weight.[2][3] There are two filling pressures in common use: H70 or 700 bar, and the older standard H35 or 350 bar.[4] As of 2021, around 550 filling stations were available worldwide.[4]

Delivery methods[edit]

Hydrogen fueling stations can be divided into off-site stations, where hydrogen is delivered by truck or pipeline, and on-site stations that produce and compress hydrogen for the vehicles.[5][6]

Types of recharging stations[edit]

Hydrogen highway[edit]

A hydrogen highway is a chain of hydrogen-equipped filling stations and other infrastructure along a road or highway.

Home hydrogen fueling station[edit]

Home hydrogen fueling stations are available to consumers.[7] A model that can produce 12 kilograms of hydrogen per day sells for $325,000.[8]

Solar powered water electrolysing hydrogen home stations are composed of solar cells, power converter, water purifier, electrolyzer, piping, hydrogen purifier,[9] oxygen purifier, compressor,[10] pressure vessels[11] and a hydrogen outlet.[12]

Disadvantages[edit]

Pollution[edit]

As of 2019, 98% of hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming, which emits carbon dioxide.[13] The bulk of hydrogen is also transported to fueling stations in trucks, so pollution is also emitted in its transportation.[5]

Volatility[edit]

Hydrogen fuel is hazardous because of its low ignition energy, high combustion energy, and because it easily leaks from tanks.[14] Explosions at hydrogen filling stations have been reported.[15]

Supply[edit]

Hydrogen fuelling stations generally receive deliveries by truck from hydrogen suppliers. An interruption at a hydrogen supply facility can shut down multiple hydrogen fuelling stations due to an interruption of the supply of hydrogen.[16]

Costs[edit]

There are far fewer Hydrogen filling stations than gasoline fuel stations, which in the US alone numbered 168,000 in 2004.[17] Replacing the US gasoline infrastructure with hydrogen fuel infrastructure is estimated to cost a half trillion U.S. dollars.[18] A hydrogen fueling station costs between $1 million and $4 million to build.[19] In comparison, battery electric vehicles can charge at home or at public chargers. As of 2023, there are more than 60,000 public charging stations in the United States, with more than 160,000 outlets.[20] A public Level 2 charger, which comprise the majority of public chargers in the US, costs about $2,000, and DC fast chargers, of which there are more than 30,000 in the U.S.,[20] generally cost between $100,000 and $250,000,[21] although Tesla superchargers are estimated to cost approximately $43,000.[22]

Freezing of the nozzle[edit]

During refueling, the flow of cold hydrogen can cause frost to form on the dispenser nozzle, sometimes leading to the nozzle becoming frozen to the vehicle being refueled.[23]

Locations[edit]

Consulting firm Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik tracks global hydrogen filling stations and publishes a map.[24]

Asia[edit]

In 2019, there were 178 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[25]

Japan[edit]

Hydrogen station in Ariake, Tokyo

As of May 2023, there are 167 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[26][27]

Japan built hydrogen filling stations under the JHFC project from 2002 to 2010 to test hydrogen generation technologies.[28] By the end of 2012 there were 17 hydrogen stations.[29] In 2021, there were 137 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[4]

China[edit]

By the end of 2020, China had built 118 hydrogen refueling stations.[30]

South Korea[edit]

In 2019, there were 33 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[25][31] In November 2023, however, due to hydrogen supply problems and broken stations, most fueling stations in South Korea offered no hydrogen.[32] 41 out of the 159 hydrogen stations in the country were listed as open, and some of these were rationing supplies of hydrogen.[33]

As of 2018, approximately 18,000 fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) had been produced in Korea (domestic demand: 9,000 vehicles).[34]

Europe[edit]

In 2019, there were 177 stations in Europe.[25][35][36] By early 2024 that number had grown to 178, half of which were in Germany.[37]

Germany[edit]

As of June 2020, there were 84 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[35]

France[edit]

As of June 2020, there were 5 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[35]

Iceland[edit]

As of June 2020, there were 3 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[35]

Italy[edit]

As of June 2020, there was one publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[35]

Netherlands[edit]

As of June 2020, there are 4 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[35]

Denmark[edit]

As of June 2020, there were 6 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[35] Everfuel, the only operator of hydrogen stations in Denmark, announced in 2023 that it is closing all of its public hydrogen stations in the country.[38][39]

Belgium[edit]

As of June 2020, there were 2 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[35]

Norway[edit]

As of June 2021, there were 2 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation, both in the Oslo area.[40] Since the explosion at the hydrogen filling station in Sandvika in June 2019, the sale of hydrogen cars in Norway has halted.[41] In 2023, Everfuel announced that it is closing its two public hydrogen stations in Norway and cancelling the opening of a third.[38]

Sweden[edit]

As of June 2020, there were 4 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[35]

Switzerland[edit]

As of June 2020, there were 3 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[35]

United Kingdom[edit]

As of June 2020, there were 11 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation,[35] but as of 2023, the number decreased to 5.[42]

In 2011 the first public hydrogen station in the UK opened in Swindon.[43] In 2014 the London Hatton Cross station opened.[44] In 2015, the London Hydrogen Network Expansion project opened the first supermarket-located hydrogen refuelling station at Sainsbury's in Hendon.[45] As of 2015, there were two publicly accessible hydrogen refuelling stations in Aberdeen.[46]

In 2022, Shell closed its three hydrogen stations in the UK.[47]

North America[edit]

Canada[edit]

As of July 2023, there were 10 fueling stations in Canada, 9 of which were open to the public:

  • British Columbia: Five stations in the Greater Vancouver Area and Vancouver Island, with one station in Kelowna. All six stations are operated by HTEC (co-branded with Shell and Esso).[48]
  • Ontario: One station in Mississauga, which is operated by Hydrogenics Corporation. The station is only available to certain commercial customers.[49]
  • Quebec: Three stations in the Greater Montreal area, which is operated by Shell, and one station in Quebec City, operated by Harnois Énergies (co-branded with Esso).[49]

United States[edit]

As of December 2023, there were 58 publicly accessible hydrogen refueling stations in the US, 57 of which were located in California, with one in Hawaii.[20]

  • Arizona: A prototype hydrogen fuelling station was built in Phoenix to demonstrate that they could be built safely in urban areas.[50][51] As of November 2023, no publicly accessible stations were in operation in Arizona.[20]
  • California: As of December 2023, there were 57 retail stations.[20] Continued state funding for hydrogen refueling stations is uncertain.[52] In September 2023, Shell announced that it had closed its hydrogen stations in the state and discontinued plans to build further stations.[53] In 2024 it was reported that "a majority of the hydrogen stations in Southern California are offline or operating with reduced hours" due to hydrogen shortages and unreliable station performance.[54]
  • Hawaii opened its first hydrogen station at Hickam in 2009.[55][56] In 2012, the Aloha Motor Company opened a hydrogen station in Honolulu.[57] As of April 2023, however, only one publicly accessible station was in operation in Hawaii.[20]
  • Massachusetts: The French company Air Liquide built a hydrogen fuelling station in Mansfield, Massachusetts in 2018, one of four stations they built as part of a plan to expand the hydrogen fuelling infrastructure in the Northeastern U.S.[58] As of April 2016 a hydrogen fuelling station was located at the Billerica, Massachusetts headquarters of fuel cell manufacturer Nuvera.[59] As of November 2023, no publicly accessible stations were in operation in Massachusetts.[20]
  • Michigan: In 2000, the Ford Motor Company and Air Products & Chemicals opened the first hydrogen station in North America in Dearborn, MI.[60] As of November 2023, no publicly accessible stations were in operation in Michigan.[20]
  • Missouri's only hydrogen filling station is located at the Missouri University of Science and Technology campus.[61] As of November 2023, no publicly accessible stations were in operation in Missouri.[20]
  • Ohio: A hydrogen filling station opened in 2007 on the campus of Ohio State University at the Center for Automotive Research. This station is the only one in Ohio.[62] As of November 2023, no publicly accessible stations were in operation in Ohio.[20]
  • Vermont: A hydrogen station was built in 2004 in Vermont in Burlington, Vermont, partially funded through the United States Department of Energy's Hydrogen Program.[63] As of November 2023, no publicly accessible stations were in operation in Vermont.[20]

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

In March 2021, the first Australian publicly available hydrogen fuel station opened in Canberra operated by ActewAGL.[64]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Apostolou, D.; Xydis, G. (2019). "A literature review on hydrogen refuelling stations and infrastructure. Current status and future prospects" (PDF). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 113: 109292. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2019.109292. S2CID 201240559.
  2. ^ "LA gas station gets hydrogen fuel pump". NBC News. 27 June 2008. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  3. ^ "SAE International -- mobility engineering". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  4. ^ a b c Can Samsun, Remzi; Antoni, Laurent; Rex, Michael; Stolten, Detlef (2021). "Deployment Status of Fuel Cells in Road Transport: 2021 Update" (PDF). International Energy Agency (IEA) Advanced Fuel Cells Technology Collaboration Programme (AFC TCP). Forschungszentrum Jülich.
  5. ^ a b "Transportable Hydrogen Dispensing", Protium.aero, May 2, 2016
  6. ^ Another off-site concept, by Bioenergy Concept GmbH, which has not been commercialized, involves filling hydrogen in cartridges and transporting them to a filling station, where the empty cartridges are replaced with new ones. See "Bioenergy Concept GmbH - Your Expert for Bioenergy Projects". Bioenergy Concept GmbH. Retrieved 2022-04-08. and "Patent für Wasserstofftankstelle". It is hoped that this process would save about 33% of energy (Kwh/KgH2) used by conventional transportation. See "DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record" (PDF).
  7. ^ Hydrogenics HomeFueler as a home hydrogen fueling station; Simple.fuel as a home hydrogen fueling station; Ivys Energy Solutions simple.fuel; and Home hydrogen fueling station term
  8. ^ "SHFA Model 300", Millennium Reign Energy, accessed April 26, 2023
  9. ^ "Hydrogen Purification" (PDF). Home Power. 67: 42. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-08-13.
  10. ^ "Diaphragm Compressors". Pressure Products Industries, Inc. Archived from the original on 2007-09-21. Retrieved 2007-06-23.
  11. ^ See, for example, Lincoln Composites Tuffshell tanks Archived 2007-06-04 at the Wayback Machine, as recommended by Roy McAlister in the "Hydrogen Car and Multi Fuel Engine" DVD
  12. ^ "Solar Hydrogen Production by Electrolysis" (PDF). Home Power. 39. February–March 1994. Retrieved 2007-06-23.
  13. ^ "Realising the hydrogen economy", Power Technology, October 11, 2019
  14. ^ Utgikar, Vivek P; Thiesen, Todd (2005). "Safety of compressed hydrogen fuel tanks: Leakage from stationary vehicles". Technology in Society. 27 (3): 315–320. doi:10.1016/j.techsoc.2005.04.005.
  15. ^ Dobson, Geoff (12 June 2019). "Exploding hydrogen station leads to FCV halt". EV Talk.
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  49. ^ a b Canada, Natural Resources (2018-01-05). "Electric Charging and Alternative Fuelling Stations Locator". www.nrcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2022-08-14.
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  51. ^ Idaho National Laboratory Archived 2006-09-26 at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ Begert, Blanca. "Is this the end of the hydrogen highway?", Politico, August 15, 2023
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  54. ^ Hogan, Mack. "Shell Is Immediately Closing all of Its California Hydrogen Stations", Inside EVs, February 9, 2024
  55. ^ Hawaii hydrogen power park
  56. ^ First solar-powered hydrogen plant in AF complete on Hickam Archived 2013-02-19 at the Wayback Machine
  57. ^ "Fuel Cell Scooters and Solar Hydrogen Refuelling Station Launched in Hawaii". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  58. ^ Edelstein, Stephen (9 October 2018). "Hydrogen Fuelling Stations are Being Built in New York and New England". The Drive. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  59. ^ Salomon, Sanjay (8 April 2016). "2 hydrogen refuelling stations to open in Massachusetts next year". Boston.com. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  60. ^ Motavalli, Jim (2001). Breaking Gridlock: Moving Towards Transportation That Works. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. p. 145. ISBN 978-1-57805-039-0.
  61. ^ "Missouri's First Hydrogen Fuel Station Welcomes Cars on Tour". Environment News Service. August 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
  62. ^ "Center for Automotive Research unveils first hydrogen refuelling station in Ohio". Ohio State University College of Engineering. April 20, 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-23.
  63. ^ Evermont renewable hydrogen fuelling station
  64. ^ "Hydrogen refuelling station opens in Canberra". Australian Capital Territory Government (Press release). 26 March 2021. Retrieved 1 April 2021.

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External links[edit]