Internet in the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom has been involved with the Internet throughout its origins and development. The telecommunications infrastructure in the United Kingdom provides Internet access to businesses and home users in various forms, including fibre, cable, DSL, wireless and mobile.
The share of households with internet access in the United Kingdom grew from 9 percent in 1998 to 93 percent in 2019. Virtually all adults aged 16 to 44 years in the UK were recent internet users (99%) in 2019, compared with 47% of adults aged 75 years and over; in aggregate, the third-highest in Europe. Online shoppers in the UK spend more per household than consumers in any other country. Internet bandwidth per Internet user was the 7th highest in the world in 2016, and average and peak internet connection speeds were top-quartile in 2017. Internet use in the United Kingdom doubled in 2020.
The UK has been involved in the research and development of packet switching, computer networks, and communication protocols since their origins. The development of these technologies was international from the beginning, although much of the research and development that led to the Internet was driven and funded by the United States.
Pioneering research and development of computers in Britain in the 1940s led to partnerships between the public and private sectors that brought about transfer and sharing of personnel and concepts between industry and academia or national research bodies. The trackball was invented in 1946 by Ralph Benjamin, while working for the Royal Navy Scientific Service. At the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Alan Turing worked on computer design, assisted by Donald Davies in 1947.
Christopher Strachey, who became Oxford University's first professor of computation, filed a patent application for time-sharing in 1959. He passed the concept on to J. C. R. Licklider at a UNESCO-sponsored conference on Information Processing in Paris that year.
After meeting with Licklider in 1965, Donald Davies conceived the idea of packet switching for data communications. He proposed a commercial national data network and developed plans to implement the concept in a local area network, the NPL network, which operated from 1969 to 1986. He and his team, including Derek Barber and Roger Scantlebury, carried out work to analyse and simulate the performance of packet switching networks, including datagram networks. Their research and practice was adopted by the ARPANET in the United States, the forerunner of the Internet, and influenced other researchers in the UK and Europe including Louis Pouzin.
TCP/IP and the early Internet
Donald Davies, Roger Scantlebury and Derek Barber joined the International Networking Working Group (INWG) in 1972 along with researchers from the United States and France. Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf acknowledged Davies and Scantlebury in their 1974 paper "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication".
Peter Kirstein's research group at University College London was one of the first two international connections on the ARPANET in 1973, alongside the Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR) which connected via Sweden's Tanum satellite station. The specification of the Transmission Control Program, in RFC 675, was written by Vint Cerf with Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine in December 1974. The following year, testing began through concurrent implementations at Stanford, BBN and University College London. Kirstein co-authored with Vint Cerf one of the most significant early technical papers on the internetworking concept in 1978. His research group at UCL adopted TCP/IP in 1982, a year ahead of ARPANET, and played a significant role in the very earliest experimental Internet work. Kirstein's group included Sylvia Wilbur who programmed the computer used as the local node for the network.
The Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE) was involved in early research and testing of TCP/IP. The first email sent by a head of state was sent from the RSRE over the ARPANET by Queen Elizabeth II in 1976. RSRE was allocated class A Internet address range 25 in 1979, which later became the Ministry of Defence address space, providing 16.7 million IPv4 addresses.
When American researchers Jon Postel and Paul Mockapetris were designing the Domain Name System in 1984, British researchers expressed a desire to use a country designation. Postel used the ISO standard country abbreviations except for the UK, for which he followed the convention already in use in the UK academic network Name Registration Scheme, that is, the abbreviation "UK" rather than the ISO standard "GB". The .uk Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) was registered in July 1985, seven months after the original generic top-level domains such as .com and the first country code after .us. At the time, ccTLDs were delegated by Postel to a "responsible person" and Andrew McDowell at UCL managed .uk, the first country code delegation. He later passed it to Dr Willie Black at the UK Education and Research Networking Association (UK ERNA). Black managed the "Naming Committee" until he and John Carey formed Nominet UK in 1996. As one of the first professional ccTLD operators, it became the model for many other operators worldwide.
The UK's national research and education network (NREN), JANET connected with the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) in the United States 1989. JANET adopted Internet Protocol on its existing network in 1991. In the same year, Dai Davies introduced Internet technology into the pan-European NREN, EuropaNet.
Ivan Pope's company, NetNames, developed the concept of a standalone commercial domain name registrar, which would sell domain registration and other associated services to the public. Network Solutions Inc. (NSI), the domain name registry for the .com, .net, and .org top-level domains (TLDs), assimilated this model, which ultimately led to the separation of registry and registrar functions.
Jon Crowcroft and Mark Handley received multiple awards for their work on Internet technology in the 1990s and 2000s. Karen Banks pioneered the use of the Internet to empower women around the world.
Other protocols and networks
During the 1970s, the NPL team researched internetworking and worked on the European Informatics Network, a datagram network linking Euratom, the French research centre INRIA and the UK’s National Physical Laboratory. The transport protocol of the EIN was the basis of the one adopted by the International Networking Working Group.
In 1973, Clifford Cocks invented a public-key cryptography algorithm equivalent to what would become (in 1978) the RSA algorithm while working at the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ).
British research contributed to the development of the X.25 standard by the CCITT in 1976. Logica, together with the French company SESA, set up a joint venture in 1975 to undertake the Euronet development, using X.25 protocols to form virtual circuits. It established a network linking a number of European countries before being handed over to national PTTs In 1984.
Based on the Coloured Book protocols defined by the UK academic community in 1975, Post Office Telecommunications developed an experimental public packet switching network, EPSS. This was one of the first public data networks in the world when it began operating in 1977. The Coloured Book protocols gained some acceptance internationally as the first complete X.25 standard, and gave the UK "several years lead over other countries". EPSS was replaced with the Packet Switch Stream using X.25 in 1980. PSS connected to the International Packet Switched Service (IPSS), created in 1978 in a collaboration between Post Office Telecommunications and two US telecoms companies.
Peter Collinson brought Unix to the University of Kent at Canterbury (UKC) in 1976 and set up the first UUCP test service to Bell Labs in the U.S. in 1979. UKC provided the first connections to non-academic users in the early 1980s. The first UUCP emails from the U.S. arrived in the UK in 1979 and email to Europe (the Netherlands and Denmark) started in 1980, becoming a regular service via EUnet in 1982. Four commercial companies provided electronic mail services in Britain by 1985, enabling subscribers to send email over telephone connections or data networks such as Packet Switch Stream.
In the early 1980s, British academic networks started a standardisation and interconnection effort based on X.25 and the Coloured Book protocols. Known as the United Kingdom Education and Research Networking Association (UK ERNA), and later JNT Association, this became JANET, the UK's high-speed academic and research network that linked all universities, higher education establishments, and publicly funded research laboratories. It began operation in 1984, two years ahead of the NSFNET in the United States.
The National Computing Centre publication 'Why Distributed Computing' which came from considerable research into future configurations for computer systems, resulted in the UK presenting the case for an international standards committee to cover this area at the ISO meeting in Sydney in March 1977. This international effort ultimately led to the OSI model as an international reference model, published in 1984. For a period in the late 1980s and early 1990s, engineers, organizations and nations became polarized over the issue of which standard, the OSI model or the Internet protocol suite would result in the best and most robust computer networks.
Commercial networking services between the UK and the US were being developed in late 1990.
World Wide Web
In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee, working at CERN in Switzerland, wrote a proposal for "a large hypertext database with typed links". The following year, he specified HTML, the hypertext language, and HTTP, the protocol. These concepts became a world-wide information system known as the World Wide Web (WWW). Operating on the Internet, it allows documents to be created for reading or accessing services with connections to other documents or services, accessed by clicking on hypertext links, enabling the user to navigate from one document or service to another. Nicola Pellow worked with Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau on the WWW project at CERN.
BT (British Telecommunications plc) began using the WWW in 1991 during a collaborative project called the Oracle Alliance Program. It was founded in 1990 by Oracle Corporation, based in California, to provide information for its corporate partners and about those partners. BT became involved in May 1991. File sharing was required as part of the program and, initially, floppy disks were sent through the post. Then in July 1991 access to the Internet was implemented by BT network engineers using the BT packet switching network. A link was established from Ipswich to London for access to the Internet backbone. The first file transfers made via a NeXT-based WWW interface were completed in October 1991.
The BBC registered with the DDN-NIC in 1989, establishing Internet access via Brunel University. In 1991, bbc.co.uk was registered through JANET NRS and the BBC's first website went online in 1994. Other early websites which went online in 1993 hosted in the UK included JumpStation, which was the first WWW search engine hosted at the University of Stirling in Scotland; The Internet Movie Database, hosted by the computer science department of Cardiff University in Wales; and Kent Anthropology, one of the first social science sites (one of the first 200 web servers). The Web brought many social and commercial uses to the Internet which was previously a network for academic institutions. It began to enter everyday use in 1993-4.
An early attempt to provide access to the Web on television was being developed in 1995.
Pipex was established in 1990 and began providing dial-up Internet access in March 1992, the UK's first commercial Internet provider. By November 1993 Pipex provided Internet service to 150 customer sites. One of its first customers was Demon Internet which popularised dial up modem-based internet access in the UK. Other commercial Internet service providers, and web-hosting companies aimed at small businesses and individuals, developed in the 1990s. By May 1998 Demon Internet had 180,000 subscribers.
This narrowband service has been almost entirely replaced by the new broadband technologies, and is now generally only used as a backup. BT trialled its first ISDN 'broadband' connection in 1992. The first commercial service was available from Telewest in 2000.
Broadband allowed the signal in one line to be split between telephone and Internet data, meaning users could be online and make phone calls at the same time. It also enabled faster connections, making it easier to browse the Internet and download files. Broadband Internet access in the UK was, initially, provided by a number of regional cable television and telephone companies which gradually merged into larger groups. The development of digital subscriber line (DSL) technology has allowed broadband to be delivered via traditional copper telephone cables. Also, Wireless Broadband is now available in some areas. These three technologies (cable, DSL and wireless) now compete with each other.
More than half of UK homes had broadband in 2007, with an average connection speed of 4.6 Mbit/s. Bundled communications deals mixing broadband, digital TV, mobile phone and landline phone access were adopted by forty per cent of UK households in the same year, up by a third over the previous year. This high level of service is considered the main driver for the recent growth in online advertising and retail.
By July 2011 BT's share had grown by six percent and the company became the broadband market leader.
The Ofcom Communications Market 2018 report showed 42% of adults had access and use of a Smart TV by 2018, compared to just 5% in 2012 exemplifying the extra bandwidth required by broadband providers on their networks.
Cable broadband uses coaxial cables or optical fibre cables. The main cable service provider in the UK is Virgin Media and the current maximum speed available to their customers is 1Gb/sec (subject to change).
Digital subscriber line (DSL)
This section needs additional citations for verification. (June 2017)
Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) was introduced to the UK in trial stages in 1998 and a commercial product was launched in 2000. In the United Kingdom, most exchanges, local loops and backhauls are owned and managed by BT Wholesale, who then wholesale connectivity via Internet service providers, who generally provide the connectivity to the Internet, support, billing and value added services (such as web hosting and email).
As of October 2021, BT operate 5630 exchanges across the UK with the vast majority being enabled for ADSL. Only a relative handful have not been upgraded to support ADSL products – in fact it is under 100 of the smallest and most rural exchanges. Some exchanges, numbering under 1000, have been upgraded to support SDSL products. However, these exchanges are often the larger exchanges based in major towns and cities so they still cover a large proportion of the population. SDSL products are aimed more at business customers and are priced higher than ADSL services.
Unbundled local loop
Many companies are now operating their own services using local loop unbundling. Initially Bulldog Communications in the London area and Easynet (through their sister consumer provider UK Online) enabled exchanges across the country from London to Central Scotland.
In November 2010, having purchased Easynet in the preceding months, Sky closed the business-centric UK Online with little more than a month's notice. Although Easynet continued to offer business-grade broadband connectivity products, UKO customers could not migrate to an equivalent Easynet service, only being offered either a MAC to migrate provider or the option of becoming a customer of the residential-only Sky Broadband ISP with an introductory discounted period. Also, some previously available service features like fastpath (useful for time-critical protocols like SIP) were not made available on Sky Broadband, leaving business users with a difficult choice particularly where UK Online were the only LLU provider. Since then, Sky Broadband has become a significant player in the quad play telecoms market, offering ADSL line rental and call packages to customers (who have to pay a supplement if they are not also Sky television subscribers).
Whilst Virgin Media is the nearest direct competitor, their quad play product is available to fewer homes given the fixed nature of their cable infrastructure. TalkTalk is the next DSL-based ISP with a mature quad play product portfolio (EE's being the merger of the Orange and T-Mobile service providers, and focusing their promotion on forthcoming fibre broadband and 4G LTE products).
Market consolidation and expansion has permitted service providers to offer faster and less expensives services with typical speeds of up to 24 Mbit/s downstream (subject to ISP and line length). They can offer products at sometimes considerably lower prices, due to not necessarily having to conform to the same regulatory requirements as BT Wholesale: for example, 8 unbundled LLU pairs can deliver 10 Mbit/s over 3775 m for half the price of a similar fibre connection.
In 2005, another company, Be, started offering speeds of up to 24 Mbit/s downstream and 2.5 Mbit/sec upstream using ADSL2+ with Annex M, eventually from over 1,250 UK exchanges. Be were taken over by O2's parent company Telefónica in 2007. On 1 March 2013 O2 Telefónica sold Be to Sky who have now migrated O2 and Be customers onto the somewhat slower Sky network.
Exchanges continue to be upgraded, subject to demand, across the country, although at a somewhat slower pace since BT's commencement of FTTC rollout plans and near-saturation in key geographical areas.
Up until the launch of "Max" services, the only ADSL packages available via BT Wholesale were known as IPstream Home 250, Home 500, Home 1000 and Home 2000 (contention ratio of 50:1); and Office 500, Office 1000, and Office 2000 (contention ratio of 20:1). The number in the product name indicates the downstream data rate in kilobits per second. The upstream data rate is up to 250 kbit/s for all products.
For BT Wholesale ADSL products, users initially had to live within 3.5 kilometres of the local telephone exchange to receive ADSL, but this limit was increased thanks to rate-adaptive digital subscriber line (RADSL), although users with RADSL possibly had a reduced upstream rate, depending on the quality of their line. There are still areas that cannot receive ADSL because of technical limitations, not least of which networks in housing areas built with aluminium cable rather than copper in the 1980s and 1990s, and areas served by optical fibre (TPON), though these are slowly being serviced with copper.
In September 2004, BT Wholesale removed the line-length/loss limits for 500 kbit/s ADSL, instead employing a tactic of "suck it and see" — enabling the line, then seeing if ADSL would work on it. This sometimes includes the installation of a filtered faceplate on the customer's master socket, so as to eliminate poor quality telephone extension cables inside the customer's premises which can be a source of high frequency noise.
In the past, the majority of home users used packages with 500 kbit/s (downstream) and 250 kbit/s (upstream) with a 50:1 contention ratio. However, BT Wholesale introduced the option of a new charging structure to ISPs which means that the wholesale service cost was the same regardless of the ADSL data rate, with charges instead being based on the amount of data transferred. Nowadays, most home users use a package whose data rate is only limited by the technical limitations of their telephone line. Initially this was 2 Mbit/s downstream. Until the advent of widespread FTTC, most home products were first ADSL Max-based (up to 7.15 Mbit/s), using ADSL G.992.1 and then later ADSL2+ (up to 21 Mbit/s).
Max and Max Premium
Following successful trials, BT announced the availability of higher speed services known as BT ADSL Max and BT ADSL Max Premium in March 2006. BT made the "Max" product available to more than 5300 exchanges, serving around 99% of UK households and businesses.
Both Max services offered downstream data rates of up to 7.15 Mbit/s. Upstream data rates were up to 400 kbit/s for the standard product and up to 750 kbit/s for the premium product. (Whilst the maximum downstream data rate for IPStream Max is often touted as 8 Mbit/s, this is in fact misleading because, in a departure from previous practice, it actually refers to the gross ATM data rate. The maximum data rate available at the IP level is 7.15 Mbit/s; the maximum TCP payload rate – the rate one would actually see for file transfer – would be about 7.0 Mbit/s.)
The actual downstream data rate achieved on any given Max line is subject to the capabilities of the line. Depending on the stable ADSL synchronisation rate negotiated, BT's ‘20CN’ system applied a fixed rate limit from one of the following data rates: 160 kbit/s, 250, 500, 750 kbit/s, 1.0 Mbit/s, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2.0 Mbit/s, then in 500 kbit/s steps up to 7.0 Mbit/s, then a final maximum rate of 7.15 Mbit/s.
On 13 August 2004 the ISP Wanadoo (formerly Freeserve and now EE in the UK) was told by the Advertising Standards Authority to change the way that they advertised their 512 kbit/s broadband service in Britain, removing the words "full speed" which rival companies claimed was misleading people into thinking it was the fastest available service.
In a similar way, on 9 April 2003 the Advertising Standards Authority ruled against ISP NTL, saying that NTL's 128 kbit/s cable modem service must not be marketed as "broadband". Ofcom reported in June 2005 that there were more broadband than dial-up connections for the first time in history.
In the third quarter of 2005 with the merger of NTL and Telewest, a new alliance was formed to create the largest market share of broadband users. This alliance brought about huge increases in bandwidth allocations for cable customers (minimum speed increasing from the industry norm of 512 kbit/s to 2 Mbit/s home lines with both companies planning to have all domestic customers upgraded to at least 4 Mbit/s downstream and ranging up to 10 Mbit/s and beyond by mid-2006.) along with the supply of integrated services such as Digital TV and Phone packages.
March 2006 saw the nationwide launch of BT Wholesale's up to "8 Mbit/s" ADSL services, known as ADSL Max. "Max"-based packages are available to end users on any broadband-enabled BT exchange in the UK.
Since 2003, BT has been introducing SDSL to exchanges in many of the major cities. Services are currently offered at upload/download speeds of 256 kbit/s, 512 kbit/s, 1 Mbit/s or 2 Mbit/s. Unlike ADSL, which is typically 256 kbit/s upload, SDSL upload speeds are the same as the download speed. BT usually provide a new copper pair for SDSL installs, which can be used only for the SDSL connection. At a few hundred pounds a quarter, SDSL is significantly more expensive than ADSL, but is significantly cheaper than a leased line. SDSL is marketed to businesses and offers low contention ratios, and in some cases, a service level agreement. At present, the BT Wholesale SDSL enablement programme has stalled, most probably due to a lack of uptake.
Still in the year 2015 it was common in highly developed areas like the London Aldgate region for consumers to be limited to speeds of up to 8 Mbit/s for ADSL services. This had a major effect in the London rental market as limited broadband service can affect the readiness of prospective tenants to sign a rental lease.
In March 2020, the UK government set the Universal Service Obligation to 10 Mbit/s download and 1 Mbit/s upload.
As of 2 May 2020, 96.9% of UK households can receive "superfast broadband" which is defined as 30 Mbit/s and 19.29% of UK households can receive gigabit speeds, either via FTTP or DOCSIS 3.1. While 1.07% of UK households currently have broadband that's slower than the legal USO.
In September 2020, the UK dropped 13 places in the 2020 Worldwide Broadband Speed League and is now among the slowest in Europe with a mean download speed of 37.82 Mbit/s. Cable.co.uk blames this low speed on Openreach who have set entry level FTTC packages to 30 - 35 Mbit/s and 'fast' FTTC to 60 - 70 Mbit/s for more than five years with no significant changes. The UK was somewhat late to deploying full fibre (FTTP/FTTH) due to their reliance on FTTC/VDSL technologies. The deployment of FTTC/VDSL technologies was largely driven by the lack of political appetite and funding for FTTP at the time.
Developments since 2006
This section needs to be updated.(February 2020)
Since 2006, the UK market has changed significantly; companies that previously provided telephone and television subscriptions also began to offer broadband.
TalkTalk offered customers ‘free’ broadband if they had a telephone package. Orange responded by offering ‘free’ broadband for some mobile customers. Many smaller ISPs now offer similar packages. O2 also entered the broadband market by taking over LLU provider Be, while Sky (BSkyB) had already taken over LLU broadband provider Easynet. In July 2006, Sky announced 2 Mbit/s broadband to be available free to Sky TV customers and a higher speed connection at a lower price than most rivals.
Virgin Media stated that 13 million UK homes are covered by their optical fibre broadband network, and that by the end of 2012 would be able to offer 100 Mbit/s broadband. There are currently over 100 towns in the UK that have access to this service.
In October 2011, British operator Hyperoptic launched a 1 Gbit/s FTTH service in London.
In October 2012, British operator Gigler UK launched a 1 Gbit/s down and 500Mbit/sec up FTTH service in Bournemouth using the CityFibre network.
In 2015, BT unveiled universal 5-10 mbit/s broadband and the rollout of 500 Mbit/s G.Fast. The aim was to push "ultra-fast speeds" of 300-500 Mbit/s to 10 million homes using the existing landline cables. The roll-out of G.Fast was paused in 2019 due to Openreach focusing on FTTP. BT has also proposed that they wish to switch off their copper network by 2027.
In 2015, BT began the roll out of G.INP on their FTTC network, the use of G.INP is to help improve line stability and reduce overheads and latency. The roll-out was paused on ECI broadband cabinet equipment due to the lack of support for upstream re-transmission which caused network slowdowns and higher latency. The rollout of G.INP on Huawei broadband cabinets was completed in 2015 while G.INP on ECI equipment has reentered the trial stage as of May 2020.
In September 2016, Sky "completed" their roll-out of IPv6 with 95% of their customers getting IPv6 access. BT rolled out IPv6 support for "all BT Broadband lines" two months later in November 2016.
During the 2019 General Election, Boris Johnson pledged full fibre for all of the UK by 2025. This was later rolled back to "gigabit-capable" broadband. This means that mixed technologies are allowed, for example Virgin Media can continue to use their cable infrastructure since the DOCSIS 3.1 is "gigabit-capable" and other ISPs can also sell 5G broadband.
In March 2020, the UK government set the Universal Service Obligation to 10 Mbit/s Download and 1 Mbit/s Upload.
Openreach reported that on 29 April 2020 they saw a record peak of 10 petabytes of data going through their network. This increase of internet traffic is the result of the lock-down in the UK caused by COVID-19.
As of 2 May 2020, 96.9% of UK households can receive "superfast broadband" which is defined as 30 Mbit/s and 19.29% of UK households can receive gigabit speeds, either via FTTP or DOCSIS 3.1. While 1.07% of UK households currently have broadband that's slower than the legal USO. The UK has a 31.15% IPv6 adoption rate as of early May 2020.
The term "wireless broadband" generally refers to the provision of a wireless router with a broadband connection, although it can also refer to alternative wireless methods of broadband delivery, such as satellite or radio-based technology. These alternative delivery models are often deployed in areas that are physically or commercially unfeasible to reach by traditional fixed methods.
This article needs to be updated.(November 2021)
A new mobile broadband technology emerging in the United Kingdom is 4G which hopes to replace the old 3G technology currently in use and could see download speeds increased to 300Mbit/s. The company EE have been the first company to start developing a full scale 4G network throughout the United Kingdom. This was later followed by other telecommunications companies in the UK such as O2 (Telefónica) and Vodafone.
Children's access to the Internet
According to a 2017 Ofcom report named 'Children and Parents: Media Use and Attitudes Report' more younger children are going online than in 2016 with much of the growth coming from increased use of tablets.
A survey on UK school children's access to the Internet commissioned by security company Westcoastcloud in 2011 found half have no parental controls installed on their internet connected devices and half of parents said they have concerns about the lack of controls installed on their children's Internet devices.
Call for better oversight
In June 2018 Tom Winsor, Her Majesty’s chief inspector of constabulary, said technologies like encryption should be breakable if law enforcers have a warrant. Winsor said the public was running out of patience with organisations like Facebook, Telegram (software) and WhatsApp. Winsor said, "There is a handful of very large companies with a highly dominant influence over how the internet is used. In too many respects, their record is poor and their reputation tarnished. The steps they take to make sure their services cannot be abused by terrorists, paedophiles and organised criminals are inadequate; the commitment they show and their willingness to be held to account are questionable."
- Alternative media in the United Kingdom
- Digital Britain
- Internet censorship in the United Kingdom
- Illegal file sharing in the United Kingdom
- Internet rush hour
- Media in the United Kingdom
- Open Rights Group
- "Household internet penetration in the UK 1998–2018 | Statistic". Statista. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Internet users, UK – Office for National Statistics". www.ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- Peachey, Kevin (21 April 2017). "UK shoppers 'biggest online spenders'". Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Internet bandwidth by country, around the world". TheGlobalEconomy.com. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Connectivity Report" (PDF). Q1 2017 State of the Internet. Akamai.
- "UK internet use doubles in 2020 due to pandemic". BBC News. 30 December 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
- Hauben, Ronda (1 May 2004). "The Internet: On its International Origins and Collaborative Vision A Work In-Progress". Retrieved 25 September 2017.
- "BT ad gets into a muddle about the internet's origins". BBC. 15 February 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
- by Vinton Cerf, as told to Bernard Aboba (1993). "How the Internet Came to Be". Retrieved 25 September 2017.
We began doing concurrent implementations at Stanford, BBN, and University College London. So effort at developing the Internet protocols was international from the beginning.
- "The Computer History Museum, SRI International, and BBN Celebrate the 40th Anniversary of First ARPANET Transmission, Precursor to Today's Internet". SRI International. 27 October 2009. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
But the ARPANET itself had now become an island, with no links to the other networks that had sprung up. By the early1970s, researchers in France, the UK, and the U.S. began developing ways of connecting networks to each other, a process known as internetworking.
- Scantlebury, Roger (25 June 2013). "Internet pioneers airbrushed from history". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 August 2015; "How we nearly invented the internet in the UK | New Scientist". www.newscientist.com. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
- Clarke, Roger (29 January 2004). "Origins and Nature of the Internet in Australia". www.rogerclarke.com. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
Much of the history of computing has been written by Americans. ... More balanced histories reflect the fact that, for all of the U.S.A.'s dominance from about 1950, the early developments occurred on both sides of the Atlantic
- "History of Computing in the UK: A Resource Guide". SIGCIS. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
- "A brief history of British computers: the first 25 years (1948–1973)". BCS – The Chartered Institute for IT. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
- Copping, Jasper (11 July 2013). "Briton: 'I invented the computer mouse 20 years before the Americans'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- Hill, Peter C. J., ed. (16 September 2005). "RALPH BENJAMIN: An Interview Conducted by Peter C. J. Hill" (Interview). Interview #465. IEEE History Center, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- Needham, R. M. (2002). "Donald Watts Davies, C.B.E. 7 June 1924 – 28 May 2000". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 48: 87–96. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2002.0006. S2CID 72835589.
- "Donald Davies". NPLWebsite. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
- "Computer Pioneers – Christopher Strachey". IEEE Computer Society. Archived from the original on 15 May 2019. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
- "Reminiscences on the Theory of Time-Sharing". jmc.stanford.edu. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
- "Computer – Time-sharing and minicomputers". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
- Gillies, James M.; Gillies, James; Gillies, James and Cailliau Robert; Cailliau, R. (2000). How the Web was Born: The Story of the World Wide Web. Oxford University Press. pp. 13. ISBN 978-0-19-286207-5.
- Roberts, Dr. Lawrence G. (November 1978). "The Evolution of Packet Switching". Archived from the original on 24 March 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
Almost immediately after the 1965 meeting, Donald Davies conceived of the details of a store-and-forward packet switching system
- Roberts, Dr. Lawrence G. (May 1995). "The ARPANET & Computer Networks". Archived from the original on 24 March 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- Pelkey, James. "6.3 CYCLADES Network and Louis Pouzin 1971–1972". Entrepreneurial Capitalism and Innovation: A History of Computer Communications 1968–1988.
- Gillies, James; Cailliau, Robert (2000). How the Web was Born: The Story of the World Wide Web. Oxford University Press. p. 25. ISBN 0-19-286207-3.
- Isaacson, Walter (2014). The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution. Simon & Schuster. p. 237. ISBN 978-1-4767-0869-0.
- C. Hempstead; W. Worthington (2005). Encyclopedia of 20th-Century Technology. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-45551-4.
- McKenzie, Alexander (2011). "INWG and the Conception of the Internet: An Eyewitness Account". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 33 (1): 66–71. doi:10.1109/MAHC.2011.9. ISSN 1934-1547. S2CID 206443072.
- Cerf, V.; Kahn, R. (1974). "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication" (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Communications. 22 (5): 637–648. doi:10.1109/TCOM.1974.1092259. ISSN 1558-0857.
The authors wish to thank a number of colleagues for helpful comments during early discussions of international network protocols, especially R. Metcalfe, R. Scantlebury, D. Walden, and H. Zimmerman; D. Davies and L. Pouzin who constructively commented on the fragmentation and accounting issues; and S. Crocker who commented on the creation and destruction of associations.
- Brown, Ian, ed. (2013). Research handbook on governance of the Internet. Edward Elgar. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-84980-504-9.
- by Vinton Cerf, as told to Bernard Aboba (1993). "How the Internet Came to Be". Retrieved 25 September 2017.
We began doing concurrent implementations at Stanford, BBN, and University College London. So effort at developing the Internet protocols was international from the beginning. ... Mar '82 - Norway leaves the ARPANET and become an Internet connection via TCP/IP over SATNET. Nov '82 - UCL leaves the ARPANET and becomes an Internet connection.
- Cerf, V. G.; Kirstein, P. T. (1978). "Issues in packet-network interconnection". Proceedings of the IEEE. 66 (11): 1386. doi:10.1109/PROC.1978.11147. S2CID 27658511.
- Martin, Olivier (2012). The "Hidden" Prehistory of European Research Networking. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4669-3872-4.
- Kirstein, P.T. (1999). "Early experiences with the Arpanet and Internet in the United Kingdom" (PDF). IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 21 (1): 38–44. doi:10.1109/85.759368. ISSN 1934-1547. S2CID 1558618. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2020.
- Cade Metz (25 December 2012). "How the Queen of England Beat Everyone to the Internet". Wired Magazine. Archived from the original on 19 July 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- Metz, Cade (25 December 2012). "How the Queen of England Beat Everyone to the Internet". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
- Left, Sarah (13 March 2002). "Email timeline". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
- Postel, J. (3 May 1979). "Assigned Numbers". USC - Information Sciences Institute. RFC755. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
- Study into UK IPv4 and IPv6 allocations (PDF). Reid Technical Facilities Management (Report). Ofcom. 2014. Ofcom/140701-00. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
- Milton Mueller (2002), Ruling the Root: Internet Governance and the Taming of Cyberspace, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, p. 79, ISBN 978-0-262-63298-0
- Mansell, Robin; Mansell, Dixons Chair in New Media and the Internet Interdepartmental Programme in Media and Communications Robin (2002). Inside the Communication Revolution: Evolving Patterns of Social and Technical Interaction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-829656-0.
- Zakon, Robert (November 1997). Hobbes' Internet Timeline. IETF. p. 9. doi:10.17487/RFC2235. RFC 2235. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
- Reid, Jim (3 April 2007). "The Good Old Days: Networking in UK Academia ~25 Years Ago" (PDF). UKNOF7. Manchester. Retrieved 16 April 2008.
- "The Adoption of TCP/IP". clivemabey.me.uk. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "Dai Davies | Internet Hall of Fame". www.internethalloffame.org. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
- "IEEE Internet Award Recipients". www.ieee.org. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- "Karen Banks | Internet Hall of Fame". www.internethalloffame.org. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
- Abbate, Janet (2000). Inventing the Internet. MIT Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-262-51115-5.
- Hardy, Daniel; Malleus, Guy (2002). Networks: Internet, Telephony, Multimedia: Convergences and Complementarities. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 505. ISBN 978-3-540-00559-9.
- Davies, Donald Watts (1979). Computer networks and their protocols. Internet Archive. Chichester, [Eng.] ; New York : Wiley. pp. 464. ISBN 9780471997504.
- Rutter, Dorian (2005). From Diversity to Convergence: British Computer Networks and the Internet, 1970-1995 (PDF) (Computer Science thesis). The University of Warwick.
- "British Document Outlines Early Encryption Discovery". archive.nytimes.com. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
The set of algorithms, equations and arcane mathematics that make up public key cryptography are a crucial technology for preserving computer privacy in and making commerce possible on the Internet. Some hail its discovery as one of the most important accomplishments of 20th-century mathematics because it allows two people to set up a secure phone call without meeting beforehand. Without it, there would be no privacy in cyberspace.
- Schwartz, Mischa (2010). "X.25 Virtual Circuits – TRANSPAC IN France – Pre-Internet Data Networking [History of communications]". IEEE Communications Magazine. 48 (11): 40–46. doi:10.1109/MCOM.2010.5621965. ISSN 1558-1896. S2CID 23639680.
- Rybczynski, Tony (2009). "Commercialization of packet switching (1975–1985): A Canadian perspective [History of Communications]". IEEE Communications Magazine. 47 (12): 26–31. doi:10.1109/MCOM.2009.5350364. ISSN 1558-1896. S2CID 23243636.
- Dunning, A.J. (31 December 1977). "Origins, development and future of the Euronet". Program. Emeraldinsight.com. 11 (4): 145–155. doi:10.1108/eb046759.
- Kerssens, Niels (13 December 2019). "Rethinking legacies in internet history: Euronet, lost (inter)networks, EU politics". Internet Histories. 4: 32–48. doi:10.1080/24701475.2019.1701919. ISSN 2470-1475.
- Davies, Howard; Bressan, Beatrice, eds. (2010). A history of international research networking: the people who made it happen. John Wiley & Sons. p. 2–3. ISBN 978-3-527-32710-2.
- Davies, Howard; Bressan, Beatrice (26 April 2010). A History of International Research Networking: The People who Made it Happen. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 2–3. ISBN 978-3-527-32710-2.
- Earnshaw, Rae; Vince, John (20 September 2007). Digital Convergence – Libraries of the Future. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-84628-903-3.
- "FLAGSHIP". Central Computing Department Newsletter (12). January 1991.
- Davies, Howard; Bressan, Beatrice, eds. (2010). A history of international research networking: the people who made it happen. John Wiley & Sons. p. 2. ISBN 978-3-527-32710-2.
- Houlder, Peter (19 January 2007). "Starting the Commercial Internet in the UK" (PDF). 6th UK Network Operators' Forum. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
- Reid, Jim (3 April 2007). "Networking in UK Academia ~25 Years Ago" (PDF). 7th UK Network Operators' Forum. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
- Information, Reed Business (17 October 1985). New Scientist. Reed Business Information. pp. 61–4.
- "1984-2014: 30 years of the Janet network" (PDF). Disc. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
- National Research Council (U.S.). National Research Network Review Committee, Leonard Kleinrock; et al. (1988). Toward a National Research Network. National Academies. p. 40. ISBN 9780309581257.
- Down, Peter John; Taylor, Frank Edward (1976). Why distributed computing?: An NCC review of potential and experience in the UK. NCC Publications. ISBN 9780850121704.
- Andrew L. Russell (30 July 2013). "OSI: The Internet That Wasn't". IEEE Spectrum. Vol. 50 no. 8.
- Russell, Andrew L. "Rough Consensus and Running Code' and the Internet-OSI Standards War" (PDF). IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 November 2019.
- "Standards Wars" (PDF). 2006. Cite journal requires
- "Briefs". Network World. 7 (38): 2. 17 September 1990.
MCI Vnet goes global
- Berners-Lee, Tim (March 1989). "Information Management: A Proposal". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
- "Frequently asked questions". Tim Berners-Lee. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- "Internaut day: The world's first public website went online 25 years ago today". The Telegraph. 23 August 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
- Smith, Chris (22 September 2017). "20 things you probably didn't know about the World Wide Web". BT. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
- Lloyd, Peter; Boyle, Paula (1998). Web-weaving: Intranets, Extranets and Strategic Alliances. Routledge. pp. 201–8. ISBN 0-7506-3866-4.
- BT network engineer Clive Salmon established access to the Internet for the project leader, Richard Moulding of BT, in July 1991.
- "BBC Internet Services – History". support.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- "Jonathon Fletcher: forgotten father of the search engine". BBC News. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
- In, Lee (30 June 2012). Electronic Commerce Management for Business Activities and Global Enterprises: Competitive Advantages: Competitive Advantages. IGI Global. ISBN 978-1-4666-1801-5.
- Misiroglu, Gina (26 March 2015). American Countercultures: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, Alternative Lifestyles, and Radical Ideas in US History: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, Alternative Lifestyles, and Radical Ideas in US History. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-47729-7.
- Couldry, Nick (2012). Media, Society, World: Social Theory and Digital Media Practice. London: Polity Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780745639208.
- "Couch potatoes armed with Viewcall can surf the Web through the tube". InfoWorld. 18 December 1995. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- "How the UK got connected". The Telegraph. 27 October 2016. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
- "About PIPEX". GTNet. Archived from the original on 1 November 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- "UUNET PIPEX from FOLDOC". foldoc.org. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- Andrew Orlowski 11 Jan 2019 at 11:00 tweet_btn(). "Begone, Demon Internet: Vodafone to shutter old-school pioneer ISP". www.theregister.co.uk. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- Bonsignore, Tony (11 February 2019). "I stole £30,000 from my mum to make millions". Retrieved 11 February 2019.
web-hosting companies in the UK at the time were pitched at much bigger companies, ... small businesses and individuals wanted something self-service and easy to use ... Fasthosts was a classic example of the bedroom computer innovation that the UK was so good at in the 80s and 90s.... it also simplified the process of registering domain names and accessing web hosting
- Mansell, Robin (2002). Inside the Communication Revolution: Evolving Patterns of Social and Technical Interaction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-829656-0.
- Carter, Claire (1 September 2013). "Dial-up internet services shut down". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Providers race for prize as UK users get demanding". The Independent. 30 November 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
- "Who invented broadband? How copper telephone lines became high-speed internet connections". BT. 25 July 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- "Broadband: The First Decade". The Independent. 28 March 2010. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- "How the UK got connected". The Telegraph. 27 October 2016. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
- "The history of broadband from the '80s to today". uSwitch. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- http://www.newstatesman.com/considerthis/supplements/broadbandsupp.pdf Archived 8 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- "More than half of UK homes have broadband – 22 Aug 2007 – Computing News". Computing.co.uk. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- Kitz (7 December 2005). "UK ISP Market Share .::". . Kitz. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- "UK broadband market share". guardian.co.uk. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
- Williams, Christopher (23 August 2007). "Ofcom: the Internet is for coffin dodgers and girls". Theregister.co.uk. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "the complete report". Ofcom.org.uk. 23 August 2007. Archived from the original on 31 December 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- "The Communications Market 2018: Interactive report". Ofcom. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
- "Smart TV User Patterns – What are Smart TVs Used for in 2018? - BroadbandSwitch". BroadbandSwitch. 8 August 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
- "Virgin Media Broadband Only Deals". Virgin Media. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- SamKnows (16 October 2012). "SamKnows – Regional Broadband Statistics". SamKnows. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- Ferguson, Andrew (15 June 2006). "Broadband for all – not!". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- Williams, Christopher (12 November 2010). "Sky confirms UK Online closure". The Register. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- Wakeling, Tim (16 November 2010). "Tim Wakeling's PC Inner Circle: UKonline closing". Tim Wakeling. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- Ferguson, Andrew (11 November 2010). "UK Online to close January 14th 2011 – Official". ThinkBroadband. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- LLU VS Fibre. Archived 2012-03-17 at the Wayback Machine Infographic, MLL Telecom 2011
- 1 kbit = 1000 bit
- "UK 'embraces digital technology'". BBC News. 13 July 2005. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- "BT Wholesale confirms launch of the Max services". thinkbroadband. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- Bhanot, Varun (17 March 2016). "Where is the best broadband for your London workspace?". hubblehq.com.
- "Imperial study suggests that internet speed has an impact on property prices". Imperial News. Imperial College London. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "10Mbps UK Broadband Universal Service Obligation to Go Live UPDATE3 - ISPreview UK". www.ispreview.co.uk. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "Check UK Broadband Performance and Coverage Statistics". labs.thinkbroadband.com. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- "Worldwide Broadband Speed League 2020 | Cable.co.uk". Cable. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- Jackson, Mark (23 September 2019). "One of the Last - 5000th FTTC Broadband Cabinet Built in Scotland". ISPreview UK. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- "Phone firm 'plans free broadband'". BBC. 9 April 2006. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- "BT select three ISP's for System Trial". Thinkbroadband. 14 September 2007.
- "BT rolls out 100 Mbit/s broadband in Milton Keynes". PC Advisor. 18 June 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- "Virgin Media offers 100Mb broadband to over 4 million homes". BroadbandIN.co.uk. 10 June 2011. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011.
- "1Gbit/sec broadband lands in London | Broadband | News". PC Pro. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- "UPDATE3 BT Unveil Universal 5-10Mb Broadband and 500Mb G.fast Rollout - ISPreview UK". www.ispreview.co.uk. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "Openreach Put the Brakes on Future UK G.fast Broadband Plans - ISPreview UK". www.ispreview.co.uk. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "BT to Propose Full Fibre Move and Copper Switch Off by 2027 UPDATE - ISPreview UK". www.ispreview.co.uk. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "UPDATE BT Enable Physical Retransmission G.INP on FTTC Broadband Lines - ISPreview UK". www.ispreview.co.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
- "::. Kitz - G.INP Retransmission .::". kitz.co.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
- "BT Partly Suspends G.INP Roll-out to ECI Fibre Broadband Cabinets - ISPreview UK". www.ispreview.co.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
- "UPDATE BT Openreach Brief UK FTTC Fibre Broadband ISPs on G.INP Issues - ISPreview UK". www.ispreview.co.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
- "UPDATE BT Enable Physical Retransmission G.INP on FTTC Broadband Lines - ISPreview UK". www.ispreview.co.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
- "Openreach UK Trial Finally Brings G.INP to ECI FTTC Broadband - ISPreview UK". www.ispreview.co.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
- "UK ISP Sky Broadband Officially "Completes" the Roll-Out of IPv6 - ISPreview UK". www.ispreview.co.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
- "UPDATE All BT Broadband Lines Now Support IPv6 Internet Addresses - ISPreview UK". www.ispreview.co.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
- "Boris Johnson Pledges Full Fibre for All UK by 2025 - Doesn't Say How UPDATE - ISPreview UK". www.ispreview.co.uk. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- Kelion, Leo (14 October 2019). "Ministers dodge 'full fibre for all by 2025' pledge". BBC News. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- "Rural communities joining the race for better broadband". www.openreach.com. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- "10Mbps UK Broadband Universal Service Obligation to Go Live UPDATE3 - ISPreview UK". www.ispreview.co.uk. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- "Rural UK FTTH ISP B4RN Launches 10Gbps Home Broadband - ISPreview UK". www.ispreview.co.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
- "Openreach Records 10 PetaByte Peak in UK Internet Traffic - ISPreview UK". www.ispreview.co.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
- "Openreach's FTTP Broadband Covers 2.5 Million UK Premises - ISPreview UK". www.ispreview.co.uk. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "IPv6 – Google". www.google.com. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
- "UK hits 15% full fibre mark | thinkbroadband". www.thinkbroadband.com. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
- "East Midlands Public Services Network is now live!". CommsBusiness. Miles Publishing Limited. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "Children and Parents: Media Use and Attitudes Report" (PDF). Ofcom. 29 November 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
- "UK Filtering Software Company Releases Survey on Kids' Internet Access", Quichen Zhang, OpenNet Initiative, 26 September 2011
- "10% of UK elementary schoolkids own an iPhone; 5% own an iPad" Archived 2013-07-01 at the Wayback Machine, Brad Reed, Network World, 23 September 2011
- "Westcoastcloud survey reveals 1 in 10 UK primary school children have iPhones" Archived 2011-09-23 at the Wayback Machine, Westcoastcloud, accessed 3 October 2011
- "Growing case for forcing internet firms to cooperate, says police watchdog", Vikram Dodd, 12 June 2018,The Guardian.
- How To Speed Up A Internet Connection How To Speed Up A Internet Connection
- How To Increase Wi-Fi Speed How To Increase Wi-Fi Speed Within The Premises
- Government loses way in computer networks New Scientist, 1975
- How the Brits invented packet switching and made the internet possible Computing Weekly, 2010
- The British invented much of the Internet ZD Net, 2010