Jackson–Weiss syndrome

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Jackson–Weiss syndrome
Autosomal dominant - en.svg
Jackson–Weiss syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 Q87.89
OMIM 123150
DiseasesDB 31364

Jackson–Weiss syndrome (JWS) is a genetic disorder characterized by foot abnormalities and the premature fusion of certain bones of the skull (craniosynostosis), which prevents further growth of the skull and affects the shape of the head and face. This genetic disorder can also sometimes cause intellectual disability and crossed eyes as well,[1] it was characterized in 1976.[2]

Signs/symptoms[edit]

Many of the characteristic facial features (among other) of Jackson–Weiss syndrome result from the premature fusion of the skull bones. The following are some of the more common, such as:[1][3]

Genetics[edit]

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2

Mutations in the FGFR2 gene cause Jackson–Weiss syndrome.The FGFR2 gene produces a protein called fibroblast growth factor receptor 2,[4] which occurs in chromosome number 10. Among its multiple functions, this protein signals immature cells to become bone cells in a developing embryo. A mutation in a specific part of the FGFR2 gene alters the protein and causes prolonged signaling, which promotes the premature fusion of bones in the skull and feet,[5][6][7] this condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern.[1] Autosomal dominant means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder.[8]

Diagnosis[edit]

The diagnosis of Jackson–Weiss syndrome is done via the following:

Differential diagnosis[edit]

The DDx for this condition includes metopic synostosis, as well as Lambdoida synostosis.[6]

Treatment[edit]

Hydrocephalus

Treatment for Jackson–Weiss syndrome can be done through surgery for some facial features and feet.[10] Secondary complications such as hydrocephalus or cognitive impairment, can be averted via prompt surgery.[6]

Epidemiology[edit]

In terms of epidemiology, Jackson–Weiss syndrome is a rare genetic disorder; the overall contribution of FGFR mutation to the condition is not clear.[medical citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Reference, Genetics Home. "Jackson-Weiss syndrome". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 14 December 2016. 
  2. ^ Jackson CE, Weiss L, Reynolds WA, Forman TF, Peterson JA (June 1976). "Craniosynostosis, midfacial hypoplasia and foot abnormalities: an autosomal dominant phenotype in a large Amish kindred". J. Pediatr. 88 (6): 963–8. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(76)81050-5. PMID 1271196. subscription required
  3. ^ "Jackson-Weiss syndrome | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center(GARD) – an NCATS Program". rarediseases.info.nih.gov. Retrieved 14 December 2016. 
  4. ^ Chen L, Deng CX (2005). "Roles of FGF signaling in skeletal development and human genetic diseases". Front Biosci. 10 (1-3): 1961–76. doi:10.2741/1671. PMID 15769677. subscription required
  5. ^ Reference, Genetics Home. "FGFR2 gene". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 14 December 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c d Robin, Nathaniel H.; Falk, Marni J.; Haldeman-Englert, Chad R. (1 January 1993). "FGFR-Related Craniosynostosis Syndromes". GeneReviews(®). University of Washington, Seattle. Retrieved 14 December 2016. update 2011
  7. ^ Kelly, Evelyn B. (2013). Encyclopedia of human genetics and disease. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood. p. 417. ISBN 9780313387142. Retrieved 14 December 2016. 
  8. ^ "Autosomal dominant: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 14 December 2016. 
  9. ^ "Jackson-Weiss syndrome - Conditions - GTR - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 14 December 2016. 
  10. ^ Fryns, Buggenhout, Jean, Griet (July 2005). "Jackson–Weiss syndrome" (PDF). p. 2. Retrieved 2009-03-31. 

Further reading[edit]