Inca Trail to Machu Picchu
The Inca Trail to Machu Picchu (also known as Camino Inca or Camino Inka) consists of three overlapping trails: Mollepata, Classic, and One Day. Mollepata is the longest of the three routes with the highest mountain pass and intersects with the Classic route before crossing Warmiwañusqa ("dead woman"). Located in the Andes mountain range, the trail passes through several types of Andean environments including cloud forest and alpine tundra. Settlements, tunnels, and many Incan ruins are located along the trail before ending the terminus at the Sun Gate on Machu Picchu mountain. The two longer routes require an ascent to beyond 4,200 metres (13,800 ft) above sea level, which can result in altitude sickness.
Concern about overuse leading to erosion has led the Peruvian government to place a limit on the number of people who may hike this trail per season, and to sharply limit the companies that can provide guides. As a result, advance booking is mandatory. A maximum of 500 people are allowed on the trail each day, of which only 200 are trekkers, the rest being guides and porters. As a result, the high season books out very quickly.
Trekkers normally take four or five days to complete the "Classic Inca Trail" but a two day trek from Km 104 is also possible.
It starts from one of two points: 88 km (55 miles) or 82 km (51 miles) from Cusco on the Urubamba River at approximately 2,800 metres (9,200 ft) or 2,600 metres (8,500 ft) altitude, respectively.
Both of these trail segments meet above the Inca ruins of Patallaqta (sometimes called Llaqtapata), a site used for religious and ceremonial functions, crop production, and housing for soldiers from the nearby hilltop site of Willkaraqay, an ancient pre-Inca site first inhabited around 500 BC. The trail undulates, but overall ascends along the Kusichaka River.
At the small village Wayllapampa ("grassy plain", Wayllabamba) the trail intersects with the "Mollepata Trail" at 3,000 metres (9,800 ft).
Small, permanent settlements are located adjacent to the trail, and Wayllapampa has approximately 400 inhabitants (130 families) spread along this portion of the trail. Pack animals—horses, mules, donkeys, and llamas—are allowed.
At Wayllapampa the trail to Machu Picchu turns west and begins ascending along a tributary of the Kusichaka. Because of previous damage caused by hooves, pack animals are not allowed on the remainder of the trail. For the same reason, metal-tipped trekking poles are not allowed on the trail.
As the trail ascends toward Warmi Wañusqa, or "Dead Woman's Pass", which resembles a supine woman, it passes through differing habitats, one of which is a cloud forest containing Polylepis trees. The campsite at Llulluch'apampa (Llulluchapampa) is located on this stretch of trail at 3,800 metres (12,500 ft). The pass itself is located at 4,215 m (13,829 ft) above sea level, and is the highest point on this, the "Classic" trail.
After crossing the pass the trail drops steeply into the Pakaymayu drainage. At a distance of 2.1 km and 600 m below the pass is the campground Pakaymayu.
After passing Pakaymayu the trail begins steeply ascending the other side of the valley. One kilometre along the trail, at an altitude of 3,750 metres (12,300 ft) is the Incan tampu Runkuraqay, ruins which overlook the valley. The site was heavily restored in the late 1990s.
The trail continues to ascend, passing a small lake named Quchapata (Cochapata) in an area that is recognized as deer habitat. This site had been used as a camp site. As with other sites that were being degraded due to overuse, camping is no longer allowed. The trail reaches the pass at an altitude of 3950 m.
The trail continues through high cloud forest, undulating, sometimes steeply while affording increasingly dramatic viewpoints of mountains and dropoffs. Next, the Sayaqmarka ("steep-place town") is reached followed by the tampu Qunchamarka. A long Inca tunnel and a viewpoint overlooking two valleys: the Urubamba and Aobamba (a broken word), are passed.
Another high point at altitude of 3650 m is crossed, followed by a campground, and then after a short descent, a site with extensive ruins. The name Phuyupatamarka ("cloud-level town") (phoo-yoo-patta-marka) is applied to both the campground, and the ruins. 
Hiram Bingham III discovered the site, but left most of it covered with vegetation. The Fejos team named the site, and uncovered the remainder. Design of the site closely follows the natural contours, and includes five fountains and an altar, which was probably used for llama sacrifice.
The trail then descends approximately 1000 metres including an irregular staircase of approximately 1500 steps, some of which were carved into solid granite. Vegetation becomes more dense, lush, and "jungle" like with an accompanying increase in butterflies and birds. A second Incan tunnel is along this section of trail.
Even before passing through the tunnel there are views down to the Willkanuta River, the first since leaving the river at Patallaqta. The number of these views increases. After the tunnel the town of Machupicchu (Aguas Calientes) can be seen, and trains running along the river can be heard. As the trail nears Intipata, it affords views of the "Two Day" Inca Trail (aka "Camino Real de los Inkas" or "One Day Inca Trail"). A small spur of the trail leads directly to Wiñay Wayna, while the main route continues to Intipata.
The name Wiñay Wayna (forever young) (win-yay-way-na) is used to refer to both a hostel–restaurant–camp site and a set of Inca ruins. Two groups of major architectural structures, a lower and upper, are set among multiple agricultural terraces at this concave mountainside site. A long flight of fountains or ritual baths utilizing as many as 19 springs runs between the two groups of buildings.
From Wiñay Wayna the trail undulates along below the crest of the east slope of the mountain named Machu Picchu. The steep stairs leading to Inti Punku ("sun gate") are reached after approximately 3 km. Reaching the crest of this ridge reveals the grandeur of the ruins of Machu Picchu, which lie below. A short downhill walk is the final section of the trail.
Inca Trail Permits
Because of its vast popularity, the Peruvian Government have initiated several schemes in an attempt to reduce human impact upon the trail and within the ancient city. The most notable scheme was initiated in 2001 when the government established a quota scheme whereby only a set amount of people would be allowed to hike along the Inca Trail each day. This scheme, which is still in effect today, means that any person wishing to hike the Inca Trail must obtain a permit prior to entering the trail. Without one you will not be allowed on the trail.
The scheme allows for 500 permits a day. Strangely, every single permit is released in January each year. Permits are sold on a first come first serve basis. This means that the permits are hot property and sell out extremely quickly, particularly in the high season. The 500 permits also include porters and guides. Another scheme by the government stated that ever trekker along the trail must be accompanied by a guide. This means that permits can only be obtained through a registered tour operator. All permits must be paired with an individual passport which means that purchasing last minute cancellation tickets is not possible. The government monitors the scheme strictly and there are several control points along the trail.
Most operators advise that you purchase your permits at least 6 months in advance to avoid disappointment. Even when booked early, operators cannot guarentee that they will secure you a permit when January comes.
Inca Trail Altitude
The Inca Trail altitude varies quite significantly and people often struggle with altitude sickness, especially if they have not spent much time in Cusco prior to trekking the trail.
Cusco stands at 3,200 metres and is already significantly higher than Machu Picchu itself, however, many sections of the Inca Trail are much higher.
Starting at 2,600 metres, the trail ascends to 3,300 metres on the first day. The second day ascends over Dead Woman's pass- the highest point on the Inca Trail at 4,200 metres. This is the most dangerous point in terms of altiude sickness, however, you do not spend long at this altitude and by the afternoon you'll be back at 3,600 metres.
The trail only descends from this point until you reach Machu Picchu at 2,430 metres. See graph.
- "Inca Trail Permits Reservations and Availability". Peru For Less. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
- "Operation Overbite" (PDF). Retrieved February 22, 2013. South American Explorer, No. 7, December 1980
- Explore the Inca Trail, p. 50
- Elorrieta Salazar, Fernando E. & Elorrieta Salazar, Edgar (2005) Cusco and the Sacred Valley of the Incas, page 123 ISBN 978-603-45-0911-5
- Adams, Mark. (2001) Turn Right at Macho Picchu. New York, NY:Dutton. pp.233,268–271,300.
- Cuzco Region Machu Picchu – Peru. ITMB Publishing International Travel Maps
- Explore the Inca Trail, p. 46
- Explore the Inca Trail, p. 51
- Camino Inka. Instituto Nactional de Cultura. Direccion Regional de Cultura Cuzco. Parque Arqueologic National de Machu Picchu. Ley No 28296
- Explore the Inca Trail, p. 52
- Explore the Inca Trail, p. 53.
- The Rough Guide to Peru. Dilwyn Jenkins. Contributor Dilwyn Jenkins. Rough Guides. 2003. page 169. ISBN 1-84353-074-0, ISBN 978-1-84353-074-9
- "Inca Trail Availability and Permits - Machu Picchu Trek". Machu Picchu Trek. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
- Lares trek, one of the alternative routes to Machu Picchu
- Salcantay trek
- Tourism in Peru
- The Chilean Inca Trail
- Inca road system
- Box, Ben; Frankham, Steve (2008). Cuzco & the Inca heartland (4 ed.). Footprint Books. ISBN 978-1-906098-20-9.
- Jenkins, Dilwyn (2003). The Rough Guide to Peru. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84353-074-9.
- Megarry, Jacquetta; Davies, Roy (2006). Explore the Inca Trail. Rucksack Readers. ISBN 978-1-898481-25-6.
- Moseley, Michael 1992. The Incas and their Ancestors: The archaeology of Peru. Thames and Hudson, New York.
- Hyslop, John, 1984. Inka Road System. Academic Press, New York.
- Inca: Lords of Gold and Glory. Virginia: Time-Life Books, 1992.
- Andean World: Indigenous History: Culture and Consciousness by Kenneth Adrien.
- Footprints Cusco and The Inca Trail Handbook by Peter Frost and Ben Box
- Jenkins, David "A Network Analysis of Inka Roads, Administrative Centers and Storage Facilities." Ethnohistory, 48:655–685 (Fall, 2001).
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