|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2010)|
Kawah Ijen volcano
|Elevation||2,799 m (9,183 ft)|
|Last eruption||June 1999|
The Ijen volcano complex is a group of stratovolcanoes in the Banyuwangi Regency of East Java, Indonesia. It is inside a larger caldera Ijen, which is about 20 kilometers wide. The Gunung Merapi stratovolcano is the highest point of that complex. The name "Gunung Merapi" means "mountain of fire" in the Indonesian language (api being "fire"); Mount Merapi in central Java and Marapi in Sumatra have the same etymology.
West of Gunung Merapi is the Ijen volcano, which has a one-kilometer-wide turquoise-colored acid crater lake. The lake is the site of a labor-intensive sulfur mining operation, in which sulfur-laden baskets are carried by hand from the crater floor. The work is paid well considering the cost of living in the area, but is very onerous. Workers earn around Rp 50,000 - 75,000 ($5.50-$8.30) per day and once out of the crater, still need to carry their loads of sulfur chunks about three kilometers to the nearby Pultuding Valley to get paid.
Many other post-caldera cones and craters are located within the caldera or along its rim. The largest concentration of post-caldera cones run east-west across the southern side of the caldera. The active crater at Kawah Ijen has a diameter of 722 metres (2,369 ft) and a surface area of 0.41 square kilometres (0.16 sq mi). It is 200 metres (660 ft) deep and has a volume of 36 cubic hectometres (29,000 acre·ft).
The lake is recognised as the largest highly acidic crater lake in the world. It is also a source for the river Banyupahit, resulting in highly acidic and metal-enriched river water which has a significant detrimental effect on the downstream river ecosystem. In 2008, explorer George Kourounis took a small rubber boat out onto the acid lake to measure its acidity. The pH of the water in the crater was measured to be 0.5 due to sulfuric acid.
Blue Fire Crater
Since National Geographic mentioned the electric-blue flame of Ijen, tourist numbers increased. The phenomenon has occurred for a long time, but beforehand there was no midnight hiking. A two-hour hike is required to reach the rim of the crater, followed by a 45-minute hike down to the bank of the crater. The blue fire is ignited sulphuric gas, which emerges from cracks at temperatures up to 600 degrees Celsius (1,112 degrees Fahrenheit).
The flames can be up to 5 meters (16 feet) high; some of the gas condenses to liquid and is still ignited. It is the largest blue flame area in the world and local people refer to it as 'Blue Fire'.
Sulfur mining at Ijen
An active vent at the edge of the lake is a source of elemental sulfur, and supports a mining operation. Escaping volcanic gasses are channelled through a network of ceramic pipes, resulting in condensation of molten sulfur. The sulfur, which is deep red in color when molten, pours slowly from the ends of these pipes and pools on the ground, turning bright yellow as it cools. The miners break the cooled material into large pieces and carry it away in baskets. Miners carry loads ranging from 75 kilograms (165 lb) to 90 kilograms (200 lb), up 300 metres (980 ft) to the crater rim, with a gradient of 45 to 60 degrees and then 3 kilometers (1.86 miles) down the mountain for weighing. Most miners make this journey twice a day. A nearby sugar refinery pays the miners by the weight of sulfur transported; as of September 2010, the typical daily earnings were equivalent to approximately $13 US. The miners often receive insufficient protection while working around the volcano  and complain of numerous respiratory afflictions. There are 200 miners, who extract 14 tons per day - about 20 percent of the continuous daily deposit.
Ijen and its sulfur mining was featured in the 1991 IMAX film Ring of Fire, and as a topic on the 5th episode of the BBC television documentary Human Planet. In the documentary film War Photographer, journalist James Nachtwey visits Ijen and struggles with noxious fumes while trying to photograph workers. Michael Glawogger film Workingman's Death is about sulfur workers.
- Megan Lane, “Sulphur mining in an active volcano,” BBC News. February 2011. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asiapacific-12301421
- Indra Harsaputra, Kawah Ijen: Between potential and threat', The Jakarta Post, 19 December 2011.
- "Ijen". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "University of Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Natural Pollution Caused by the Extremely Acidic Crater Lake Kawah Ijen, East Java, Indonesia" (PDF). Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- Measuring the acidity of Kawah Ijen crater lake
- Brian Clark Howard. "Stunning Electric-Blue Flames Erupt From Volcanoes". Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Robert Schrader. "The Dark Secret of Indonesia’s Blue-Fire Volcano". Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Think your work is hell? Thank your lucky stars you didn't have to mine sulphur for 12 hours in a volcano crater filled with toxic fumes that will probably kill you before you are 30 Daily Mail, 2012-10-16.
- Grunewald, Olivier (2010-12-08). "Kawah Ijen by night". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2013-10-11.
- "Kawah Ijen: Between potential & threat". The Jakarta Post, December 19, 2011. Check date values in:
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ijen.|
Banyuwangi travel guide from Wikivoyage
- "Ijen". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution.
- Ijen Gallery
- Volcanological Survey of Indonesia
- Official website of Indonesian volcanoes at USGS
- The Adventures Behind Filming Ring of Fire
- Large photogallery from Kawah Ijen
- Sulfur mining in Kawah Ijen (The Big Picture photo gallery at Boston.com)
- "Traditional sulfur mining in Kawah Ijen". Yahoo! News.
- More sulfur mining pictures at Ijen
- Spectacular Neon Blue Lava Pours From Indonesia's Kawah Ijen Volcano At Night (PHOTOS)