Hydrogen station

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Hydrogen fueling pump

A hydrogen station is a storage or filling station for hydrogen. The hydrogen is dispensed by weight.[1][2] There are two filling pressures in common use. H70 or 700 bar, and the older standard H35 or 350 bar. California no longer requires that hydrogen stations carry H35, so this standard is becoming obsolete.

Hydrogen filling stations by country[edit]

A global map of hydrogen filling stations is available.[3]

Asia[edit]

In 2019, there were 178 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[4]

Japan[edit]

In 2019, there were 114 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[4]

Japan built a number of hydrogen filling stations under the JHFC project from 2002 to 2010 to test various technologies of hydrogen generation.[5] By the end of 2012 there were 17 hydrogen stations and 19 new stations were expected to be installed by 2015.[6] The Japanese government expects to add up to 100 hydrogen stations under a budget of $460 million. That amount covers 50% of the installation costs, with the last stations operational by 2015.[7][8] JX Energy expects to install 40 stations by 2015,[9] and another 60 between 2016 and 2018.[10] Toho Gas and Iwatani Corp[11] After that, they expect to install an additional 20 stations.[12] Toyota Tsusho and Air Liquide made a joint venture to build 2 hydrogen stations, which were planned to be ready by 2015.[13] Osaka Gas planned 2 stations for 2014–15.[14] A task force led by Yuriko Koike, Japan's former environment minister, and supported by the country's Liberal Democratic Party, was set up to oversee the process.[15]

China[edit]

In 2019, there were 27 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[4]

South Korea[edit]

In 2019, there were 33 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[4]

As of 2018, approximately 18,000 fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) were produced in Korea (domestic demand: 9,000 vehicles), which means that more hydrogen recharging stations are required across the country. In response to the rising demand for FCEVs, the Korean government established plans to increase the number of hydrogen recharging stations to 310 by 2022.[16]

Europe[edit]

In 2019, there were 177 stations in Europe and 43 under construction.[4][17][18]

Germany[edit]

As of June 2020, there are 84 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation and 21 under construction.[17]

France[edit]

As of June 2020, there are 5 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation and 2 under construction.[17]

Iceland[edit]

As of June 2020, there are 3 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[17]

Italy[edit]

As of June 2020, there is one publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[17]

Netherlands[edit]

As of June 2020, there are 4 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation and 3 under construction.[17]

Denmark[edit]

As of June 2020, there are 6 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation and 1 under construction.[17]

Belgium[edit]

As of June 2020, there are 2 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[17]

Norway[edit]

As of June 2020, there are 6 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation and 4 under construction.[17]

Sweden[edit]

As of June 2020, there are 4 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation.[17]

Switzerland[edit]

As of June 2020, there are 3 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation and 4 under construction.[17]

United Kingdom[edit]

As of June 2020, there are 11 publicly available hydrogen fuel stations in operation and 1 under construction.[17]

In 2011 the first public hydrogen station opened in Swindon.[19] In 2014 the London Hatton Cross station opened.[20] On March 11, 2015, the London Hydrogen Network Expansion project opened the first supermarket-located hydrogen refuelling station at Sainsbury's in Hendon.[21] Aberdeen opened its first hydrogen station in 2015, in Kittybrewster, for buses and council vehicles. In 2018 this station opened to the public, and in 2017 a second station was opened in the suburb of Cove Bay.[citation needed] Hydrogen stations in Bedfordshire and Stratford were scheduled to open to the public before 2016.[22] The HyFive project had 3 stations planned for London by 2015.[23] On October 9, 2014, the British government announced funding of £11 million to have 15 public hydrogen refuelling stations built at the end of 2015.[24] In September 2015, Shell and ITM Power announced a strategic siting partnership for the placement of an initial three ITM hydrogen refuelers on Shell forecourts in London and the South East of the UK.[25]

North America[edit]

Canada[edit]

In 2018, Shell Canada launched an initiative to build hydrogen fueling stations starting with the first in Vancouver. They planned on building at least two more within the city.[26]

United States[edit]

As of January 2021, there were 45 publicly accessible hydrogen refueling stations in the US, 43 of which were located in California.[27]

  • Arizona: A prototype hydrogen fuelling station was built in compliance with all of the prevailing safety, environmental and building codes in Phoenix to demonstrate that such fuelling stations could be built in urban areas.[28][29] As of January 2021, no publicly accessible stations were in operation in Arizona.[27]
  • Connecticut. As of January 2021, one publicly accessible station was in operation in Connecticut.[27]
  • Hawaii opened its first hydrogen station at Hickam in 2009.[33][34] In 2012, the Aloha Motor Company opened a hydrogen station in Honolulu.[35] As of January 2021, however, only one publicly accessible station was in operation in Hawaii.[27]
  • Massachusetts: The French company Air Liquide completed construction of a new hydrogen fuelling station in Mansfield, Massachusetts in October 2018, one of four stations they built as part of an expansion of the hydrogen fuelling infrastructure in the Northeastern U.S.[36] The only other hydrogen fuelling station in Massachusetts is located at the Billerica, Massachusetts headquarters of fuel cell manufacturer Nuvera.[37] As of January 2021, no publicly accessible stations were in operation in Massachusetts.[27]
  • Ohio: A hydrogen filling station opened in 2007 on the campus of The Ohio State University at the Center for Automotive Research. This station is the only one in Ohio.[40] As of January 2021, no publicly accessible stations were in operation in Ohio.[27]
  • Vermont: A hydrogen station was built in 2004 in Vermont in Burlington, Vermont. The project was partially funded through the United States Department of Energy’s Hydrogen Program.[41] As of January 2021, no publicly accessible stations were in operation in Vermont.[27]

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

In March 2021, the first Australian publicly available hydrogen fuel station opened in Canberra operated by ActewAGL.[42]

Delivery methods[edit]

Hydrogen recharging stations can be divided into off-site stations and on-site stations depending on how they supply hydrogen to vehicles (whether they produce their own hydrogen or not). Hydrogen recharging stations that have been built across Korea at the moment are mostly off-site (tube trailer-type) stations.[citation needed]

Sort Method
Off-site hydrogen recharging station

(Hydrogen supplied from an external source)

Hydrogen supplied from an external source

Hydrogen produced from a plant is supplied via pipelines, tube trailers, etc.

On-site hydrogen recharging station

(Hydrogen produced directly at the station)

Hydrogen produced by extracting (reforming) natural gas, electrolysis, etc. at the recharging station

Types of recharging stations[edit]

Hydrogen highway[edit]

A hydrogen highway is a chain of hydrogen-equipped filling stations and other infrastructure along a road or highway. Italy and Germany are collaborating to build a hydrogen highway between Mantua in northern Italy and Munich in southern Germany.[citation needed]

Home hydrogen fueling station[edit]

Home hydrogen fueling stations are available to consumers.[43][44][45][46]

Solar powered water electrolysing hydrogen home stations are composed of solar cells, power converter, water purifier, electrolyzer, piping, hydrogen purifier,[47] oxygen purifier, compressor,[48] pressure vessels[49] and a hydrogen outlet.[50]

Daily recharging capacity[edit]

Currently, the hydrogen recharging stations built by Hyundai Motor Group can recharge up to 70 Hyundai Nexo[51] vehicles per day, assuming that the station is open for 14 hours daily.[52] However, hydrogen recharging stations without high-pressure (900bar) storage tanks may require some additional downtime to repressurize the hydrogen in its recharging system if they refuel too many vehicles in a day. In the future, hydrogen recharging stations moving forward will feature more robust equipment (minimum 1,200 kg/day for a 24-hour business day) to make sure they can serve a greater number of FCEVs.

Disadvantages[edit]

Pollution[edit]

As of 2019, 98% of hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming, which emits carbon dioxide.[53] The bulk of hydrogen is also transported to fueling stations in trucks, so pollution is also emitted in its transportation.[54]

Volatility[edit]

Hydrogen fuel is hazardous because of its low ignition energy, high combustion energy, and because it easily leaks from tanks.[55] Explosions at hydrogen filling stations have been reported.[56]

Supply[edit]

Hydrogen fuelling stations generally receive deliveries by truck from hydrogen suppliers. An interruption at a hydrogen supply facility can shut down multiple hydrogen fuelling stations due to an interruption of the supply of hydrogen.[57]

Costs[edit]

Since the turn of the millennium, filling stations offering hydrogen have been opening worldwide. However, they are far from replacing the existing extensive gasoline fuel station infrastructure, which in the US alone numbered 168,000 gas stations, in 2004,[58] which generated revenues of US$536 billion in 2014.[59] According to Joe Romm in his book The Hype About Hydrogen (2004), replacing these would cost a half trillion U.S. dollars.[60] According to NREL, a hydrogen fueling station costs between $1 million and $4 million to build.[61]

According to hydrogen industry group h2euro.org, the cost of the necessary European-wide hydrogen fueling infrastructure could be five times lower than the cost of the charging network required for battery and plug-in hybrid vehicles.[62] When viewed as cost per station, EV stations are cheaper than the $3 million per hydrogen station.[63] However, the reason that hydrogen infrastructure could be less expensive than electric, even though the individual station cost is higher, is quicker vehicle fueling and longer refueling intervals, thus needing far fewer hydrogen stations per million fuel cell cars than charging stations per million battery electric cars.[64]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "LA gas station gets hydrogen fuel pump". 27 June 2008. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  2. ^ "SAE International -- mobility engineering". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  3. ^ "Hydrogen Filling Stations Worldwide - H2-Stations - netinform". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e "In 2019: 83 New Hydrogen Refuelling Stations Worldwide". FuelCellsWorks. 19 February 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  5. ^ "JHFC Phase2:FY 2006 - 2010 - JHFC Japan Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Demonstration Project". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  6. ^ "fuelcellinsider.org - Index". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  7. ^ Initiative to Promote a Diffusion of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Archived 2014-02-10 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "Demonstration Program for Establishing a Hydrogen-Based Social System". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  9. ^ "JX Energy Planning 40 Hydrogen Refuelling Stations in Japan by 2015". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  10. ^ JX Nippon Oil to build 100 hydrogen stations in Japan
  11. ^ "Iwatani Corporation-NewsRelease". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  12. ^ Iwatani 2012
  13. ^ Japan: Air Liquide signs partnership with Toyota Tsusho for hydrogen supply of fuel cell electric vehicles Archived 2013-12-03 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ "Osaka Gas to build two hydrogen stations for fuel-cell cars". 27 August 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2016 – via Japan Times Online.
  15. ^ "Japanese task force supports hydrogen fuel for transportation - Hydrogen Fuel News". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  16. ^ "310 Hydrogen Refuelling Stations In Korea By 2022 – Industry And Government Launch Dialogue To Accelerate Roadmap To Mass Market". Hydrogen Council (Press release). 6 February 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Filling up with H2". H2.Live - Hydrogen Stations in Germany & Europe. 2020-06-10. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  18. ^ "About - Hydrogen Mobility Europe". Hydrogen Mobility Europe. Retrieved 2020-03-24.
  19. ^ Madslien, Jorn (20 September 2011). "Is hydrogen the future of motoring?". BBC News. Retrieved 4 October 2016 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  20. ^ "Continuing HyTEC progress in London for hydrogen fuelling". Fuel Cells Bulletin. 2014 (5): 6–7. 2014. doi:10.1016/S1464-2859(14)70135-X. ISSN 1464-2859.
  21. ^ "Unveiling of UK's First Hydrogen Fuelling Dispenser" (PDF) (Press release). London Hydrogen Network Expansion. 11 March 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2021 – via The UK Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association.
  22. ^ "LHNE project kick-starts UK hydrogen refuelling network". Scottish Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Association. Archived from the original on 2013-12-03.
  23. ^ "Three new hydrogen refuelling stations for London". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  24. ^ "Multi-million pound fund to get hydrogen cars moving - Press releases - GOV.UK". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  25. ^ "Strategic Forecourt Siting Partnership Signed". ITM Power (Press release). 10 September 2015. Archived from the original on 2019-04-23. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  26. ^ "Shell And HTEC launch Canada's first retail hydrogen vehicle refuelling station". www.shell.ca. Retrieved 2019-03-03.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State, Alternative Fuels Data Center, accessed January 11, 2021.
  28. ^ Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report Archived 2006-09-26 at the Wayback Machine (Report INEEL / EXT-O3-00976 of the Idaho National Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy)
  29. ^ Idaho National Laboratory Archived 2006-09-26 at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ "California Hydrogen Activities". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  31. ^ "California Hydrogen Highway". Archived from the original on 2012-09-20. Retrieved 2013-09-09.
  32. ^ Governor Brown Signs AB 8 Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ Hawaii hydrogen power park
  34. ^ First solar-powered hydrogen plant in AF complete on Hickam Archived 2013-02-19 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ "Fuel Cell Scooters and Solar Hydrogen Refuelling Station Launched in Hawaii". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  36. ^ Edelstein, Stephen. "Hydrogen Fuelling Stations are Being Built in New York and New England". The Drive. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  37. ^ Salomon, Sanjay (8 April 2016). "2 hydrogen refuelling stations to open in Massachusetts next year". Boston.com. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  38. ^ Motavalli, Jim (2001). Breaking Gridlock: Moving Towards Transportation That Works. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. p. 145. ISBN 978-1-57805-039-0.
  39. ^ "Missouri's First Hydrogen Fuel Station Welcomes Cars on Tour". Environment News Service. August 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
  40. ^ "Center for Automotive Research unveils first hydrogen refuelling station in Ohio". Ohio State University College of Engineering. April 20, 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-23.
  41. ^ Evermont renewable hydrogen fuelling station
  42. ^ "Hydrogen refuelling station opens in Canberra". Australian Capital Territory Government (Press release). 26 March 2021. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  43. ^ Hydrogenics HomeFueler as a home hydrogen fueling station
  44. ^ Simple.fuel as a home hydrogen fueling station
  45. ^ Ivys Energy Solutions simple.fuel
  46. ^ Home hydrogen fueling station term
  47. ^ "Hydrogen Purification" (PDF). Home Power. 67: 42. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-08-13.
  48. ^ "Diaphragm Compressors". Pressure Products Industries, Inc. Archived from the original on 2007-09-21. Retrieved 2007-06-23.
  49. ^ See, for example, Lincoln Composites Tuffshell tanks Archived 2007-06-04 at the Wayback Machine, as recommended by Roy McAlister in the "Hydrogen Car and Multi Fuel Engine" DVD
  50. ^ "Solar Hydrogen Production by Electrolysis" (PDF). Home Power. 39. February–March 1994. Retrieved 2007-06-23.
  51. ^ Storage capacity of NEXO for hydrogen: 6.33kg (typically, 4~5kg of hydrogen is replenished at a time)
  52. ^ Specifications for a hydrogen recharging station built by Hyundai Motor Group: 25kg/hr (recharges 250kg/day on a 10-hour business day, 600kg/day on a 24-hour business day)
  53. ^ "Realising the hydrogen economy", Power Technology, October 11, 2019
  54. ^ "Transportable Hydrogen Dispensing", Protium.aero, May 2, 2016
  55. ^ Utgikar, Vivek P; Thiesen, Todd (2005). "Safety of compressed hydrogen fuel tanks: Leakage from stationary vehicles". technology in Society. 27 (3): 315–320. doi:10.1016/j.techsoc.2005.04.005.
  56. ^ Dobson, Geoff (12 June 2019). "Exploding hydrogen station leads to FCV halt". EV Talk.
  57. ^ Woodrow, Melanie. "Bay Area experiences hydrogen shortage after explosion", ABC news, June 3, 2019
  58. ^ "How many gas stations are there in the U.S?". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  59. ^ "Business and Industry: Time Series / Trend Charts". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  60. ^ Romm, Joseph (2004). The Hype about Hydrogen, Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate. New York: Island Press. ISBN 978-1-55963-703-9. Chapter 5
  61. ^ "Review of Transportation Hydrogen Infrastructure Performance and Reliability". National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 2019. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  62. ^ "EHA » Infrastructure and Cost Reduction Key to European Deployment of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  63. ^ "Global Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Market Buoyed as OEMs Will Launch 17 Vehicle Models by 2027, IHS Says". IHS Inc. 4 May 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
  64. ^ Robinius, Martin; Linßen, Jochen; Grube, Thomas; Reuß, Markus; Stenzel, Peter; Syranidis, Konstantinos; Kuckertz, Patrick; Stolten, Detlef (2018). Comparative Analysis of Infrastructures: Hydrogen Fuelling and Electric Charging of Vehicles (PDF). Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH Zentralbibliothek, Verlag Jülich. p. 73. ISBN 978-3-95806-295-5. Retrieved 11 August 2018.

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External links[edit]