Internet in Croatia

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The Internet in Croatia became a reality in November 1992 when the first international connection linking Zagreb and Vienna became operational.

By 2022, 77% of the population, including 97% of youth aged 16 to 24, regularly use the internet, mainly for news, video calls, and entertainment, aligning with EU averages. The country ranks 14th among EU nations in digital technology integration, with enterprise adoption of advanced technologies being notable: 35% use cloud solutions, 43% implement e-invoices, and 9% apply AI solutions. Despite this progress and having completed 5G spectrum allocations in 2021, Croatia's ranking in the 2022 Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) is 21st out of 27 EU Member States.[1]

User statistics[edit]


The first international Internet connection was established on 17 November 1992, between CARNET in Zagreb and the University of Vienna, with a speed of 64 kbps, and a bandwidth of 9600 bit/s.[3]

The .hr domain was first registered in March 1993.[3]

Technologies and services[edit]

Fixed broadband[edit]

In 2021, Croatia demonstrated notable developments in its fixed broadband infrastructure. The overall fixed broadband take-up rate increased to 75%, although it remains slightly below the EU average of 78%. However, there is room for improvement in the adoption of high-speed fixed broadband, with only 16% of households subscribing to at least 100 Mbps services, significantly lower than the EU average of 41%. Croatia's Fixed Very High Capacity Network (VHCN) coverage reached 52%, though it still falls short of the EU average of 70%. Fiber to the Premises (FTTP) coverage also expanded to 39%, although it remains below the EU average of 50%.[12][13]

Mobile broadband[edit]

Croatia has made notable strides in mobile broadband, with a mobile broadband take-up rate of 81% in 2021, slightly below the EU average of 87%. The country is actively working towards achieving the 2025 Gigabit target, expanding 5G wireless broadband coverage in urban areas and major transport routes. Major mobile operators have acquired spectrum with coverage obligations, aiming for extensive coverage on highways, railways, and urban areas by 2025, and 50% coverage in rural areas by 2027.[13]

Mobile broadband Internet access is offered by the three national concession GSM operators:

There are both pre-paid and post-paid plans. All three providers cooperate with CARNET to provide a discount for users in the academic and education community - ordered by seniority they are named Mobile CARNET/VipmeCARNET (VIPnet), Tele2CARNET (Tele2 Croatia), Stick2CARNET (T-Mobile HR).

It is not mandatory to register any personal data upon purchasing a prepaid plan (together with the USB based mobile modem stick), so any foreign citizen may also get it for in-land use.

GSM coverage is very good, while EDGE and UMTS coverage is rather sparse, as of January 2010 and the usage for higher speeds is only possible on certain, mainly urban locations and in the Adriatic Sea area.

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)[edit]

In Croatia ADSL was introduced in 2000 by the German owned operator T-Com, formerly HT (Hrvatski Telekom, meaning Croatian telecom). DSL is the most common form of broadband. Flat-rate based plans are the most commonly used in conjunction with DSL. There are companies offering ADSL2+ Internet Access and TriplePlay. Local loops were expected to be unbundled after September 2006. As of 2010, this has only partially been done. ADSL and fixed line phones use the same cable plant in most parts of the country, in some locations the line quality is not good enough to support a stable ADSL link, and in some locations there is no ADSL supporting telephone switch installed.

The list of DSL providers in Croatia is:

  • Hrvatski Telekom (owned by Deutsche Telekom) - MAXadsl, with a TriplePlay plan MaxTV, nationwide
  • Iskon Internet (owned by HT) - part of the network is locally based (in major urban areas), and partly services are run by local loop over T-Com copper lines, TriplePlay plan Iskon.TV, but only on the local part of the network for now.
  • Vipnet d.o.o. (owned by Vip Telekom Austria Group)
  • Optima Telekom d.d. - part of the network is locally based (in major urban areas), and partly services are run by local loop over T-Com copper lines, TriplePlay plan is called OptiTV. The reach for TriplePlay is extended gradually.
  • Transintercom d.o.o.
  • Magic Telekom d.o.o.
  • H1 Telekom d.d.


The oldest commercial WiMax provider is: Novi net d.o.o.

WIMAX concessions were also given to Optima Telekom, WIMAX Telecom and Odašiljači i veze d.d. (OiV). However, none of them has to the present day (as of January 2010) realized the full potential of their concession, due to the high cost of the infrastructure which needs to be built. Also, the providers claim that there are not yet enough potential interested users for this technology.

Cable Internet[edit]

Cable Internet is available, but it is not as widespread as ADSL. There is one Cable Internet provider in Croatia, Vipnet d.o.o., also with a TriplePlay offer.

National research and education network[edit]

CARNET is the national research and education network and a significant Internet provider for numerous end-users in the academic and educational community in Croatia.

Dial-up Internet[edit]

The dial-up Internet penetration in Croatia is still high, mainly in rural areas. This is due to the high penetration rate for fixed line telephones throughout country. There are several providers which also offer this rather old connection method:

  • T-Com Croatia - dial-up plans exist
  • Iskon Internet - the Iskon.Dial-Up service enables classic dial-up access, with several plans.
  • VIPnet - their Homebox + offer includes which they designate as "fixed line", but technically uses GSM has the plan which also offers Internet access. Also, the VIP online plan exists using classic modem lines.
  • Optima Telekom - OptiNET Dial-Up service
  • Globalnet - dial-up unified login data, also possible for usage by foreigners
  • There are also some smaller dial-up providers.

Wireless LAN hotspots[edit]

Some Wireless LAN (WLAN) hotspots exist in Internet cafés and some cities.

There are also many volunteer-driven WLAN local-city networks, for example:

They usually serve a small number of local users. VIPnet and Iskon Internet operate some hotspots commercially.

Satellite Internet[edit]

In the past, there were a few resellers of one-way satellite Internet services, which mostly ceased to exist with the arrival of increased ADSL coverage and reduced interest in the service. Currently (as of 2010), there is at least one reseller of a two-way satellite Internet service. However, this method of Internet access is not economically viable, except for a very few very remote areas. The equipment needed is not subsidized, unlike ADSL and FTTH trial equipment.

When Croatia joined the European Union in the year 2013, it became an integral part of the agenda to close the digital divide. According to official data, satellite Internet coverage at the end of 2013 was 94%.

Commercial fiber[edit]

In Croatia there are various commercial fiber providers. Some of them:

Internet censorship and surveillance[edit]

There is no OpenNet Initiative country profile for Croatia, but there is little to no evidence of Internet filtering in all areas (political, social, conflict/security, and Internet tools) on the ONI global Internet filtering maps.[15]

The constitution and law generally provide for freedom of speech and press; however, growing economic pressures lead journalists to practice self-censorship. Hate speech committed over the Internet is punishable by six months to three years of imprisonment and libel is a criminal offense, but these laws are generally not enforced. There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms. Individuals and groups generally engage in the peaceful expression of views via the Internet. Internet access is widely available and used by citizens throughout the country.[16]

See also[edit]


  • Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from The World Factbook (2024 ed.). CIA. (Archived 2014 edition.)
  • Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State.
  1. ^ "Croatia - Country Commercial Guide, Information and Communication Technology". International Trade Administration U.S. Department of Commerce. 2023-12-04.
  2. ^ a b c "Communications: Croatia", World Factbook, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 28 January 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d Novak, Tomislav (18 November 2016). "PRIJE 24 GODINE PET ENTUZIJASTA ODVELO NAS JE U 21. STOLJEĆE 'Ubili smo se od posla, ali i dobro zabavili. I svi su nas gledali u čudu'". Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  4. ^ a b Calculated using penetration rate and population data from "Countries and Areas Ranked by Population: 2012" Archived 2017-03-29 at the Wayback Machine, Population data, International Programs, U.S. Census Bureau, retrieved 26 June 2013
  5. ^ "Percentage of Individuals using the Internet 2000-2012", International Telecommunication Union (Geneva), June 2013, retrieved 22 June 2013
  6. ^ "Državni zavod za statistiku - Naslovna". Retrieved 2022-05-25.
  7. ^ "Fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 2012" Archived 2019-07-26 at the Wayback Machine, Dynamic Report, ITU ITC EYE, International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on 29 June 2013.
  8. ^ "Active mobile-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 2012" Archived 2019-07-26 at the Wayback Machine, Dynamic Report, ITU ITC EYE, International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on 29 June 2013.
  9. ^ Select Formats Archived 2012-04-09 at the Wayback Machine, Country IP Blocks. Accessed on 2 April 2012. Note: Site is said to be updated daily.
  10. ^ Population, The World Factbook, United States Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 2 April 2012. Note: Data are mostly for 1 July 2012.
  11. ^ "Ukupni podatkovni promet veći od 160 milijuna GB | ICT Business". Retrieved 2022-05-25.
  12. ^ "Croatia in the Digital Economy and Society Index | Shaping Europe's digital future". Retrieved 2024-01-29.
  13. ^ a b "Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) 2022 Croatia". European Commission.
  14. ^ "About us". Omonia. Retrieved 2022-05-25.
  15. ^ "Global Internet Filtering Maps", OpenNet Initiative. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  16. ^ "2010 Human rights Report: Croatia", Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 8 April 2011.

External links[edit]