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National Lacrosse League

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National Lacrosse League
Current season, competition or edition:
Current sports event 2024 NLL season
FormerlyEagle Pro Box Lacrosse League (1986–1988)
Major Indoor Lacrosse League (1988–1997)
SportBox lacrosse
Founded1986; 38 years ago (1986)
First season1987
CommissionerBrett Frood
No. of teams15
Countries Canada
(6 teams)
 United States
(9 teams)
HeadquartersPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Most recent
Buffalo Bandits
(6th title)
Most titlesPhiladelphia Wings
Toronto Rock
Buffalo Bandits
(6 titles each)
TV partner(s)TSN
Official websiteNLL.com

The National Lacrosse League (NLL) is a men's professional box lacrosse league in North America. The league is headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The NLL currently has fifteen teams: nine in the United States and six in Canada.[1] The NLL ranks third in average attendance for pro indoor sports worldwide, behind only the NHL and NBA.[2] Unlike other box lacrosse leagues, which play in the summer, the NLL plays its games in the winter and spring, from December to June. Each year, the playoff teams battle for the National Lacrosse League Cup. The NLL has averaged between 8,900 and 10,700 spectators per game each year since 2004.[3][4]

Box lacrosse rules[edit]

The NLL plays four 15-minute quarters with 2-minute breaks between quarters and a 15-minute half-time. At the start of the each quarter and after every goal, players "face-off" at the center of the field to determine who will get possession. This is done by the two players pushing the heads of their sticks together with the game ball in the middle. A scrum-like match usually happens when the players on either team try and win the ball.[5]

If a game is tied after regulation, the two teams play sudden death overtime. Each team may take a 45-second timeout per half. Each team dresses 19 players: 2 goaltenders and 17 "runners".[6] NLL goals are 4'9" wide and 4' tall.

The NLL uses a 30-second shot clock, which is similar to a professional or collegiate basketball shot clock. The clock starts its countdown once one team gets possession of the ball. If the offense does not shoot the ball in time, they lose possession. However, if the offense shoots on goal and then retrieves the ball, the shot clock is restarted.[5]

Fighting is a 5-minute major penalty and does not result in an automatic ejection.[7]

Season and playoffs[edit]

The Colorado Mammoth visit the Buffalo Bandits in Game 3 of the 2022 NLL Cup Finals

Each team in the NLL plays eighteen games during the regular season, nine each at home and away. The league has one standings table for its 15 teams. NLL games are typically played on Fridays, Saturdays, and Sundays while some weekends see teams play twice.

The regular season begins in December and ends in April. Starting in 2018, the league announced that the playoffs would be expanded to eight teams to accommodate expansion.[8]

Beginning with the 2024 season, the playoffs feature the top 8 teams in the standings. The first round is single-elimination, and the Conference Finals and Championship rounds are best-of-three.[9]


The NLL adopted a soft salary cap of US$400,000 per team for the 2013 season. The average base salary as of the 2013 season was $19,135.[10] The maximum salary for a franchise player is approximately $34,000.[11] Most NLL players have full-time jobs off the floor, such as Buffalo's John Tavares, a high school teacher in Mississauga, Ontario.[12] As of 2018, the NLL salary cap was $415,000, with Buffalo Business First reporter Paul Lane citing the following pay scale:[13]

  • Rookies: $10,208
  • Second-year players: $12,196–$16,631
  • Veteran minimum: $15,165
  • Veteran maximum: $30,132
  • Franchise player: $37,664
  • Average salary: $19,375.21

Although nine of the fifteen teams are based in the U.S., less than 7% of players are American. Approximately 83% are Canadian and 10% are Haudenosaunee, from either Canada or the U.S.[14]


Current teams[edit]

Beginning with the 2024 NLL season, the league eliminated its East and West Conferences that existed during the 2023 NLL season and all teams play in a single division with every team playing every other team at least once.[15] Beginning in the 2025 Season, the New York Riptide will relocate to Ottawa, Canada and rename themselves to the Ottawa Black Bears.[16]

Overview of NLL teams
Team City Arena Capacity Founded Joined Head coach
Albany FireWolves Albany, New York MVP Arena 14,236 1987* 2021 Glenn Clark
Buffalo Bandits Buffalo, New York KeyBank Center 19,070 1991 1992 John Tavares
Calgary Roughnecks Calgary, Alberta Scotiabank Saddledome 19,289 2001 2002 Josh Sanderson
Colorado Mammoth Denver, Colorado Ball Arena 17,809 1987* 2003 Pat Coyle
Georgia Swarm Duluth, Georgia Gas South Arena 11,355 2004* 2015 Ed Comeau
Halifax Thunderbirds Halifax, Nova Scotia Scotiabank Centre 10,595 1995* 2019 Mike Accursi
Las Vegas Desert Dogs Paradise, Nevada Michelob Ultra Arena 12,000 2021 2022 Shawn Williams
Ottawa Black Bears Ottawa, Ontario Canadian Tire Centre 18,655 2018* 2025 TBD
Panther City Lacrosse Club Fort Worth, Texas Dickies Arena 12,200 2020 2021 Tracey Kelusky
Philadelphia Wings Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Wells Fargo Center 19,543 2017 2018 Paul Day
Rochester Knighthawks Rochester, New York Blue Cross Arena 10,664 2019 2019 Mike Hasen
San Diego Seals San Diego, California Pechanga Arena 12,920 2017 2018 Patrick Merrills
Saskatchewan Rush Saskatoon, Saskatchewan SaskTel Centre 15,200 2005* 2015 Jimmy Quinlan
Toronto Rock Hamilton, Ontario First Ontario Centre 17,383 1998* 1999 Matt Sawyer
Vancouver Warriors Vancouver, British Columbia Rogers Arena 18,910 2000* 2013 Curt Malawsky

An asterisk (*) denotes the franchise moved to its present location and has been in one or more previous locations in its history (see franchise timeline below or team pages for relocation history).

The following lists franchises that are no longer active in the NLL.

Overview of former NLL teams
Team City Years active Notes
Washington Wave Washington, D.C. 1987–1989
New York Saints Uniondale, New York 1987–2003 Relocated from East Rutherford, New Jersey (New Jersey Saints)
Detroit Turbos Detroit, Michigan 1989–1994
Boston Blazers Boston, Massachusetts 1989–1997 Relocated from Worcester, Massachusetts (New England Blazers)
Pittsburgh Bulls Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 1990–1993
Charlotte Cobras Charlotte, North Carolina 1996
Arizona Sting Glendale, Arizona 2001–2007 Relocated from Columbus, Ohio (Columbus Landsharks)
Anaheim Storm Anaheim, California 2002–2005 Relocated from East Rutherford, New Jersey (New Jersey Storm)
Vancouver Ravens Vancouver, British Columbia 2002–2004
Portland LumberJax Portland, Oregon 2006–2009
Orlando Titans Orlando, Florida 2007–2010 Relocated from New York City (New York Titans)
Chicago Shamrox Hoffman Estates, Illinois 2007–2008
Boston Blazers Boston, Massachusetts 2009–2011 Not affiliated with the original Blazers
New York Riptide Uniondale, New York 2018–2024 Relocated to Ottawa (Ottawa Black Bears) starting in the 2024–25 season


NLL Progression
Year Teams Games played
1987 4 teams 6 games
1988 8 games
1989 6 teams
1991 10 games
1992 7 teams 8 games
1994 6 teams
1996 7 teams 10 games
1997 6 teams
1998 7 teams 12 games
2000 8 teams
2001 9 teams 14 games
2002 13 teams 16 games
2003 12 teams
2004 10 teams
2006 11 teams
2007 13 teams
2008 12 teams
2010 11 teams
2011 10 teams
2012 9 teams
2014 18 games
2019 11 teams
2020 13 teams 18 (12 played)
2021 Season cancelled
2022 14 teams 18 games
2023 15 teams

Eagle Pro Box Lacrosse League[edit]

The rebirth of major professional box lacrosse in the United States came on March 13, 1986, with the formation of the Eagle Pro Box Lacrosse League (EPBLL), which was incorporated by Russ Cline and Chris Fritz.[17] The "Eagle League" moniker was inspired by a meeting with Iroquois leaders, whose culture views the animal as a tutelary spirit.[18] Previously, in 1985, box lacrosse sponsored an event played at the Spectrum in Philadelphia. The USA/Canada Superseries was an eight-game series seen as a precursor to the new league.

Darrell Russell was named Commissioner of the league, which had four teams based in Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, D.C., and East Rutherford, New Jersey. The EPBLL opened play for the 1987 season with two games on 10 January 1987: the Philadelphia Wings at the New Jersey Saints (Philadelphia defeated New Jersey 11–8) and the Baltimore Thunder at the Washington Wave.

The four teams contested a six-game regular season before a postseason that saw all four teams qualify for a single knockout tournament, which ended with the Baltimore Thunder being crowned as the EPBLL's first champion.[17] Coached by Bob Griebe, the Baltimore Thunder defeated the Washington Wave by a score of 11–10 to capture the league's first championship.

The league announced that a total of 124,536 fans attended Eagle Pro Box Lacrosse League games in its first season.


The same four teams played in the second season of the EPBLL.[17] The teams expanded to an eight-game schedule, and set up a three-team playoff with the regular season winner claiming a bye to the title game. The New Jersey Saints became the second league champions by defeating the Washington Wave 17–16 before 8,125 fans at the Capital Centre. For the Wave, it was the second time in as many years they reached the championship game, only to lose a one-goal game.

After the season, the league announced that the champion Saints would relocate to the Nassau Coliseum on Long Island and be called the New York Saints beginning in the 1989 season. Moreover, the league itself would be chaning its name, adopting the more conventional Major Indoor Lacrosse League (MILL) name, as the spiritual implications of its original name proved too cryptic for most people to understand.[18]

The MILL announced that it awarded expansion teams to Detroit and Boston, to begin play in the 1989 season. The Detroit team was named the Turbos, and played at Joe Louis Arena; the Boston entry was called the New England Blazers and they played their home games at the Worcester Centrum.

Major Indoor Lacrosse League[edit]

MILL logo


Each of the six teams played an eight-game schedule in 1989, with an even four home and road games.

In its first ever regular season game, 12,171 fans watched the expansion Turbos defeat the Washington Wave 11–9 in Detroit to start 1989 season. As the season went on, regular season attendance figures for the league totaled at 230,724 for 24 regular season games, which made an average of 9,614 people in the stands per game. When adding the postseason, the numbers grew to 255,088 total and an average of 9,811 a game. The Philadelphia Wings captured the league championship in front of a record postseason crowd of 16,042 at the Spectrum, defeating the New York Saints 11–10.

After the championship game, the league announced expansion into Pittsburgh, with a team called the Pittsburgh Bulls. The new team effectively replaced the Washington Wave, who closed operations after three seasons.


In 1990, each of the six teams played an eight-game schedule. Near of the end of the season, the New York Saints defeated the Philadelphia Wings 8–5 before the first sellout and the largest crowd in league history: 17,177 at the Spectrum in Philadelphia. The Saints' victory forced a playoff rematch the following week. However, the Wings won that game and later went on to become the first team to win a second league championship, defeating the New England Blazers 17–7 in front of 11,479 fans for their second consecutive title.

The league announced that attendance for 26 total games during the season was 287,585, increasing the average attendance per game to 11,060. After the season, the MILL announced the signing of twin brothers Paul Gait and Gary Gait, 3-time All-Americans at Syracuse, to the Detroit Turbos after being drafted. The two brothers had won national championships with the Syracuse Orange in 1988, 1989, and 1990.


In 1991, the season schedule increased from 8 to 10 games, with each team playing five games at home and five games on the road.

In the first game of the regular season, the debut of Detroit rookie twin brothers Paul and Gary Gait was successful, as they paced the Turbos to a 20–16 victory over the Baltimore Thunder. 1991 was a record-breaking year, especially in Detroit. The Gaits set new standards in most offensive categories. Paul scored a record 47 goals, while Gary was second in the league with 32. Gary established new records with 36 assists and 68 points. As a team, Detroit set records for goals scored with 184, assists with 227, and total points with 411. The Turbos went on to defeat the Thunder 14–12 to claim their first championship. The championship game was attended by 10,814 at the Baltimore Arena. Final league attendance numbers for the 1991 season reached 287,654. On 20 April 1991, the National Division All-Stars defeated the American Division All-Stars, 25–20, in the inaugural League All-Star Game at the Spectrum in Philadelphia.

After the season, the league announced that Buffalo had been awarded an expansion team for the 1992 season. The team was named the Bandits.


The league reverted to an eight-game schedule for the 1992 season, with four home games and four road games. The Blazers moved from Worcester to Boston and were rebranded as the Boston Blazers. The expansion Buffalo Bandits defeated the Philadelphia Wings 20–11 in their first ever sellout of 16,325 at Memorial Auditorium. It marked the second sellout in league history. The Bandits also defeated the Baltimore Thunder in front of a second sellout crowd, marking the first time a team sold out two games in the same season. The Bandits advanced to the league championship game by defeating the Detroit Turbos 19–16 to win the National Division crown. The Philadelphia Wings defeated the Saints 8–6 to capture the American Division Championship. Buffalo defeated Philadelphia 11–10 in overtime, marking the first time an expansion team won the league title.


Buffalo won their second consecutive championship with a 13–12 comeback victory over the Philadelphia Wings before 16,325 in the sold-out Memorial Auditorium. The Bandits kept their 18-game winning streak alive, the longest in professional sports at the time. Buffalo joined the Wings as the only team in league history to win back-to-back championships.

Business-wise, the League and the Players Association announced a three-year contract agreement and the league signed a six-year agreement with ESPN. The Pittsburgh Bulls folded after their fourth season, having never made the playoffs, bringing the league back to six teams going into 1994.


ESPN2's first Monday night broadcast featured the Detroit Turbos against the Baltimore Thunder. The Philadelphia Wings denied the Buffalo Bandits a third consecutive championship by defeating the Bandits 26–15 in front of a sellout crowd of 16,284 at Memorial Auditorium. The win gave the Wings its third league championship, the most of any team. ESPN broadcast the game live from Buffalo, marking the first live telecast by ESPN of a league game.

After the season, the league announced that Rochester, New York, would be awarded an expansion team for the 1995 season, the Rochester Knighthawks. The team would effectively replace the Turbos, who folded after their sixth season, keeping the league at six teams.


The expansion Rochester Knighthawks won their inaugural game 12–8 against the New York Saints at the War Memorial. Philadelphia broke the league's attendance record when 17,380 fans watched the Wings defeat the Baltimore Thunder in the regular season finale. The 1995 season marked the first time that Paul and Gary Gait played on different teams, with the former playing for Rochester and the latter for Philadelphia. The Philadelphia Wings won a second-consecutive and fourth overall championship by defeating the Knighthawks 15–14 in overtime.

After the season the league another expansion team, the Charlotte Cobras, who would play out of Charlotte, North Carolina.


For 1996 the league schedule expanded to 10 games. A crowd of 16,818, the fourth largest in league history, watched the Wings defeat the Charlotte Cobras at CoreStates Spectrum in Philadelphia. The Cobras went on to post the first winless season in league history, and subsequently folded after only one year of play. The Wings advanced to their fifth consecutive league championship game by defeating the Boston Blazers 10–8 in the final MILL game to be played in their historic home arena. However, the Buffalo Bandits played spoiler to the Wings and denied them a third consecutive title, defeating Philadelphia 15–10 in the championship game in front of a sold-out Memorial Auditorium in Buffalo. The Bandits picked up their third championship, and said goodbye to their own arena at the end of the season.


The 11th season opened with three games, including Rochester playing Buffalo at the Bandits' new home, the Marine Midland Arena, in front of a new league record crowd of 18,595 fans. The Rochester Knighthawks, coached by Barry Powless, claimed their first MILL championship in front of the second largest crowd in MILL history, 18,055, also played at the Marine Midland Arena, defeating the Bandits 15–12.

National Lacrosse League[edit]

NLL logo 1998–2016

In 1997, the Major Indoor Lacrosse League was renamed the National Lacrosse League, and announced that the schedule would be expanded from 10 to 12 games. In addition, the league welcomed two new expansion teams, the Syracuse Smash, based in Syracuse, New York, and the Ontario Raiders, based in Hamilton, Ontario, while the Boston Blazers folded after nine seasons. John Livsey Jr. was named as the first Commissioner of the NLL.


The 1998 regular season schedule included six home and six road games for each team, with each team facing their six opponents twice during the regular season. In addition, the playoff format saw a best-of-three championship series with semifinal playoff action still taking place in a single-game elimination format, though sites of all post-season games were based on regular season record.

A blockbuster trade saw seven-time All-Pro Paul Gait go to the expansion Syracuse Smash in exchange for draft picks and player compensation. Reigning league MVP Gary Gait was sent to Baltimore in a blockbuster trade involving player and cash compensation.

The Philadelphia Wings swept the best-of-three Championship Series with 16–12 and 17–12 victories. The second game marked the first title game appearance by Baltimore since 1991, and the win was Philadelphia's fifth in franchise history. Wings goaltender Dallas Eliuk was named Championship Series MVP.


In 1999, the Raiders moved to Toronto and were renamed the Toronto Rock. The Rock finished the season with a perfect home record, going a combined 8–0 (regular season and playoffs) after a 13–10 win over the Rochester Knighthawks in the championship game before a sellout crowd of 15,691 at Maple Leaf Gardens. The game was televised throughout Canada by CTV SportsNet, and in the United States on ESPN2.

After the season, it was announced that the charter franchise Baltimore Thunder would move to Pittsburgh and become the Pittsburgh CrosseFire. In addition, the Albany Attack, based in Albany, New York, joined the NLL as an expansion team, bringing the league to eight teams ahead of the 2000 season for the first time.


18,911 fans watched the Philadelphia Wings battle the Pittsburgh CrosseFire. Pittsburgh won the game 14–8 in front of a new record NLL crowd. The Toronto Rock won their second consecutive championship when Kaleb Toth beat Knighthawks goaltender Pat O'Toole with 1.1 seconds remaining in regulation time of the title match to give the Rock a 14–13 victory. Considered to be among the best lacrosse games ever played,[19] the 2000 Final was the last sporting event to be held in the historic Maple Leaf Gardens.

After the season, the league expanded again, with former Commissioner John Livsey leading the establishment of the Columbus Landsharks in Columbus, Ohio. In addition, the Smash relocated north of the border and became the Ottawa Rebel, after three straight last place finishes, while the CrosseFire moved to Washington, D.C., and became the Washington Power. Jim Jennings was named the new Commissioner and announced that league headquarters would be relocated from Buffalo to Lyndhurst, New Jersey.


In front of the league's largest crowd in history, the Philadelphia Wings won their sixth league championship with a 9–8 win over the Toronto Rock at the Air Canada Centre in front of 19,409 fans. Wings goaltender Dallas Eliuk was named Most Valuable Player.

The league announced a major expansion after the season, awarding new franchises to Montreal, New Jersey, Calgary, and Vancouver for the 2002. This would take the league from nine to thirteen teams, more than three times the number of teams that played the inaugural season in 1987. The expansion teams were the Montreal Express, the New Jersey Storm, the Calgary Roughnecks, and the Vancouver Ravens.


With thirteen teams, the league established a divisional format with Eastern, Central, and Northern divisions. The Vancouver Ravens played their inaugural home game at General Motors Place in Vancouver. The Ravens defeated the Toronto Rock 13–12 in front of a crowd of 13,772, the largest to attend the first home game of an expansion franchise. The Albany Attack hosted the Rock in the 2002 Final, with the Rock defeating the Attack by a score of 13–12 to capture their third title in four seasons. 9,289 fans watched the game at the Pepsi Arena in Albany. Toronto forward Colin Doyle was voted Championship Game MVP, scoring three goals and one assist.

After the season, the league announced another relocation of the Washington Power franchise, now under new ownership in Denver. The team was bought by Kroenke Sports Enterprises, who also owned the Colorado Avalanche, Denver Nuggets, and the Pepsi Center, where the new Colorado Mammoth would host games. The new team marked the league's first U.S. team west of the Mississippi River. In addition, the Montreal Express suspended operations after just one season of play.


The Colorado Mammoth played their inaugural home game at Pepsi Center in Denver. The Mammoth won 13–12 in double overtime against the Toronto Rock in front of 16,121 fans. The crowd broke the record for an inaugural home game attendance. The Mammoth also defeated the New York Saints by a score of 19–13 in front of a sellout of 18,207 fans, the first of two sellouts in Denver that season. The Mammoth averaged over 16,000 fans per game, second only to Toronto.

The Rochester Knighthawks hosted the Toronto Rock in the 2003 Champion's Cup Final. The Rock defeated the Knighthawks by a score of 8–6 to capture their fourth title in five seasons. 11,051 fans attended the game at the Blue Cross Arena in Rochester. Toronto goalie Bob Watson earned Championship Game MVP honors with his 40 saves.

The off-season was a tumultuous one for the NLL. The Ottawa Rebel joined the Montreal Express in suspending operations, while the New York Saints folded altogether after sixteen seasons. There were also three relocations: the Columbus Landsharks moved to Glendale and became the Arizona Sting; the New Jersey Storm moved to southern California and became the Anaheim Storm; and the Albany Attack moved to northern California and became the San Jose Stealth. This led to a new divisional alignment, with the league opting for a two-division, East/West format.


For 2004, the new Western Division consisted of Anaheim, Arizona, Calgary, Colorado, San Jose, and Vancouver, while the Eastern Division consisted of Buffalo, Philadelphia, Rochester, and Toronto. The top three teams in each division would earn playoff berths with the division champions receiving byes. The second and third-place finishers would face each other in the opening round with the winners facing their respective division champions in the semi-final round. The semi-final winners (East vs. West) would meet in the 2004 Champions' Cup Final with the higher seed hosting. Fox Sports Net became the league's new national broadcast partner in the United States. Fox Sports Net carried nine regular-season game broadcasts spread across the schedule to over 50 million homes, along with the 2004 All-Star Game on 22 February 2004.

The Arizona Sting played their inaugural home game at the new Glendale Arena in Arizona, the first event ever held inside the arena. The Sting defeated the Vancouver Ravens by a score of 16–12 in front of 12,789 fans. The Colorado Mammoth hosted a sellout crowd of 18,305 at Pepsi Center in a 14–13 loss to the Calgary Roughnecks, the first of five Mammoth sellout crowds on the season. The 2004 All-Star Game was played in front of 16,742 fans at Pepsi Center in Denver, the largest All-Star Game crowd in league history. The East Division All-Stars defeated the West Division All-Stars by a score of 19–15.

The Calgary Roughnecks won their first Champion's Cup by defeating the Buffalo Bandits 14–11 at Pengrowth Saddledome in Calgary in front of 19,289 fans. The sellout crowd was the second highest single game attendance total in NLL history.

The collective bargaining agreement (CBA) between the league and players' association expired at the end of the season, necessitating negotiations for a new agreement. The Vancouver Ravens suspended operations after three seasons, while the owners of the Minnesota Wild purchased the dormant Montreal Express franchise and relocated it to Saint Paul, calling the team the Minnesota Swarm.


2005 NLL All-Star Game, Calgary, Alberta.

The protracted negotiations over a new CBA threatened to encroach upon or even cancel the 2005 season; however, the league announced a new 3-year CBA with the Player's Association (PLPA) in October, allowing the season to porceed.

A new preseason attendance record was set as 14,084 fans came to the Xcel Energy Center in St. Paul for the first home exhibition game of the expansion Minnesota Swarm. The game marked the first professional lacrosse game ever played in the state of Minnesota.

The National Lacrosse League All-Star Game aired live on NBC at 2 PM Eastern. The game became the first live broadcast of lacrosse on national U.S. network television. The game was also televised in Canada on The Score, and internationally via CNBC International, CNBC Asia, and on Armed Forces Network. The East Division defeated the West Division 11–10 in overtime in front of 11,511 fans at Pengrowth Saddledome in Calgary.

The Gait brothers were reunited when Paul ended his retirement, signing with the Colorado Mammoth and re-joining brother and Mammoth captain Gary.

The 2005 NLL Championship Game was played in front of a record 19,432 fans at the Air Canada Centre in Toronto and in front of a national network television audience in the US on NBC and in Canada on the Score. The Toronto Rock defeated the Arizona Sting 19–13, capturing their fifth title in seven seasons, capping a dominant run for the team and pulling within one title of the Philadelphia Wings' six. Colin Doyle was named MVP of the game after leading the Rock with five goals and three assists.

After the season, the Anaheim Storm folded after two years in California. However, the dormant Ottawa Rebel franchise was purchased and relocated to Edmonton by Bruce Urban, where the team was called the Edmonton Rush. In addition, the NLL awarded an expansion franchise to Portland, Oregon, which would be known as the Portland LumberJax, and which brought the league up to eleven teams.

The league also announced the establishment of the National Lacrosse League Hall of Fame. The Hall opened with five charter members who made contributions to the league and the sport of lacrosse: league founders Russ Cline and Chris Fritz; players Paul and Gary Gait; and the late Les Bartley, the coach with the most wins in league history.

The NLL and Reebok announced a multi-year exclusive partnership in which all NLL players would use Reebok equipment and would be exclusively outfitted in the brand's footwear and apparel. The partnership made the brand the official equipment, uniform, and footwear provider of the league.


The Edmonton Rush played their inaugural game and home opener in front of 11,385 fans at Rexall Place in Edmonton, Alberta, losing 10–9 in overtime to the San Jose Stealth, the second time an expansion team forced overtime in their inaugural game.

The 2006 National Lacrosse League All-Star Game was held at the Air Canada Centre in Toronto. The West Division defeated the East Division 14–13 in front of 15,924 fans. Calgary Roughnecks forward Lewis Ratcliff scored the game-winning goal with 4.4 seconds remaining. Ratcliff was named the Game MVP. The league finished its 20th season by setting an all-time single season attendance mark, reaching a total of 1,037,147 fans for the 2006 season, which included 88 regular-season games, six playoff games, and the All-Star Game.

The Colorado Mammoth defeated the Buffalo Bandits 16–9 in front of 16,104 fans at HSBC Arena in Buffalo to secure the first championship in team history. Mammoth forward Gavin Prout was named game MVP, scoring four goals and adding three assists for seven points in the win.

After the season, the NLL announced two new expansion franchises for the 2007 season: a return to New York City with the New York Titans, and the first team in Chicago in the Chicago Shamrox. This brought the league back to thirteen teams for the first time since 2002.


The expansion New York Titans played their home opener at Madison Square Garden, defeating the expansion Chicago Shamrox 11–9 in front of 13,127 fans. The Eastern Division defeated the Western Division 20–16 in front of 12,856 fans at Rose Garden in Portland in the 2007 All-Star Game. Buffalo Bandits forward Mark Steenhuis was named the game's Most Valuable Player becoming the first player in NLL history to win two All-Star Game MVP honors.

The NLL reached a milestone in 2007 as the league plays its 1,000th regular season game when the Minnesota Swarm hosted the Colorado Mammoth, with the Mammoth winning 11–9.

The Rochester Knighthawks defeated the Arizona Sting 13–11 in the 2007 Championship final. John Grant was named Championship Game MVP with a three-goal/five-assist performance. The victory marked the first time that Rochester had won the title since 1997.

After the season, the NLL reached a new seven-year CBA with the players' union. However, negotiations were protracted and threatened the 2008 season, to the extent that the Arizona Sting and a new Boston expansion franchise, reviving the Blazers name, announced that they would pause operations until 2009. As such, only twelve teams would compete in 2008.


John Tavares broke Gary Gait's all-time goal scoring record in 2008. Tavares, who had already captured the all-time points and assists records, notched his record-breaking 597th career goal in the third quarter of Buffalo's 17–13 victory over New York. Philadelphia Forward Athan Iannucci broke Gary Gait's single season scoring record of 61 goals. He went on to finish the season with 71 goals.

The Buffalo Bandits defeated the Portland LumberJax by the score of 14–13 in the 2008 Championship game at HSBC Arena. The event, which aired nationally on ESPN2, drew a sellout crowd of 18,690 fans. Mark Steenhuis captured the game's MVP honors with five goals and one assist. The Toronto Rock and Rochester Knighthawks both missed the playoffs for the first time in either franchise's history.


The New York Titans defend against the Calgary Roughnecks during the 2009 NLL Championship game, in Calgary.

The Arizona Sting and Boston Blazers were both expected to re-join the league for the 2009 season. While the Blazers did so, the Sting instead folded, and its players were dispersed in a dispersal draft. Moreover, the Chicago Shamrox folded after just two seasons, failing to make the playoffs either year. The league also announced the addition of instant replay for officials to review disputed goals and crease violations during games. George Daniel was named new league Commissioner.

Calgary won its second championship, defeating New York 12–10 in front of a crowd of 13,042 at Pengrowth Saddledome. Josh Sanderson was named Championship Game MVP, finishing with two goals and three assists.

After the season, the San Jose Stealth announced that they were relocating to Everett, where they would be known as the Washington Stealth.[20] The New York Titans, also relocated, moving to Florida and becoming the Orlando Titans.[21] Finally, the Portland LumberJax folded after four seasons of play.


The Washington Stealth won the championship in its first season in its new home, defeating the Toronto Rock 15–11 in front of a crowd of 8,609 at Comcast Arena. Lewis Ratcliff was named Championship Game MVP.

After the season, the Orland Titans folded after just one season in Florida.[22]


2011 marked the 25th season for the NLL. The Toronto Rock won its record-tying sixth championship, tying the Philadelphia Wings, by defeating the Washington Stealth 8–7 in front of a crowd of 8,609 at Air Canada Centre. Bob Watson was named Championship Game MVP. After the season, the latest incarnation of the Boston Blazers announced that it was folding after just three seasons, bringing the league down below ten teams for the first time since 2001, where it would stay until 2019.


The Rochester Knighthawks won its third championship, defeating the Edmonton Rush 9–6 in front of a crowd of 9,277 at Blue Cross Arena. Cody Jamieson was named Championship Game MVP. For the first time since 1992, there was no off-season team movement in 2012.


The Rochester Knighthawks won its second-consecutive and fourth overall championship, defeating the Washington Stealth 11–10 in front of a crowd of 5,200 at Langley Events Centre. Cody Jamieson was named Championship Game MVP. After the season, the Stealth announced that they would be re-locating north of the border to become the Vancouver Stealth, bringing the NLL back to British Columbia for the first time since 2004.


The Rochester Knighthawks won a third-consecutive and fifth overall championship in 2014, defeating Calgary Roughnecks 2–1 in the final series. Game 1 was an 11–7 victory for the Roughnecks in front of a crowd of 16,541 at Scotiabank Saddledome. The Knighthawks won game 2, 16–10, and clinched game 3, 3–2, in front of a crowd of 9,188 at Blue Cross Arena. Dan Dawson was named Championship Game MVP.

After the season, the Philadelphia Wings were purchased and moved to Connecticut, where they were renamed the New England Black Wolves, ending a run of 28 seasons for the Wings in Philadelphia.


The Edmonton Rush won its first championship in 2015, defeating the Toronto Rock 2–0 in the final series. The Rush won game 1, 15–9 in front of a crowd of 9,257 at Air Canada Centre. Game 2 was an 11–10 victory in front of a crowd of 12,275 at Rexall Place. Mark Matthews was named Championship Game MVP. However, the Rush announced after the season that, unable to come to a new arena-lease agreement, the team would be relocating to Saskatoon, where it was renamed the Saskatchewan Rush. In addition, the Minnesota Swarm were relocated to Atlanta and renamed the Georgia Swarm.


Nick Sakiewicz was appointed the 5th Commissioner of the NLL ahead of the 2016 season.

The Rush won its second-consecutive Champion's Cup and its first after relocating to Saskatchewan, defeating the Buffalo Bandits 2–0 in the final series. Game 1 finished 11–9, in front of a crowd of 12,692 at First Niagara Center. Game 2 finished 11–10 in front of a crowd of 15,182 at SaskTel Centre. Aaron Bold was named Championship Game MVP.


In 2017, the Georgia Swarm won its first championship in just its second season in Georgia, defeating the Saskatchewan Rush 2–0 in the final series. It was the third straight year that the Rush made the finals. Game 1 was an 18–14 result in front of a crowd of 7,642 at Infinite Energy Arena. Game 2 finished 15–14 in front of a crowd of 14,264 at SaskTel Centre. Lyle Thompson was named Championship Game MVP.


In 2018, the Saskatchewan Rush re-gained the title, winning the first National Lacrosse League Cup, which replaced the Champion's Cup, defeating the Rochester Knighthawks 2–1 in the final series. It was the third title in four seasons for the Rush with the team making the final all four seasons.

After the season, the league announced two expansion franchises that would begin play in 2019: a new Philadelphia Wings franchise along with a new southern California team, the San Diego Seals. This brought the league back to eleven teams. In addition, the league announced two further expansion teams that would begin play for the 2020 season. First, the New York Riptide would play out of the Saints' old home in Uniondale.[23] Secondly, while Knighthawks owner Curt Styres announced that he would be moving the franchise from Rochester to Halifax after the 2019 season, the league awarded a new expansion franchise for Rochester to the owners of the Buffalo Sabres, Pegula Sports and Entertainment, to immediately replace the departing Knighthawks.[24]


The 2019 NLL season was delayed when the Professional Lacrosse Players Association went on strike shortly before training camp was set to begin over negotiations for a new CBA. On 15 November 2018, the league announced that a counter-proposal submitted by the Players Association had been rejected. Subsequently, the league announced that all games to be played in the first two weeks of the season were canceled.[25] On 24 November, the NLL and the PLPA reached a new five-year collective bargaining agreement.[26] The first week of the season began on December 15 and the league announced each team will still play the standard 18 game schedule.[27]

The league kicked off its first game of the season on 15 December, with the Wings returning to Philadelphia. The Wings fell to the visiting Buffalo Bandits 17–15.[28] On 22 December, the San Diego Seals played their first ever game, upsetting the Colorado Mammoth at the Pepsi Center, 17–12.[29] The Calgary Roughnecks won their third title, defeating Buffalo 2–0 in the final series.


2020 saw the debut of three teams. The original Knighthawks completed their move to Nova Scotia and were re-branded the Halifax Thunderbirds; the departing K-Hawks were replaced by the new expansion Rochester Knighthawks; and the New York Riptide also began play.[30][31] This brought the league to thirteen teams for the first time since 2007.

On 13 March 2020, league play was indefinitely suspended due to the COVID-19 pandemic. At the time teams had played 10 to 14 matches. On 4 June, the league announced that the rest of the season and the playoffs were canceled due to the pandemic, and that attention would turn to organizing the 2021 season.[32] However, this development did not stop league business, and in July 2020, a new expansion team was awarded to Fort Worth, Texas.[33] The new team would be known as the Panther City Lacrosse Club.

On 3 February 2021, the 2021 season was also canceled due to logistical issues and uncertainties relating to the pandemic, including travel restrictions and quarantine requirements. The NLL stated that it was turning its attention to planning for the 2022 season.[34] That spring, the New England Black Wolves announced that they would be relocating to New York and would be renamed the Albany FireWolves, bringing the NLL back to Albany for the first time since 2003. In addition, the league awarded another expansion franchise, this one to Las Vegas, to begin play in 2023. This new team would become the Las Vegas Desert Dogs.


The NLL returned on 3 December 2021, marking the beginning of the 2022 season, the league's 35th, and the first game action in nearly two years. The fourteen teams, the highest number ever for the league, played a full 18-game schedule. The return was successful, and the season ended with the Colorado Mammoth defeating the Buffalo Bandits on 18 June 2022, winning the championship series 2 games to 1.[35] The season marked the debut of Panther City and the FireWolves.


The 2023 season began 2 December 2022, and ended with the Buffalo Bandits avenging their championship series loss from the previous season, defeating the Colorado Mammoth on 3 June 3, 2023, to win the series 2 games to 1.[36] This was the inaugural season for the Las Vegas Desert Dogs, bringing the number of teams to fifteen.[37] The 2023 NLL Stadium Showdown, the first outdoor NLL game, was held on 4 March at Snapdragon Stadium in San Diego, between the Desert Dogs and the San Diego Seals; the Seals won the game 15–12.


  1. Darrel Russell, 1987–1997
  2. John Livsey Jr, 1997–2000
  3. Jim Jennings, 2000–2009
  4. George Daniel, 2009–2015[38]
  5. Nick Sakiewicz, 2016–2022[39]
  6. Brett Frood, 2022–present[40]

Championship history[edit]

Team Championships Years Runner-ups Runner-up Years
Philadelphia Wings(Original)/Albany FireWolves 6 1989, 1990, 1994, 1995, 1998, 2001 4 1992, 1993, 1996, 2024
Toronto Rock 6 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2011 3 2001, 2010, 2015
Buffalo Bandits 6 1992, 1993, 1996, 2008, 2023, 2024 7 1994, 1997, 2004, 2006, 2016, 2019, 2022
Rochester Knighthawks(Original)(Now Halifax Thunderbirds) 5 1997, 2007, 2012, 2013, 2014 5 1995, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2018
Edmonton/Saskatchewan Rush 3 2015, 2016, 2018 2 2012, 2017
Calgary Roughnecks 3 2004, 2009, 2019 1 2014
Baltimore Thunder/Colorado Mammoth 3 1987, 2006, 2022 3 1991, 1998, 2023
New Jersey/New York Saints (Folded in 2003) 1 1988 1 1989
Detroit Turbos (Folded in 1994) 1 1991 0
Albany Attack/Washington Stealth (Now Vancouver Warriors) 1 2010 3 2002, 2011, 2013
Georgia Swarm 1 2017 0
Washington Wave (Folded in 1989) 0 2 1987, 1988
Arizona Sting (Folded in 2009) 0 2 2005, 2007
New England Blazers (Folded in 1991) 0 1 1990
Portland LumberJax (Folded in 2009) 0 1 2008
New York Titans (Folded in 2009) 0 1 2009
The Champion's Cup was awarded to the NLL Champion from 1998 to 2017
The National Lacrosse League Cup replaced the Champion's Cup in 2018
Year Winner Runner-up Score Series
Eagle Pro Box Lacrosse League
1987 Baltimore Thunder Washington Wave 11–10
1988 New Jersey Saints Washington Wave 17–16
Major Indoor Lacrosse League
1989 Philadelphia Wings New York Saints 11–10
1990 Philadelphia Wings New England Blazers 17–7
1991 Detroit Turbos Baltimore Thunder 14–12
1992 Buffalo Bandits Philadelphia Wings 11–10OT
1993 Buffalo Bandits Philadelphia Wings 13–12
1994 Philadelphia Wings Buffalo Bandits 26–15
1995 Philadelphia Wings Rochester Knighthawks 15–14OT
1996 Buffalo Bandits Philadelphia Wings 15–10
1997 Rochester Knighthawks Buffalo Bandits 15–12
National Lacrosse League
1998 Philadelphia Wings Baltimore Thunder 2–0[41]
1999 Toronto Rock Rochester Knighthawks 13–10
2000 Toronto Rock Rochester Knighthawks 14–13
2001 Philadelphia Wings Toronto Rock 9–8
2002 Toronto Rock Albany Attack 13–12
2003 Toronto Rock Rochester Knighthawks 8–6
2004 Calgary Roughnecks Buffalo Bandits 14–11
2005 Toronto Rock Arizona Sting 19–13
2006 Colorado Mammoth Buffalo Bandits 16–9
2007 Rochester Knighthawks Arizona Sting 13–11
2008 Buffalo Bandits Portland LumberJax 14–13
2009 Calgary Roughnecks New York Titans 12–10
2010 Washington Stealth Toronto Rock 15–11
2011 Toronto Rock Washington Stealth 8–7
2012 Rochester Knighthawks Edmonton Rush 9–6
2013 Rochester Knighthawks Washington Stealth 11–10
2014 Rochester Knighthawks Calgary Roughnecks 2–1[42]
2015 Edmonton Rush Toronto Rock 2–0[43]
2016 Saskatchewan Rush Buffalo Bandits 2–0[44]
2017 Georgia Swarm Saskatchewan Rush 2–0[45]
2018 Saskatchewan Rush Rochester Knighthawks 2–1[46]
2019 Calgary Roughnecks Buffalo Bandits 2–0[47]
2020 Season suspended due to COVID-19 Pandemic.
2021 Season canceled due to COVID-19 Pandemic.
2022 Colorado Mammoth Buffalo Bandits 2–1[48]
2023 Buffalo Bandits Colorado Mammoth 2–1[49]
2024 Buffalo Bandits Albany FireWolves 2–0[50]

Expansion and relocation[edit]

Name changes/relocations[edit]

  • New Jersey Saints (1987–1988) → New York Saints (1989–2003) → Inactive
  • New England Blazers (1989–1991) → Boston Blazers (1992–1997) → Inactive
  • Baltimore Thunder (1987–1999) → Pittsburgh CrosseFire (2000) → Washington Power (2001–2002) → Colorado Mammoth (2003–current)
  • Ontario Raiders (1998) → Toronto Rock (1999–current)
  • Syracuse Smash (1998–2000) → Ottawa Rebel (2001–2003) → Inactive (2003–2005) → Edmonton Rush (2005–2015) → Saskatchewan Rush (2016–current)
  • Albany Attack (1999–2003) → San Jose Stealth (2004–2009) → Washington Stealth (2010–2013) → Vancouver Stealth (2014–2018) → Vancouver Warriors (2018–current)
  • Columbus Landsharks (2001–2003) → Arizona Sting (2004–2007) → Inactive
  • Montreal Express (2002) → Inactive → Minnesota Swarm (2004–2015) → Georgia Swarm (2016–current)
  • New Jersey Storm (2002–2003) → Anaheim Storm (2004–2005) → Inactive
  • New York Titans (2007–2009) → Orlando Titans (2010) → Inactive
  • Philadelphia Wings (1987–2014) → New England Black Wolves (2015–2021) → Albany FireWolves (2022–current)
  • Rochester Knighthawks (1995–2019) → Halifax Thunderbirds (2020–current)
  • New York Riptide (2018–2024) → Ottawa Black Bears (2025–current)

Franchise timeline by team[edit]

NLL Unboxed program[edit]

In November 2023, ahead of the 2024 season, the NLL launched an initiative known as "NLL Unboxed" (stylized as "NLL unBOXed"). It is designed to help promote the sport of lacrosse via youth and school programs in strategic markets that do not currently have NLL franchises, and build interest in the sport in the lead-up to lacrosse at the 2028 Summer Olympics. Each market in the program receives a team brand as a "lacrosse community", which is used as part of promotion for the program and related activities.[51]

As part of the program, the league began to hold "NLL Unboxed Series" games in the 2024 season, which are played in the market of one of the lacrosse communities in the program. The first of these games was hosted by Castors de Montréal in February 2024, with the Toronto Rock playing the New York Riptide at Place Bell in Laval, Quebec. It marked the first NLL game played in the Montreal area since the Montreal Express' first and only season in 2002.[52]

Lacrosse community City Added
Tampa Bay Snowbirds Tampa, Florida 2023
Ottawa Electrics Ottawa, Ontario 2023
St. Louis Rhythm St. Louis, Missouri 2023
Baltimore Ghost Crabs Baltimore, Maryland 2023
Charlotte Cobras Charlotte, North Carolina 2023
Minnesota Lake Dragons Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota 2023
Castors de Montréal Montréal, Québec 2023
Utah Spikes Salt Lake City, Utah 2023
Seattle Shipwrecks Seattle, Washington 2023

National Lacrosse League Players' Association[edit]

The National Lacrosse League Players' Association (NLLPA), formerly the Professional Lacrosse Players' Association (PLPA), is the trade union of players in the NLL. The PLPA was founded in 1991 by Dave Succamore (a former Detroit Turbos player), Peter Schmitz (a former Boston Blazers player and president) and four other players from other teams with assistance by labor attorney Ronald L. Jaros.[53] The union was organized to assist with missed work pay for players who miss their regular jobs for games; expanded expense reimbursement; more opportunities for promotional pay on top of their regular game salaries; more time for rookies to assess their initial contracts; game compensation for practice players; free agency; a standard grievance and arbitration process for fines and suspensions. Before the players' union was in place, injured players' medical bills were paid by the League through workman's compensation insurance in the states where teams were located.[54]

Media coverage[edit]

In the early 2000s, CNN Sports Illustrated aired NLL games regularly. The NLL had had its All-Star Games and Championship games on NBC in 2005 and ESPN2 in 2006.

In 2007, the NLL had a regularly scheduled "Game of the Week" on Versus. For the 2008 season, due to dispute between the Professional Lacrosse Players' Association and the NLL owners in completing the collective bargaining agreement, the "Game of the Week" on Versus was cancelled.[55] Also in 2007, the NLL signed an agreement with Sirius Satellite Radio, who were the "Official Satellite Radio Partner". The pact included a "Game of the Week" as well as a weekly highlight show.[56]

For the 2011 season, the NLL returned to Versus, beginning with coverage of the 2011 All-Star Game, followed by 6 weekly games, and 2 playoff games, one of these being the championship game.[57] In the 2012 season, the rights shifted to CBS Sports Network, which carried a package of eight regular season games.[58]

In 2012, the NLL reached an agreement with the YouTube channel The Lacrosse Network. All games were available on YouTube after the broadcast and most games were broadcast live.[59] For the 2016 season, the league moved to Fox Sports' streaming platform Fox Sports Go.[60] Beginning with the 2016 division semifinals, the NLL introduced an in-house NLLTV service operated by NeuLion.[61]

In the 2017 season, the NLL reached a two-season deal with Twitter to stream a weekly game, as well as playoff games and the Champion's Cup, via the social network's live streaming features. A separate deal was reached with CBS Sports Digital to stream games on its subscription platform SportsLive.[62][63]

For the 2018–19 season, the league announced a broadcasting agreement with Turner Sports, under which its games would be streamed exclusively by B/R Live.[64]

For the 2021–22 season, the NLL reached a new media rights agreement with ESPN Inc., under which all games would stream on ESPN+ in the United States, and at least 10 would air on an ESPN television channel.[65] In Canada, the league also returned to TSN (which is minority-owned by ESPN) for the first time since 2016, airing a Saturday-night package focusing on its Canadian franchises, playoff games, and streaming of other games online for TSN subscribers.[66][67] All other game broadcasts are produced in-house by the league, using a mix of on-site staff and remote production hubs (with Dome Productions, a joint venture between TSN's parent company Bell Media and rival Rogers Media, handling the hub for Canadian teams and other games broadcast by TSN).[68]

Video games[edit]

Blast Lacrosse, a video game based on the NLL, was released on 23 May 2001.[69] Developed by Sandbox Studios and published by Acclaim Entertainment, it was the first lacrosse video game and included all nine teams from the NLL's 15th season (2001).

On 31 March 2010, the NLL announced it had partnered with Crosse Studio and Triple B Games to develop NLL Lacrosse 2010 presented by Reebok Lacrosse. The game was released exclusively on Xbox 360 via Xbox Live Indie Games on April 23, 2010.[70] Crosse Studio and Triple B Games developed Inside Lacrosse's College Lacrosse 2010 in 2009 before approaching the NLL to license their next game.[71]


See also[edit]



  1. ^ "NLL Selects Philadelphia Region For New Headquarters" (Press release). National Lacrosse League. July 18, 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  2. ^ "National Lacrosse League Welcomes 13th Franchise | National Lacrosse League". www.nll.com. 12 December 2018. Retrieved 2019-01-07.
  3. ^ "NLL Regular-Season Attendance Up 2% In '16 With Help From Saskatoon As New Market". Business Sports Daily. June 7, 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  4. ^ "National Lacrosse League – attendance". Pointstreak Sports Technologies. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  5. ^ a b "Box Lacrosse 101". NLL. Retrieved 2022-12-13.
  6. ^ "NLL 2017–18 Official Rule Book" (PDF). National Lacrosse League. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 1, 2017. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
  7. ^ "Box Lax 101". National Lacrosse League. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
  8. ^ "2018–19 NLL Playoff Changes | National Lacrosse League". www.nll.com. 18 December 2018. Retrieved 2019-01-07.
  9. ^ Inside Lacrosse Staff (September 26, 2023). "NLL Adopts Unified Standings, New Playoff Format For 2023-24". Inside Lacrosse. Retrieved November 14, 2023.
  10. ^ "Salary cap: signs labour deal with luxury tax – Toronto Star". The Toronto Star. 22 October 2013.
  11. ^ Graeme (7 October 2013). "In the NLL, nobody is overpaid".
  12. ^ McKenzie, Bob (30 November 2004). "Tavares may have to share his handle". TSN.ca. Archived from the original on December 31, 2006. Retrieved 3 March 2007.
  13. ^ "Bandits, Beauts and Bisons are in a different league when it comes to salaries". www.bizjournals.com. Retrieved 2022-06-13.
  14. ^ Donahue, Mark (November 27, 2017). "Major Cuts Leave 16 Americans, 23 First Nations on NLL Rosters". Lax All Stars. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  15. ^ "NLL ADOPTS UNIFIED STANDINGS FORMAT, UPDATED PLAYOFF STRUCTURE". NLL.com. National Lacrosse League. September 26, 2023. Retrieved January 18, 2024.
  16. ^ "NLL's New York team to move to Ottawa next season, be renamed the Black Bears". The Globe and Mail. 21 February 2024.
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  18. ^ a b Tim Hanlon (31 March 2018). "Episode 55: Russ Cline and the Birth of Modern-Day Indoor Box Lacrosse". Good Seats Still Available (Podcast). Event occurs at 41m53s. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  19. ^ Pat Coyle (2002). War on the Floor (DVD). That's probably the best lacrosse game I've ever played in, bar none.
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  41. ^ Best-of-three series. Philadelphia won the first two games 16–12 and 17–12.
  42. ^ Two games plus mini-game if tied. The first was hosted by the lower seed and the second by the higher seed. Calgary won Game 1, 10–7. Rochester won Game 2, 16–10. Rochester won the 10-minute mini-game immediately following Game 2, 3–2.
  43. ^ Best-of-three series. Edmonton won the first two games 15–9 and 11–10.
  44. ^ Best-of-three series. Saskatchewan won the first two games 11–9 and 11–10.
  45. ^ Best-of-three series. Georgia won the first two games 18–14 and 15–14, OT.
  46. ^ Best-of-three series. Saskatchewan won the first & third games 16–9 and 15–10, Rochester won game two 13–8.
  47. ^ Best-of-three series. Calgary won the first two games 10–7 and 14–13, OT.
  48. ^ Best-of-three series. Buffalo won the first game 15–14, Colorado won the second and third games 11–8 and 10–8.
  49. ^ Best-of-three series. Buffalo won the first & third games 13–12 and 13–4, Colorado won game two 16–10.
  50. ^ Best-of-three series. Buffalo won the first two games 12–8 and 15–13.
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External links[edit]