Italian general election, 1987

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Italian general election, 1987
Italy
← 1983 14 June 1987 1992 →

All 630 seats in the Italian Chamber of Deputies
315 (of the 323) seats in the Italian Senate
Turnout 88.8%
  First party Second party Third party
  Ciriaco De Mita.jpg Alessandro Natta.jpg Bettino Craxi 2.jpg
Leader Ciriaco De Mita Alessandro Natta Bettino Craxi
Party Christian Democracy Communist Party Socialist Party
Leader since 1982 1984 1976
Leader's seat XXIV - Eastern Campania III - Ligury III - Milan
Last election 225 & 120 seats, 32.9% 198 & 107 seats, 29.9% 73 & 38 seats, 14.3%
Seats won 234 (H)
125 (S)
177 (H)
101 (S)
94 (H)
36 (S)
Seat change Increase14 Decrease27 Increase19
Popular vote 13,241,188 10,254,591 5,505,690
Percentage 34.3% 26.6% 14.3%
Swing Increase1.4% Decrease3.3% Increase2.9%

Italian Election 1987 Province.png
Legislative election results map. Light Blue denotes provinces with a Christian Democratic plurality, Red denotes those with a Communist plurality, Gray and Brown denotes those with an Autonomist plurality.

PM before election

Amintore Fanfani
Christian Democracy

Elected PM

Giovanni Goria
Christian Democracy

General elections were held in Italy on June 14, 1987.[1] This election marked the final inversion of the trend of the entire republican history of Italy: for the first time, the distance between the Christian Democrats and the Communists grew significantly instead of decreasing, and this fact was seen as the result of the deindustrialization of the country. The growth of the service sector of the economy, and the leadership of former PM Bettino Craxi, gave instead a new strength to the Socialists. A remarkable novelty was the rise of the new Green Lists, while a new party obtained its first two parliamentary seats: the North League.

Electoral system[edit]

The pure party-list proportional representation had traditionally become the electoral system for the Chamber of Deputies. Italian provinces were united in 32 constituencies, each electing a group of candidates. At constituency level, seats were divided between open lists using the largest remainder method with Imperiali quota. Remaining votes and seats were transferred at national level, where they was divided using the Hare quota, and automatically distributed to best losers into the local lists.

For the Senate, 237 single-seat constituencies were established, even if the assembly had risen to 315 members. The candidates needed a landslide victory of two thirds of votes to be elected, a goal which could be reached only by the German minorities in South Tirol. All remained votes and seats were grouped in party lists and regional constituencies, where a D'Hondt method was used: inside the lists, candidates with the best percentages were elected.

Historical background[edit]

In the 1980s, for the first time since 1945, two governments were led by non-Christian Democrat Premiers: the republican Giovanni Spadolini and the socialist Bettino Craxi; the Christian Democracy remained however the main force supporting the government.

With the end of the Years of Lead, the Italian Communist Party gradually increased their votes under the leadership of Enrico Berlinguer. The Socialist party (PSI), led by Craxi, became more and more critical of the communists and of the Soviet Union; Craxi himself pushed in favour of US president Ronald Reagan's positioning of Pershing II missiles in Italy, a move the communists hotly contested.

In June 1984 Berlinguer, the charismatic Communist leader, suddenly left the stage during a speech at a public meeting in Padua: he had suffered a brain haemorrhage, and died three days later. More than a million citizens attended his funeral, one of the biggest in Italy's history. Alessandro Natta was appointed as new party's secretary. The public emotion caused by Berlinguer's death resulted in an extraordinary strength for the Communist Party in the 1984 European election: for the first time in Western Europe since the French election of 1956, and for the first time ever in Italian history, a Communist party received a plurality by a democratic vote.

In 1984, the Craxi government revised the 1927 Lateran Pacts with the Vatican, which concluded the role of Catholicism as Italy's state religion.

During this period, Italy became the fifth-largest industrial nation and gained entry into the G7.

Parties and leaders[edit]

Party Ideology Leader
Christian Democracy (DC) Christian democracy Ciriaco De Mita
Italian Communist Party (PCI) Communism Alessandro Natta
Italian Socialist Party (PSI) Social democracy Bettino Craxi
Italian Social Movement (MSI) Neo-fascism Giorgio Almirante
Italian Republican Party (PRI) Social liberalism Giorgio La Malfa
Italian Democratic Socialist Party (PSDI) Social democracy Franco Nicolazzi
Radical Party (PR) Radicalism Marco Pannella
Green Lists (LV) Green politics Alexander Langer
Italian Liberal Party (PLI) Conservative liberalism Renato Altissimo
Proletarian Democracy (DP) Communism Mario Capanna

Results[edit]

Regional pluralities in Senate

Chamber of Deputies[edit]

Summary of the 14 June 1987 Chamber of Deputies election results
Italian Chamber of Deputies 1987.svg
Party Votes % Seats +/−
Christian Democracy 13,233,620 34.31 234 +9
Italian Communist Party 10,250,644 26.58 177 −21
Italian Socialist Party 5,501,696 14.26 94 +21
Italian Social Movement 2,281,126 5.91 35 −7
Italian Republican Party 1,428,663 3.70 21 −8
Italian Democratic Socialist Party 1,140,209 2.96 17 −6
Radical Party 987,720 2.56 13 +2
Green List 969,218 2.51 13 New
Italian Liberal Party 809,946 2.10 11 −5
Proletarian Democracy 641,901 1.66 8 +1
Liga VenetaUnited Pensioners 298,402 0.77 0 ±0
South Tyrolean People's Party 202,022 0.52 3 ±0
Lega Lombarda 186,255 0.48 1 New
Sardinian Action Party 169,978 0.44 2 +1
Piedmont Regional Autonomy 72,064 0.19 0 New
Piedmont 61,701 0.16 0 New
Hunting, Fishing, Environment 55,977 0.14 0 New
Aosta Valley coalition 41,707 0.11 1 ±0
Others 238,272 0.63 0 ±0
Invalid/blank votes 2,015,065
Total 40,586,573 100 630 ±0
Registered voters/turnout 45,692,417 88.83
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Popular vote
DC
  
34.31%
PCI
  
26.58%
PSI
  
14.26%
MSI
  
5.91%
PRI
  
3.70%
PSDI
  
2.96%
PR
  
2.56%
LV
  
2.51%
PLI
  
2.10%
DP
  
1.66%
Others
  
3.44%

Senate of the Republic[edit]

Summary of the 14 June 1987 Senate of the Republic election results
Italian Senate in 1987.svg
Party Votes % Seats +/−
Christian Democracy 10,897,036 33.62 125 +5
Italian Communist Party 9,181,579 28.33 101 −6
Italian Socialist Party 3,535,457 10.91 36 −2
Italian Social Movement 2,121,026 6.54 16 −2
Italian Republican Party 1,248,641 3.85 8 −2
PSIPSDIPR 962,215 2.97 9 ±0
Italian Democratic Socialist Party 764,370 2.36 5 −3
Italian Liberal Party 700,330 2.16 3 –3
Green List 634,182 1.96 1 New
Radical Party 572,461 1.77 3 +2
Proletarian Democracy 493,667 1.52 1 +1
Liga VenetaUnited Pensioners 298,552 0.92 0 −1
South Tyrolean People's Party 171,539 0.53 2 −1
Lega Lombarda 137,276 0.42 1 New
Sardinian Action Party 124,266 0.38 1 ±0
Secular-Socialist Alliance 84,883 0.26 1 New
Piedmont Regional Autonomy 60,742 0.19 0 New
PSIPSDIPRGreens 58,501 0.18 1 ±0
Pensioners Popular Alliance 51,790 0.16 0 New
Piedmont 51,340 0.16 0 New
Molisean Democratic Alliance 49,297 0.15 0 New
Hunting, Fishing, Environment 41,135 0.13 0 New
Aosta Valley 35,830 0.11 1 ±0
Others 137,746 0.43 0 ±0
Invalid/blank votes 2,007,369
Total 34,421,230 100 315 ±0
Registered voters/turnout 38,951,485 88.37
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Popular vote
DC
  
33.62%
PCI
  
28.33%
PSI
  
10.91%
MSI
  
6.54%
PRI
  
3.85%
PSIPSDIPR
  
2.97%
PSDI
  
2.36%
PLI
  
2.16%
LV
  
1.96%
PR
  
1.77%
DP
  
1.52%
Others
  
3.62%

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1048 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7