Indoor Football League
|Current season, competition or edition:|
2021 Indoor Football League season
|Claim to fame||America's longest continuously running indoor football league|
|No. of teams||17 (12 current, 5 dormant)|
|Headquarters||Grand Island, Nebraska|
|Sioux Falls Storm (7th title)|
|Most titles||Sioux Falls Storm (7)|
|Intense Football League & United Indoor Football|
The Indoor Football League (IFL) is a professional indoor American football league created in 2008 out of the merger between the Intense Football League and United Indoor Football. It has one of the largest number of currently active teams among indoor football leagues. The league has operated continuously under the same name and corporate structure longer than any other current indoor football league. IFL players earn US$250 per game played. The season is typically 14 games long, plus playoffs of two or more rounds.
The league was formed as a merger between the Intense Football League and United Indoor Football, announced the day before the 2008 National Indoor Bowl Championship, a game which pitted the champions of the two leagues against each other. The Sioux Falls Storm (United) defeated the Louisiana Swashbucklers (Intense) 54–42.
Of the 17 teams involved in the two previous leagues, 14 moved over to the new organization's 2009 season. An additional three teams came over from the CIFL and two expansion teams began their life in the new IFL. In the United Bowl, the Billings Outlaws (Intense Conference) took the league championship by defeating the RiverCity Rage (United Conference) by a score of 71–62.
After losing two teams to attrition after the end of the 2009 season, and a third in January 2010, the IFL then added another nine franchises to boost its membership to 25 for the 2010 season. Three of the new teams were expansion franchises. Two moved over from the Southern Indoor Football League and Continental Indoor Football League. After playing nine games of the 2010 season the Alaska Wild suspended operations, leaving only 24 teams to finish the year. In the United Bowl, the Billings Outlaws (Intense Conference) took the league championship by defeating the Sioux Falls Storm (United Conference) by a score of 43–34.
Seven new teams were added to the IFL for the 2011 season. Some of these were new expansion teams, and others moved to the IFL from the AIFA. The IFL also lost nine teams during the offseason, bringing the total number to 22 for 2011. In the United Bowl, the Sioux Falls Storm (United Conference) took the league championship by defeating the Tri-Cities Fever (Intense Conference) by a score of 37–10.
The league had 16 teams that played the 2012 season. For the 2012 season, the IFL switched to a two-conference format with no divisions, due in large part to the loss of all the Texas-based teams (except the Allen Wranglers) to the newly formed Lone Star Football League. The Wranglers brought attention to the league for offering a $500,000 contract to unemployed wide receiver Terrell Owens to become the team's part-owner and wide receiver. Owens accepted the contract. ESPN3 carried Owens's debut game against the Wichita Wild, but his association with the team and the league proved to be short-lived. The front office of the league saw changes as well, as Commissioner Tommy Benizio resigned. The league appointed assistant commissioner Robert Loving as the interim Commissioner.
On October 12, 2012, the Bloomington Edge announced that the team had been sold to the owners of the Bloomington Blaze hockey franchise and would relocate to the new Champions Professional Indoor Football League for the 2013 season. On January 21, 2013, the league announced that the owner of the Cheyenne Warriors had died and that the team would not be entering the league this season as planned.
The league added the Minnesota-based Bemidji Axemen to expand to 10 teams but the Chicago Slaughter were sold and changed leagues, returning the IFL to nine teams for the 2014 season. In February 2014, the league announced that it would return to Montana in 2015 with the new Billings Wolves franchise.
On July 27, 2014, Iowa Barnstormers president Jeff Lamberti hinted at joining the league by telling a local TV station that the franchise will explore "all options" in the off-season of their continuance to play, including leaving the Arena Football League and going to the IFL for 2015. They joined the IFL in August 2014, becoming the fourth active AFL/af2 franchise to leave for the IFL since the Texas Revolution (formerly the Arkansas Twisters), the Tri-Cities Fever and the Green Bay Blizzard. (The Revolution left the IFL for Champions Indoor Football before ceasing operations in May 2019.)
This was the first season the IFL utilized roster restrictions which call for all teams to carry no more than seven players with three or more years' experience in Indoor/Arena football. For the second consecutive season, an AFL team was strongly rumored to join the IFL, as Spokane Shock owner Nader Naini said on August 10, 2015 that he was considering all options for the team. On September 1, the Shock officially joined the IFL, becoming the fifth active AFL/af2 franchise to leave for the IFL since the aforementioned Barnstormers, Fever, Blizzard and Revolution. The Shock, however, would have to enter the IFL under a new identity as the Arena League announced on October 12 that they would retain the rights to the Shock logos and name, possibly for future use by another franchise in the state of Washington. The team subsequently held a name-the-team contest, which resulted in their new identity as the Spokane Empire.
On September 9, the Minnesota Havok (based in Mankato) were announced as an IFL team. However, on January 29, just four weeks before the 2016 season was to kick off, the Havok were terminated by the league for failing to meet operational standards.
On November 25, the Minnesota Axemen folded due to the team "Not fulfilling their commitments to the league." Commissioner Mike Allshouse called the move a proactive one to prevent the team having to fold mid-season.
Project FANchise, a group aiming to create a professional sports team where fans help run the day-to-day operations, announced they would operate a new team, the Salt Lake Screaming Eagles in Salt Lake City. A fan vote determined the team's name and logo, and select fans will have access to player personnel decisions and in-game play calling. Project FANchise also bought the Colorado Crush in October and began operating the team in the same manner.
During the 2016 season, the Billings Wolves' website was hacked, was never completely fixed, and was non-operational for months. Several former staff members claimed that the team had folded after the completion of the season. On October 24, 2016, the Wolves announced they had left the IFL because of state regulations and failing to find new ownership for the team.
On October 17, 2016, the IFL announced it had added the Arizona Rattlers, previously of the Arena Football League, for the 2017 season. The Rattlers were the third team in three consecutive seasons to leave the AFL for the IFL. The league rejected the bid of another former AFL franchise, the Jacksonville Sharks, who are located outside the IFL's regional territory. They subsequently announced their charter membership in an entirely new league, originally to have been called the Arena Development League but actually beginning play under the name National Arena League.
After the 2017 season came to a close, the website for the Colorado Crush was shut down with no formal announcement on the franchise's future. Project FANchise, which also ran the Salt Lake Screaming Eagles, had announced they would start their own league and left the IFL, with both teams going up for sale. No buyers for either team were subsequently found and the teams folded. On July 12, 2017, the Spokane Empire announced that they would be suspending operations effective immediately.
On July 25, 2017, the IFL announced that only the Arizona Rattlers, Cedar Rapids Titans, Green Bay Blizzard, Iowa Barnstormers, and Nebraska Danger had committed to play for 2018. However, expansion clubs and current member clubs had until September 1 to commit to the 2018 season. On August 30, the Sioux Falls Storm announced that they had joined Champions Indoor Football for 2018 after winning six consecutive championships from 2011 to 2016. The Storm was shortly followed by the Wichita Falls Nighthawks.
The IFL then added the Bloomington Edge and West Michigan Ironmen from the CIF on September 12. The CIF apparently then attempted to sue the IFL, Edge, and Ironmen for leaving the CIF after the two teams had already signed league affiliation agreements with the CIF for 2018. The IFL then threatened to sue the CIF, Storm, and Nighthawks in return despite neither former IFL team signing an affiliation agreement with the IFL for 2018. The CIF then retracted their lawsuit with the IFL but also removed the Storm and Nighthawks from their 2018 schedule. After the IFL meetings in October 2017, the Storm returned to the IFL but the Nighthawks had to suspend operations. While the CIF did drop the lawsuit against the IFL, it filed for an injunction against the Edge and Ironmen teams from participating in the IFL for breaking the terms of their signed affiliation agreements. A temporary injunction from participation in the league was granted on January 31, 2018, with the court ruling determining that both teams had been offered bribes from the owner of the Arizona Rattlers to break their contract with the CIF. The schedule was revised in February for the six participating teams stating the Edge and Ironmen were to return in 2019.
During the season, the Cedar Rapids Titans' ownership announced the team was for sale with hopes of selling to new local ownership. In June 2018, it was announced that the Titans had been sold to Roy Choi, a California-based businessman, with the intentions of keeping the team Cedar Rapids but would rebrand the team.
In August 2018, the IFL announced that the expansion Tucson Sugar Skulls, owned by Rattlers' coach Kevin Guy, were joining the league after being rumored to have joined the CIF. On September 7, the IFL announced that the Quad City Steamwheelers would join the league from the CIF. The Cedar Rapids team announced their rebrand as the Cedar Rapids River Kings on September 22. On October 5, the Bismarck Bucks of the CIF announced their move to the IFL. On November 19, the IFL announced another expansion team, the San Diego Strike Force, owned by the new Cedar Rapids owner Roy Choi to bring the league back up to ten teams. The addition of the Sugar Skulls and Strike Force gave the Rattlers geographic rivals, reducing that team's travel expenses in a league otherwise centered in the upper Midwest.
On August 20, 2019, the Duke City Gladiators joined the IFL after winning back-to-back CIF championships. On September 10, the Oakland Panthers, co-owned by former NFL running back Marshawn Lynch, joined the IFL for the 2020 season. On November 1, the league added the Spokane Shock after it was resurrected by former NFL player Sam Adams, with the Spokane team reacquiring the Shock brand following the Empire's folding in 2017. The Bosselman family were looking to sell the Nebraska Danger, but no owner was found before the deadline for participating in the 2020 season. On November 24, 2019, the IFL added a thirteenth team in Frisco, Texas, owned by the Germain family called the Frisco Fighters. The Germain family also purchased the sponsorship rights for the IFL, the management rights of the league's communications and marketing department, as well as a second expansion for the 2021 season in Columbus, Ohio, known as the Columbus Wild Dogs.
On June 26, 2020, the Columbus Wild Dogs announced it would not begin play until 2022. On August 19, 2020, the Massachusetts Pirates, formerly of the National Arena League, were added to the IFL for the 2021 season as the league's first East Coast-based team. On August 25, the league added the Northern Arizona Wranglers in Prescott Valley, Arizona, for the 2021 season, joining the Arizona Rattlers and Tucson Sugar Skulls as the third IFL team to be based in Arizona for 2021. On November 6, the Louisville Xtreme of Louisville, Kentucky, was added. The 2020 expansion Oakland Panthers, as well as the Cedar Rapids River Kings, Quad City Steamwheelers, and the San Diego Strike Force withdrew from the season due to the effects of the pandemic.
|Cedar Rapids River Kings||Cedar Rapids, Iowa||U.S. Cellular Center||5,700||2011||2012||2022||Victor Mann|
|Columbus Wild Dogs||Columbus, Ohio||Nationwide Arena||18,500||2019||2022||Bobby Olive|
|Oakland Panthers||Oakland, California||Oakland Arena||19,596||2019||2020||2022||Kurt Bryan|
|Quad City Steamwheelers||Moline, Illinois||TaxSlayer Center||9,200||2017||2019||2022||Cory Ross|
|San Diego Strike Force||San Diego, California||Pechanga Arena||12,000||2018||2019||2022||Burt Grossman|
Map of teams
Left for another league
- Amarillo Venom – Left IFL after 2011 season, now a member of Champions Indoor Football.
- Omaha Beef – Left IFL after 2012 season, now a member of Champions Indoor Football.
- Sioux City Bandits – Left IFL after 2010 season, now a member of Champions Indoor Football.
- West Michigan Ironmen – Attempted to join the IFL for the 2018 season from the CIF but was barred from joining. The team was sold in 2018 and the new ownership was announced as rejoining the CIF for 2019, but were not included for 2019. The team now a member of the American Arena League.
- Abilene Ruff Riders – Left IFL after 2010 season, now defunct.
- Bloomington Edge – Left IFL after 2012 season; rejoined the IFL for the 2018 season but was subsequently barred from playing in the IFL that season due to ligation over its departure from the CIF. Played an independent schedule in 2018 with the intent of rejoining the IFL in 2019, but were not included in the league schedule. In 2020 planned on joining the American Arena League, but lost out on the lease to the arena to another tenant and subsequently folded.
- Corpus Christi Hammerheads – Left IFL after 2010 season and later a member of Southern Indoor Football League, Lone Star Football League, Ultimate Indoor Football League, and American Indoor Football. Team is now defunct.
- Lehigh Valley Steelhawks – Left IFL after 2012 season and was later a member of the Professional Indoor Football League, American Indoor Football, and National Arena League. Team is now defunct.
- Louisiana Swashbucklers – Left IFL prior to inaugural season, now defunct.
- New Mexico Stars – Left IFL after 2012 season and later was a member of the Lone Star Football League and American Indoor Football. Team is now defunct.
- Saginaw Sting – Left for the Ultimate Indoor Football League after sitting out the 2010 season. Later played in the Ultimate Indoor Football League, Continental Indoor Football League, and American Indoor Football. Team is now defunct.
- Texas Revolution – Left IFL after 2014 season, now defunct.
- West Texas Roughnecks – Left IFL after 2011 season for the Lone Star Football League, now defunct.
- Wichita Wild – Left IFL after the 2012 season, for the Champions Indoor Football League, now defunct.
- Alaska Wild – Team suspended operations nine games into the 2010 season. The coach and multiple players left to play elsewhere and the team no longer had money to continue the season.
- Arctic Predators – Originally announced as 2010 IFL member, but stalemate between ownership group and head coach led to lease difficulties; IFL franchise moved and became the Kent Predators. (A different team with the name Arctic Predators then became a member of the American Indoor Football Association.)
- Arizona Adrenaline – Ceased operations before the end of the 2011 season. Some games were played with a replacement team.
- Austin Turfcats – Was not in IFL for 2011 season.
- Billings Outlaws – Owner suspended the 2011 season and never returned.
- Billings Wolves – Owner could not find a buyer for the team after the 2016 season and did not return.
- Bricktown Brawlers – Ceased operations before the end of the 2011 season. Final games were played with a replacement team.
- Charlotte Speed – Originally intended to play during the 2013 IFL season but left for the PIFL instead.
- Chicago Slaughter – Left IFL after 2013 season to join Continental Indoor Football League, but never played in it.
- Colorado Crush – Website shut down at the conclusion of the 2017 season after their owners, Project FANchise, left the league to start their own league.
- El Paso Generals – Owners attempted to sell the team and after 2009 season and never returned.
- Everett Raptors – Team folded after 2012 season.
- Fairbanks Grizzlies – Owner suspended the 2012 season and never returned.
- La Crosse Spartans – Owners suspended the team and started the Cedar Rapids Titans. The team failed to find new ownership in 2011 and never returned.
- Maryland Maniacs – Owner suspended the 2011 season and never returned.
- Minnesota Axemen – Membership terminated in 2015 by the league due to franchise's failure to meet league obligations.
- Nebraska Danger – Joined in 2011; owner put the team up for sale at the end of the 2019 season and did not find a buyer before the 2020 season.
- Reading Express – Took 2013 season off and never returned.
- Richmond Revolution – Owner suspended the 2012 season and never returned.
- RiverCity Rage – Owner suspended them to focus on the Omaha Beef.
- Rochester Raiders – Owner suspended the 2011 season and never returned.
- Salt Lake Screaming Eagles – After Project FANchise left the IFL to start a new league, the Screaming Eagles were never able to secure new ownership.
- San Angelo Stampede Express – Owner suspended the 2011 season and never returned.
- Spokane Empire – Owner suspended operations after the 2017 season and eventually reacquired the Spokane Shock brand. The Shock returned to the league in 2020.
- Tri-Cities Fever – Team went dormant after the 2016 season with the franchise remaining in good standing with the IFL, but the current ownership has no plans for a return.
- Tucson Thunder Kats – Team joined the AIFA West before being officially accepted into the IFL but ended up suspending operations in November 2010 due to financial losses instead.
- West Michigan ThunderHawks – Owner suspended the 2011 season and never returned.
- Wenatchee Valley Venom – Owner suspended the 2012 season and never returned.
- Wichita Falls Nighthawks – Left for Champions Indoor Football after the 2017 season but folded due to league disputes.
- Wyoming Cavalry – Owner ceased operations in September 2014.
- Binghamton – Owner suspended the 2012 season and never returned.
- CenTex Barracudas – Originally announced as a 2009 IFL member but then was not included in 2009 alignment.
- Cheyenne Warriors – Owner died shortly before 2013 season began and team suspended IFL operations prior to first season. They played a few games in the DIFL, and shutdown entirely in May 2013.
- Everett Destroyers – Originally announced as a 2009 IFL member but then was not included in 2009 alignment.
- Frisco Thunder – Originally announced as 2009 IFL member but then announced they would take season off while Dr Pepper Arena was being renovated and never returned.
- Minnesota Havok – Announced for 2016 season but were terminated by the league one month prior to the season for failure to reach minimum operational standards.
United Bowl Championship
The United Bowl is the IFL's championship game. It has been played every year since 2009. The current United Bowl Champions are the Sioux Falls Storm, who won the United Bowl championship in 2019. The Sioux Falls Storm won six straight United Bowls from 2011 to 2016.
The IFL continues to use the "United Bowl" name originally used by United Indoor Football. The UIF used this name before they merged with Intense Football League to form the Indoor Football League. The UIF held United Bowl I, II, III, and IV in 2005 through 2008, with all four being won by the Sioux Falls Storm. Although the name "National Indoor Bowl Championship" was used for the 2008 contest between the UIF and the Intense Football League, the "United Bowl" name continues to be used for the combined league's championship instead.
The IFL streams all games through YouTube. Some teams also have individual contracts with local or regional TV and radio channels.
|Team||TV Station(s)||Radio Station(s)|
|Arizona Rattlers||Your Phoenix CW and Fox Sports Arizona||Fox Sports 910 Phoenix|
|Bismarck Bucks||BEK Sports||None|
|Duke City Gladiators||Univision Nuevo Mexico and KRQE 13||None|
|Frisco Fighters||CW33 (Dallas-Fort Worth) and CW39 (Houston)||None|
|Green Bay Blizzard||WFRV 5||None|
|Iowa Barnstormers||MC22||Newsradio 1040 WHO|
|Louisville Xtreme||WBKI (TV) and WDRB||None|
|Massachusetts Pirates||NESN, NESN Plus, and Eleven Sports||None|
|Northern Arizona Wranglers||Univision Arizona and KPHO 5||None|
|Sioux Falls Storm||Keloland Television||KWSN Sports Radio 1230 AM|
|Spokane Shock||KSKN CW22||KFOO Alt 96.1 FM|
|Tucson Sugar Skulls||The CW Tucson||KFFN ESPN Tucson 104.9 FM|
Hall of Fame
The Indoor Football League Hall of Fame was established in 2014. The inaugural 2014 class of inductees included quarterback Terrance Bryant, radio sportscaster Rich Roste and former IFL Commissioner Tommy Benizio. The 2015 class included quarterback Chris Dixon, running back LaRon Council and defensive back/kick returner B.J. Hill. The 2016 class included linebacker Mark Blackburn, defensive back Lionell Singleton and Colorado Ice/Crush owner Tom Wigley. The 2017 class included wide receiver James Terry, head coach Robert Fuller and defensive lineman Cory Johnsen.
- "IFL Announces Commissioner". IFL. October 10, 2019.
- "Sioux Falls Storm leaving IFL for Champions Indoor Football". Argus Leader. August 30, 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. Retrieved September 19, 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "IFL Elects Commissioner". www.keloland.com. KELO-TV. September 18, 2012. Retrieved September 19, 2012.
- Deacon, Joe (October 12, 2012). "Bloomington Edge sold to Blaze owner, changing to new league". Bloomington Pantagraph. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Zimmer, Mike (February 19, 2014). "Billings Wolves to bring indoor football back to Billings in 2015". Billings Gazette. Billings, Montana. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- Barnstormers May Leave AFL, Join Different League, John Sears, WHO-TV website, July 27, 2104
- New IFL roster regulations coming in 2016, Mike Leischner, KWSN website, June 17, 2105
- Shock weighing options for future league affiliation The Spokesman-Review, August 10, 2015
- "IFL Announces Addition of Spokane Shock". Indoor Football League. September 1, 2015. Retrieved September 1, 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 17, 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Google". www.google.com. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
- "Spokane Announces New Team Name And Logos". Indoor Football League. December 9, 2015. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
- "Minnesota Havok Join IFL". Indoor Football League. September 9, 2015. Retrieved September 9, 2015.
- Inc, Midwest Communications. "IFL folds Minnesota Havok". Sports Radio KWSN. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
- IFL Issues Statement on Minnesota Axemen, IFL website, November 25, 2015
- , by Mike Leischner, KWSN Website, December 3, 2015
- "IFL Issues Statement on Tri-Cities Fever". OurSports Central. June 30, 2016.
- "Billings Wolves suspend operations; team could return in 2018". MontanaSports.com. October 24, 2016. Archived from the original on October 26, 2016. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- "IFL Announces Addition of Arizona Rattlers". IFL. October 17, 2016.
- Coble, Don. "Jacksonville Sharks to create new league". The Florida Times-Union. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
- "WEEKLY SPORTS LEAGUE & FRANCHISE REPORT". OurSportsCentral. April 24, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
- "Spokane Empire to cease operations and will not play football in 2018". KHQ-TV. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
- "IFL Plans for 2018 Season". IFL. July 25, 2017.
- "Riggs: Storm will take time before committing to IFL for '18". KSWSN. July 25, 2017.
- "IFL Announces Addition of Bloomington & West Michigan". IFL. September 12, 2017.
- "Tryon addresses legal aspect of switching leagues". KWSN. October 5, 2017.
- "CIF Commissioner Issues State of the League Address". Salina Scoop. October 4, 2017. Archived from the original on October 5, 2017. Retrieved October 8, 2017.
- "LETTER FROM TODD TRYON". Sioux Falls Storm. October 4, 2017. Archived from the original on October 5, 2017. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
- "Nighthawks suspend operations for 2018". KAUZ-TV. October 16, 2017.
- "TEMPORARY INJUNCTION BARS RENEGADE TEAMS FROM LEAVING C.P.I.F.L." KSCJ. January 31, 2018.
- "Ironmen will be independent in 2018, due to ruling that leaves them without a league". Local Sports Journal. February 6, 2018.
- "Cedar Rapids Titans up for sale". KCRG-TV. January 30, 2018.
- "Cedar Rapids Titans Announce New Ownership". OurSportsCentral.com. June 19, 2018.
- Ryan Eucker (August 17, 2018). "LETTER TO FANS FROM GM RYAN EUCKER". CedarRapidsTitans.com.
- "TUCSON INDOOR FOOTBALL OFFICIALLY ANNOUNCE PLANS FOR THE 2019 SEASON". Tucson IFL team. Archived from the original on August 24, 2018. Retrieved August 27, 2018.
- Ryan Eucker (September 22, 2018). "Cedar Rapids IFL Announces New Team Name". CedarRapidsTitans.com.
- Kosirowski, Ken (October 5, 2018). "Bismarck Bucks moving to IFL, hire new general manager, head coach". MyNDNow. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
- "IFL Announces San Diego Expansion Team". OurSportsCentral.com. November 19, 2018.
- "Duke City Gladiators Join IFL". IFL. August 20, 2019.
- "Oakland Panthers Join IFL". GoIFL.com. September 10, 2019. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- "'We will be playing in 2020': Team officials formally announce Spokane Shock's return to the IFL". KXLY-TV. November 1, 2019.
- "Spokane Shock Join IFL". Indoor Football league. November 1, 2019.
- "Nebraska Danger's future uncertain with talk of sale". Nebraska.TV. July 16, 2019.
- "IFL Adds Team In Frisco, TX". IFL. November 24, 2019.
- "New indoor football team coming to Columbus in 2021". WCMH-TV. December 12, 2019.
- "Indoor Football League coming to Columbus in 2021". WSYX. December 12, 2019.
- "IFL Cancels Remaining 2020 Games". IFL. April 13, 2020.
- "Columbus' reborn arena football team postpones first season until 2022". Columbus Business First. June 26, 2020. Retrieved August 22, 2020.
- Bonner, Michael (August 19, 2020). "'An anchor team to build towards': Worcester Pirates become first east-coast team to join Indoor Football Leage, ink 3-year extension at DCU Center". The Republican. Retrieved August 19, 2020.
- Obert, Richard (August 25, 2020). "Indoor Football League expansion team officially coming to Prescott Valley". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved August 25, 2020.
- "LOUISVILLE JOINS IFL FOR 2021". Indoor Football League. November 6, 2020.
- "OAKLAND PANTHERS TO GO DORMANT FOR THE 2021 SEASON". Oakland Panthers. September 18, 2020.
- "Quad City Steamwheelers cancel 2021 season". KWQC. October 23, 2020.
- "2021 IFL SCHEDULE RELEASED". IFL. November 17, 2020.
- "Arizona Rattlers Announce Schedule for 2021 IFL Season". AZRattlers.com. November 17, 2020. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
- Weiter, Taylor (February 22, 2020). "Louisville Xtreme indoor football team to play at KFC Yum! Center". WHAS11.com. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
- Gazaway, Charles (February 22, 2021). "Louisville Xtreme to call KFC Yum! Center home". WAVE3.com. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
- "Wild Dogs Unleashed". ColumbusWildDogs.com. July 28, 2020. Retrieved August 21, 2020.
- "LSFL Welcomes West Texas and Amarillo". OurSports Central. October 5, 2011. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
- email@example.com, By Jerry Giese. "Journal Exclusive: Sioux City Bandits will leave IFL". Sioux City Journal. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
- "CIF Announced First Expansion Team for 2019". CIF. April 23, 2018. Archived from the original on April 25, 2018. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- "Barred from IFL, Edge to play as independent". The Pantagraph. February 6, 2018.
- Sandalow, Brian (July 27, 2010). "Board approves return of indoor football, signing imminent". The Monitor. Archived from the original on March 8, 2012.
- "Swashbucklers leave IFL for new SIFL". OurSports Central. October 28, 2008. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
- Saginaw Sting Named 6th And Final Team For UIFL, 2011 Season Now Set For Kick-Off Archived November 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- "IFL Takes Necessarry Action In Anchorage". OurSports Central. May 19, 2010. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
- services, Gazette news. "Outlaws get forfeit win". The Billings Gazette. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
- 2011 IFL Schedule Announced Archived December 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 22, 2011. Retrieved October 8, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Early in the game, SportsQuest is falling behind". Richmond BizSense. August 25, 2011. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
- "Owner shuts down IFL's River City". The Billings Gazette. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
- Tucson Thunderkats suspend operations Archived January 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Stecker, Brent. "Venom to sit out 2012 season". The Wenatchee World. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
- "IFL Announces Revised 2013 Schedule". Indoor Football League. January 21, 2013. Archived from the original on February 9, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- Nowlin, Jack (June 1, 2013). "Do Cavs have a future in Casper?". Casper Star-Tribune. Casper, Wyoming. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
- Riley, Alex (June 1, 2013). "Cheyenne Warriors have ceased operations". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
- "RATTLERS TO PARTNER WITH KASW-TV (YOUR PHOENIX CW) TO AIR HOME GAMES". Arizona Rattlers. February 11, 2019. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- "2019 UNITED BOWL TO BE TELEVISED ON FOX SPORTS ARIZONA PLUS". Arizona Rattlers. July 8, 2019. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- ""GUY TALK" WITH ARIZONA RATTLERS HEAD COACH KEVIN GUY RETURNS TO MAJERLE'S SPORTS GRILL IN CHANDLER ON MARCH 18". Arizona Rattlers. March 2, 2020. Retrieved March 7, 2020.
- "Bismarck Bucks Season Information". BEK Communications. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- "Partnerships - Cedar Rapids River Kings". www.goriverkings.com. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
- "Barnstormers Earn Best Game Broadcast". www.theiowabarnstormers.com. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
- "Louisville Xtreme and WDRB Media Announce TV Partnership". www.louxtreme.com. Retrieved December 6, 2020.
- "Pirates on TV". Official Website of the Massachusetts Pirates. May 24, 2020. Retrieved September 7, 2020.
- Inc, Midwest Communications. "Sioux Falls Storm Football". Sports Radio KWSN. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- "KSKN CW22 Named Home of Spokane Shock". Indoor Football League. February 20, 2020. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
- "Spokane Shock Announce Partnership with iHeartMedia's ALT 96-1". The Spokane Shock. February 20, 2020. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
- "Sugar Skulls". KGUN. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- "Official Media Guides". tucsonsugarskulls.com. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- "HALL OF FAME". goifl.com. Archived from the original on August 8, 2017. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Indoor Football League.|