List of alloys

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This is a list of named alloys grouped alphabetically by base metal. Within these headings, the alloys are also grouped alphabetically. Some of the main alloying elements are optionally listed after the alloy names.

Alloys by base metal[edit]

Aluminium[edit]

Aluminium also forms complex metallic alloys, like β–Al–Mg, ξ'–Al–Pd–Mn, and T–Al3Mn.

Beryllium[edit]

Bismuth[edit]

Chromium[edit]

Cobalt[edit]

Copper[edit]

Gallium[edit]

Gold[edit]

See also notes below[note 1]

Indium[edit]

Iron[edit]

Most iron alloys are steels, with carbon as a major alloying element.

Carbon steels[edit]

Modern steels are made with varying combinations of alloy metals to fulfill many purposes.[4] Carbon steel, composed simply of iron and carbon, accounts for 90% of steel production.[5] Low alloy steel is alloyed with other elements, usually molybdenum, manganese, chromium, or nickel, in amounts of up to 10% by weight to improve the hardenability of thick sections.[5] High strength low alloy steel has small additions (usually < 2% by weight) of other elements, typically 1.5% manganese, to provide additional strength for a modest price increase.[6]

Recent Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations have given rise to a new variety of steel known as Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS). This material is both strong and ductile so that vehicle structures can maintain their current safety levels while using less material. There are several commercially available grades of AHSS, such as dual-phase steel, which is heat treated to contain both a ferritic and martensitic microstructure to produce a formable, high strength steel.[7] Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel involves special alloying and heat treatments to stabilize amounts of austenite at room temperature in normally austenite-free low-alloy ferritic steels. By applying strain, the austenite undergoes a phase transition to martensite without the addition of heat.[8] Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel uses a specific type of strain to increase the effectiveness of work hardening on the alloy.[9]

Carbon Steels are often galvanized, through hot-dip or electroplating in zinc for protection against rust.[10]

Stainless steels contain a minimum of 11% chromium, often combined with nickel, to resist corrosion. Some stainless steels, such as the ferritic stainless steels are magnetic, while others, such as the austenitic, are nonmagnetic.[11] Corrosion-resistant steels are abbreviated as CRES.

Some more modern steels include tool steels, which are alloyed with large amounts of tungsten and cobalt or other elements to maximize solution hardening. This also allows the use of precipitation hardening and improves the alloy's temperature resistance.[5] Tool steel is generally used in axes, drills, and other devices that need a sharp, long-lasting cutting edge. Other special-purpose alloys include weathering steels such as Cor-ten, which weather by acquiring a stable, rusted surface, and so can be used un-painted.[12] Maraging steel is alloyed with nickel and other elements, but unlike most steel contains little carbon (0.01%). This creates a very strong but still malleable steel.[13]

Eglin steel uses a combination of over a dozen different elements in varying amounts to create a relatively low-cost steel for use in bunker buster weapons. Hadfield steel (after Sir Robert Hadfield) or manganese steel contains 12–14% manganese which when abraded strain-hardens to form an incredibly hard skin which resists wearing. Examples include tank tracks, bulldozer blade edges and cutting blades on the jaws of life.[14]

Lead[edit]

Magnesium[edit]

Mercury[edit]

Nickel[edit]

Plutonium[edit]

Potassium[edit]

Rare Earths[edit]

Rhodium[edit]

Samarium[edit]

SmCo (cobalt); used for permanent magnets in guitar pickups, headphones, satellite transponders, etc.

Scandium[edit]

Silver[edit]

Sodium[edit]

Titanium[edit]

Tin[edit]

Uranium[edit]

Zinc[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The purity of gold alloys is expressed in karats, (UK: carats) which indicates the ratio of the minimum amount of gold (by mass) over 24 parts total. 24 karat gold is fine gold (24/24 parts), and the engineering standard[citation needed] is that it be applied to alloys that have been refined to 99.9% or better purity ("3 nines fine"). There are, however, places in the world that allow the claim of 24kt. to alloys with as little as 99.0% gold ("2 nines fine" or "point nine-nine fine).[citation needed] An alloy which is 14 parts gold to 10 parts alloy is 14 karat gold, 18 parts gold to 6 parts alloy is 18 karat, etc. This is becoming more commonly[citation needed] and more precisely expressed as a decimal fraction, i.e.: 14/24 equals .585 (rounded off), and 18/24 is .750 ("seven-fifty fine"). There are hundreds of possible alloys and mixtures possible, but in general the addition of silver will color gold green, and the addition of copper will color it red. A mix of around 50/50 copper and silver gives the range of yellow gold alloys the public is accustomed to seeing in the marketplace.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hunter, Christel (2006). Aluminum Building Wire Installation and Terminations, IAEI News, January–February 2006. Richardson, TX: International Association of Electrical Inspectors.
  2. ^ Hausner(1965) Beryllium its Metallurgy and Properties, University of California Press
  3. ^ "Ultimet® alloy - Nominal Composition". Haynes International. Retrieved October 4, 2016.
  4. ^ "Alloying of Steels". Metallurgical Consultants. 2006-06-28. Archived from the original on 2007-02-21. Retrieved 2007-02-28.
  5. ^ a b c Ashby, Michael F. & Jones, David R. H. (1992) [1986]. Engineering Materials 2 (with corrections ed.). Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-032532-7.
  6. ^ "High strength low alloy steels". Schoolscience.co.uk. Retrieved 2007-08-14.
  7. ^ "Dual-phase steel". Intota Expert Knowledge Services. Retrieved 2007-03-01.
  8. ^ Werner, Ewald. "Transformation Induced Plasticity in low alloyed TRIP-steels and microstructure response to a complex stress history". Archived from the original on December 23, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-01.
  9. ^ Mirko, Centi; Saliceti Stefano. "Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP), Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) and Dual-Phase (DP) Steels". Tampere University of Technology. Archived from the original on 2008-03-07. Retrieved 2007-03-01.
  10. ^ Galvanic protection. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007.
  11. ^ "Steel Glossary". American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Retrieved 2006-07-30.
  12. ^ "Steel Interchange". American Institute of Steel Construction Inc. (AISC). Archived from the original on 2007-12-22. Retrieved 2007-02-28.
  13. ^ "Properties of Maraging Steels". Archived from the original on 2009-02-25. Retrieved 2009-07-19.
  14. ^ Hadfield manganese steel. Answers.com. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  15. ^ "Tin Based Alloys". Mayer Alloys.