Internet in Indonesia
The Internet is a relatively new communication medium in Indonesia, an archipelago that includes more than 17,001 islands. Several Internet access services are available in Indonesia, ranging from fiber optic, ADSL to mobile Internet. Telephone line-based service was among the first Internet access services in Indonesia with PT Telkom as a main player who controls most fixed-line telephone networks.
Based on OpenSignal in November 2016, there were only 58.8 percent of internet users in Indonesia who received 4G LTE signal, and received only HSPA+ signal or lower the rest of the time, making Indonesia rank-51 in the world. The speed of download used 4G LTE in Indonesia was only an average 8.79Mbit/s or rank-74 in the world.
Based on the Indonesia Internet Service Providers Association, in mid-2016 there were 132,7 million of internet users or more than a half of Indonesian population. Only 3 percent of users are 50 years old or over, but surprisingly 100 percent in age bracket 10–14 years old used internet. Java dominated users by 65 percent and Sumatra by 15.7 users. Almost 90 percent of users were employees and students. Almost all of users knew about e-commerce, but only 10.4 million users used internet for the transactions. Almost 70 percent users used mobile phones for internet.
According to eMarketer, in 2014 Indonesia has 83.7 million users (in sixth place behind Japan), but Indonesia is predicted to surpass Japan in 2017, because Indonesian internet growth is in the double digits, while Japanese internet growth is slower.
According to Akamai Technologies, Indonesia, with 9 connections to undersea cables, had in Q1 2014 an average Internet connection speed of 2.4 Mbit/s, which is an increase of 55 percent from a year earlier. Just 6.6 percent of homes have access to 4 Mbit/s or higher speed connections. But in Q4 2014, the average internet connection speed is 1.9Mbit/s or drop about 50 percent from Q3 2014 with 3.7Mbit/s.
Based on the Indonesia Internet Service Providers Association, in Q4 2013 there are 71.19 million Internet users in Indonesia or about 28 percent of Indonesia's population. According to Cisco's Visual Networking Index, in 2013 Indonesia had the world's second fastest growth of IP traffic and has become an "Internet of Everything" country.
July 2011: Based on Nielsen's survey, 48 percent of Internet users in Indonesia used a mobile phone to access the Internet, whereas another 13 percent used other handheld multimedia devices, the highest dependence on mobile Internet access in Southeast Asia, although Indonesia has the lowest level of overall Internet penetration in Southeast Asia by only 21 percent of Indonesians aged between 15 and 49 use the Internet.
May 2011: Based on TNS research, Indonesia is the world's second-largest number of Facebook users and the third-largest number of Twitter users. 87 percent of Indonesians who go online have social networking site accounts, but only 14 percent access the sites daily, far below the global average of 46 percent due to many of them access the internet from inconvenience internet cafes or still using old fashioned smartphones. Inline with increase of cheap Android smartphones recently, there are possibility Indonesian internet user activities will be increase too.
Based on Yahoo Net Index survey released in July 2011, Internet in Indonesia sat in the second row after television. 89 percent of users connected to social networking, 72 percent web browsing and 61 percent read the news.
Indonesian Internet Service Providers (ISPs) offer service on top of the PT Telkom's ADSL network. ADSL customers usually receive two separates bills, one for the ADSL line charges to PT Telkom and another for Internet service charges to the ISP.
All of the GSM major cellular telecommunication providers offer the high-speed mobile Internet service 3G, 3.5G HSDPA and even 4G LTE, but only in the big cities (greater Jakarta, Medan, Bandung, Yogyakarta and Surabaya). They include Indosat, Telkomsel, Excelcomindo (XL) and 3. Also, the usage of EV-DO has been applied into service by Indonesian CDMA cellular provider, which includes Mobile8, Indosat, Esia, Smart, and Telkom Flexi (now merged into Telkomsel).
Internet filtering in Indonesia was listed as substantial in the social area, as selective in the political and Internet tools areas, and as no evidence of filtering in the conflict/security area by the OpenNet Initiative in 2011 based on testing done during 2009 and 2010. Testing also showed that Internet filtering in Indonesia is unsystematic and inconsistent, illustrated by the differences found in the level of filtering between ISPs.
Indonesia was rated "partly free" in Freedom on the Net 2015 with a score of 42, midway between the end of the "free" range at 30 and the start of the "not free" range at 60.
Although the government of Indonesia holds a positive view about the Internet as a means for economic development, it has become increasingly concerned over the impact of access to information and has demonstrated an interest in increasing its control over offensive online content, particularly pornographic and anti-Islamic online content. The government regulates such content through legal and regulatory frameworks and through partnerships with ISPs and Internet cafés.
Media reported that selective blocking of some web sites for brief periods began in 2007–2008. Indonesia ordered ISPs to block YouTube in April 2008 after Google reportedly did not respond to the government’s request to remove the film Fitna by the Dutch parliamentarian Geert Wilders, which purportedly mocked the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. In May 2010, when an account on Facebook promoted a competition to draw Muhammad, government officials took a more focused approach and sent a letter to Facebook urging closure of the account, asked all ISPs to limit access to the account’s link, and invited the Indonesian Association of Internet Cafe Entrepreneurs to restrict access to the group. Due to opposition from bloggers and civil society, however, ISPs disregarded the government’s requests, and the account remained accessible.
In March 2008, the government passed the Law on Information and Electronic Transactions (ITE Law), which broadened the authority of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCI) to include supervision of the flow of information and possible censorship of online content. In early 2010, the ministry published a draft Regulation on Multimedia Content that, if implemented, would require ISPs to filter or otherwise remove certain material. The types of content listed include vaguely worded categories such as pornography, gambling, hate incitement, threats of violence, exposure of private information, intellectual property, false information, and content that degrades a person or group on the basis of a physical or nonphysical attribute, such as a disability. Following a public outcry, the government announced that it would take time to process suggestions from the public before proceeding with the draft regulation.
Under the ITE Law anyone convicted of committing defamation online faces up to six years in prison, and a fine of up to 1 billion rupiah (US$111,000). As of June 2010, there were at least eight cases in which citizens had been indicted on defamation charges under the ITE Law for comments on e-mail lists, blogs, or Facebook. Prosecutions under the ITE Law have contributed to an increased atmosphere of fear, caution, and self-censorship among online writers and average users.
As of 29 May 2013, the Indonesian Defense Ministry has proposed plans for creating a cyber army in order to protect the state's portals and websites. Though no law has yet been created in order to maintain and establish the cyber army, the ministry is seeking talented Internet security specialists who, upon hiring, would be trained in information technology and use methods to defend against cyber attacks.
Upon realizing that about 80 percent of local internet traffic went abroad, the Indonesian government began to encourage Indonesian institutions, businessmen and public in general to use domestic domains. In mid-April 2015, there were about 20,000 .id domains and about 47,000 .co.id domains. The government targeted 1 million domestic domains with a funding of Rp 50 billion ($3.85 million). Some users with non-domestic domains also possess domestic domains and redirect searches from its non-domestic domains to domestic domains.
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