Internet in Croatia
The Internet in Croatia became a reality in November 1992 when the first international connection linking CARNet in Zagreb to the Internet in Austria at 64 kbit/s was operational. By 2012 an estimated 63% of the Croatian population was using the Internet from home, work, and school as well as from their mobile phones.
- 1 Facts and figures
- 2 History
- 3 Technologies and services
- 4 Internet censorship and surveillance
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Facts and figures
- Top-level domain: .hr, administered by the Croatian Academic and Research Network (CARNet).
- Internet users:
- Fixed broadband: 909,090 subscriptions, 58th in the world; 20.3% of the population, 48th in the world (2012).
- Wireless broadband: 2.3 million subscribers, 60th in the world; 52.3% of the population, 26th in the world (2012).
- Internet hosts: 729,420 hosts, 50th in the world (2012).
- IPv4: 2.0 million addresses allocated, less than 0.05% of the world total, 455.9 addresses per 1000 people (2012).
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Technologies and services
|This section is outdated. (February 2014)|
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
In Croatia ADSL was introduced in 2000 by the German owned operator T-Com, formerly HT (Hrvatski telekom, meaning Croatian telecom). DSL is the most common form of broadband. Flat-rate based plans are the most commonly used in conjunction with DSL. There are companies offering ADSL2+ Internet Access and TriplePlay. Local loops were expected to be unbundled after September 2006. As of 2010[update], this has only partially been done. ADSL and fixed line phones use the same cable plant in most parts of the country, in some locations the line quality is not good enough to support a stable ADSL link, and in some locations there is no ADSL supporting telephone switch installed.
The list of DSL providers in Croatia is:
- T-Com (owned by T-HT) - MAXadsl, with a TriplePlay plan MaxTV, nationwide)
- Iskon Internet (owned by T-HT) - part of the network is locally based (in major urban areas), and partly services are run by local loop over T-Com copper lines, TriplePlay plan Iskon.TV, but only on the local part of the network for now.
- Amis Telekom d.o.o.
- Optima Telekom d.d. - part of the network is locally based (in major urban areas), and partly services are run by local loop over T-Com copper lines, TriplePlay plan is called OptiTV. The reach for TriplePlay is extended gradually.
- Metronet telekomunikacije d.d. - has TriplePlay
- Transintercom d.o.o.
- Magic Telekom d.o.o.
- H1 telekom d.d.
The oldest commercial WiMax provider is: Novi net d.o.o.
WIMAX concessions were also given to Optima Telekom, WIMAX Telecom and Odašiljači i veze d.d. (OiV). However, none of them has to the present day (as of January 2010[update]) realized the full potential of their concession, due to the high cost of the infrastructure which needs to be built. Also, the providers claim that there are not yet enough potential interested users for this technology.
Fiber to the Home (FTTH)
The existing Fiber to the Home provider, Metronet telekomunikacije d.d. T-Com, is performing a trial that is expected to take a few years time, to see the potential for nationwide coverage using FTTH technology. In mid-2009 a 28 floor building in Rijeka was equipped with FTTH providing triple play as a test site. Supposedly in three further cities similar test are being run.
Cable Internet is available, but it is not as widespread as ADSL. There is one Cable Internet provider in Croatia, B.net Hrvatska d.o.o., also with a TriplePlay offer.
There are both pre-paid and post-paid plans. All three providers cooperate with CARNet to provide a discount for users in the academic and education community - ordered by seniority they are named Mobile CARNet/VipmeCARNet (VIPnet), Tele2CARNet (Tele2 Croatia), Stick2CARNet (T-Mobile HR).
It is not mandatory to register any personal data upon purchasing a prepaid plan (together with the USB based mobile modem stick), so any foreign citizen may also get it for in-land use.
GSM coverage is very good, while EDGE and UMTS coverage is rather sparse, as of January 2010[update] and the usage for higher speeds is only possible on certain, mainly urban locations and in the Adriatic Sea area.
National research and education network
The dial-up Internet penetration in Croatia is still high, mainly in rural areas. This is due to the high penetration rate for fixed line telephones throughout country. There are several providers which also offer this rather old connection method:
- T-Com Croatia - dial-up plans exist
- Iskon Internet - the Iskon.Dial-Up service enables classic dial-up access, with several plans.
- VIPnet - their Homebox + offer includes which they designate as "fixed line", but technically uses GSM has the plan which also offers Internet access. Also, the VIP online plan exists using classic modem lines.
- Optima Telekom - OptiNET Dial-Up service
- Globalnet - dial-up unified login data, also possible for usage by foreigeners
- There are also some smaller dial-up providers.
Wireless LAN hotspots
There are also many volunteer-driven WLAN local-city networks, for example:
They usually serve a small number of local users. VIPnet and Iskon Internet operate some hotspots commercially.
In the past, there were a few resellers of one-way satellite Internet services, which mostly ceased to exist with the arrival of increased ADSL coverage and reduced interest in the service. Currently (as of 2010), there is at least one reseller of a two-way satellite Internet service. However, this method of Internet access is not economically viable, except for a very few very remote areas. The equipment needed is not subsidized, unlike ADSL and FTTH trial equipment.
When Croatia joined the European Union in the year 2013, it became an integral part of the agenda to close the digital divide. According to official data, satellite Internet coverage at the end of 2013 was 94%.
Internet censorship and surveillance
There is no OpenNet Initiative country profile for Croatia, but it is shown as little or no evidence of Internet filtering in all areas (political, social, conflict/security, and Internet tools) on the ONI global Internet filtering maps.
The constitution and law generally provide for freedom of speech and the press; however, growing economic pressures lead journalists to practice self-censorship. Hate speech committed over the Internet is punishable by six months' to three years' imprisonment and libel is a criminal offense. There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms. In general individuals and groups engage in the peaceful expression of views via the Internet, including by e-mail. Internet access is widely available and used by citizens throughout the country.
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2012)|
- This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2014 edition".
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State.
- "Communications: Croatia", World Factbook, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 28 January 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- Calculated using penetration rate and population data from "Countries and Areas Ranked by Population: 2012", Population data, International Programs, U.S. Census Bureau, retrieved 26 June 2013
- "Percentage of Individuals using the Internet 2000-2012", International Telecommunications Union (Geneva), June 2013, retrieved 22 June 2013
- "Fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 2012", Dynamic Report, ITU ITC EYE, International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on 29 June 2013.
- "Active mobile-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 2012", Dynamic Report, ITU ITC EYE, International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on 29 June 2013.
- Select Formats, Country IP Blocks. Accessed on 2 April 2012. Note: Site is said to be updated daily.
- Population, The World Factbook, United States Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 2 April 2012. Note: Data are mostly for 1 July 2012.
- "T-HT in 2009: To facilitate access for one million broadband customers" (Press release). 22 April 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Global Internet Filtering Maps", OpenNet Initiative. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "2010 Human rights Report: Croatia", Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 8 April 2011.
- Hotspot list in Croatia at hotspot-locations.com
- Broadband for all, The Digital Agenda for Europe official information page, including Croatia