Japan performs in 1979; pictured L-R: Mick Karn, David Sylvian.
|Also known as||Rain Tree Crow (1990–1991)|
|Origin||Catford, South London, England|
|Years active||1974–1982, 1990–1991|
|Past members||David Sylvian
Japan were an English music group formed in 1974 in Catford, South London by David Sylvian (guitar and vocals), Steve Jansen (drums), Richard Barbieri (keyboards) and Mick Karn (bass guitar). The band achieved success in the late 1970s and early 1980s, releasing nine UK Top 40 hits in the early 1980s, most notably "Ghosts" and their cover version of "I Second That Emotion", both top ten hits in 1982.
Japan's last performance was on 16 December 1982. The band suffered from personal and creative clashes and decided to split during a period when they were beginning to experience significant commercial success both in their native UK and internationally. Following their breakup, the band members went on to pursue other musical projects, though they reformed briefly in the early 1990s under the name Rain Tree Crow, releasing an album in 1991.
The band began as a group of friends in 1974. Brothers David Sylvian (guitar and vocals) and Steve Jansen (drums), keyboardist Richard Barbieri and bassist Mick Karn studied at the same school, Catford Boys', Brownhill Road, South London. As youngsters they played Sylvian's two-chord numbers mainly as a means of escape; sometimes with Karn as the front man, sometimes with Sylvian at the fore.
The band, who were initially nameless, opted to call themselves Japan just before their first live gig in the mid-1970s. The name was intended by Sylvian to be temporary until they could think of something else, but ultimately became permanent. The following year they were joined by lead guitarist Rob Dean, and signed a recording contract with the German disco label Hansa-Ariola in 1977, becoming an alternative glam rock outfit in the mould of David Bowie, T.Rex, and The New York Dolls although their initial material was guitar-based funk.
After winning a label-sponsored talent contest, they were signed to Germany's Ariola-Hansa Records in 1977 and debuted a year later with a pair of LPs, Adolescent Sex and Obscure Alternatives, which received little notice at home or in the U.S. but did find favor among Japanese audiences.
The first song they recorded with Hansa, in 1977, was "State Line".
The band débuted with the 1978 album Adolescent Sex and followed up with their second album, Obscure Alternatives, the same year. Both albums, produced by Ray Singer, sold well in Japan (where the band's name helped them to gain a devoted cult following) and the Netherlands, where the single "Adolescent Sex" was a Top 30 hit. They also gained some popularity in Canada. However, in their native UK, those albums failed to garner public attention and did not chart.
Though influenced by artists such as the New York Dolls, Roxy Music and David Bowie, both albums were widely dismissed by the UK music press as being distinctly outmoded at a time when punk and new wave bands were in ascendence. The band was managed by Simon Napier-Bell who has also managed The Yardbirds, Marc Bolan, London and Wham!.
In 1979, the band briefly worked with the successful Euro disco producer Giorgio Moroder, who would co-write and produce a one-off single, "Life in Tokyo". The track was a significant change in musical style from their earlier guitar-laden recordings, moving them away from their glam rock roots and into electronic new wave style of dance music.
The electronic style continued on their third album, Quiet Life (1979), which was produced by the band with John Punter and Simon Napier-Bell. In a retrospective review of the band's work, The Quietus described Quiet Life as defining "a very European form of detached, sexually-ambiguous and thoughtful art-pop, one not too dissimilar to what the ever-prescient David Bowie had delivered two years earlier with Low. It showcased Barbieri's synthesisers, Sylvian's now baritone style of singing, Karn's distinctive fretless bass sound and Jansen's odd-timbred and intricate percussion work, with Dean's guitar playing becoming somewhat sparser and atmospheric. Quiet Life was their last studio album for Hansa-Ariola, although the label would later issue a compilation album (Assemblage) featuring highlights from the band's tenure on the label, followed by a series of remixed and re-released singles.
After leaving Hansa-Ariola, the band signed with Virgin Records who released their last studio albums, Gentlemen Take Polaroids (1980) and Tin Drum (1981). The albums continued to expand their audience as the band refined its new sound, however the combination of their newer sound and the band's stylised visual appearance led to them unintentionally becoming associated with the early-1980s New Romantic scene. The band had always worn make-up since their inception in the mid 1970s at the tail end of the glam rock era, many years before the New Romantic movement had begun. In an October 1981 interview, Sylvian commented "There's a period going past at the moment that may make us look as though we're in fashion." In another interview, he stated "I don't like to be associated with them [New Romantics]. The attitudes are so very different." Of Japan's fashion sense, Sylvian said "For them [New Romantics], fancy dress is a costume. But ours is a way of life. We look and dress this way every day." Regardless, it had a positive effect on the band's record sales in the UK and they slowly began to gain chart success.
After a couple of lower charting singles, their first UK Top 40 hit was a re-release of the "Quiet Life" single, which peaked at No. 19 in October 1981. Three of the singles from the Tin Drum album also peaked in the UK Top 40, with its unconventional single "Ghosts" reaching No. 5, becoming Japan's biggest domestic hit. The Tin Drum album itself peaked just outside the UK Top 10, and was the band's first record to be certified by the BPI, being awarded a Silver disc within a month of release, and reaching Gold status within four months. The album, produced by Steve Nye, is often regarded as one of the most innovative of the 1980s, with its fusion of occidental and oriental sounds. In 2011, thirty years after its release, Tin Drum was awarded BBC Radio 6 Music's 'Goldie Award' posthumously for the Best Album of 1981.
With personality conflicts leading to rising tensions within the band, Tin Drum was to be the band's final studio album. Long-simmering differences among the bandmembers came to a head when Karn's girlfriend, photographer Yuka Fujii, moved in with Sylvian and the individual members proceeded with their own projects. Rob Dean had already departed (in May 1981) after the release of the Gentlemen Take Polaroids album, as his electric guitar work was increasingly regarded as superfluous. Dean subsequently formed the band Illustrated Man. Karn released his first solo album, Titles, at the same time the band announced their split in late-1982.
During the early 1980s, Japanese multi-instrumentalist and experimental keyboardist Ryuichi Sakamoto, of Yellow Magic Orchestra (YMO), briefly collaborated with the band, and worked directly alongside Sylvian on tracks such as "Taking Islands in Africa". In addition, Steve Jansen was influenced by YMO's drummer Yukihiro Takahashi. Sakamoto would continue to work with Sylvian both before and after the band split, and the pair would achieve the hit singles "Bamboo Houses" (1982) and "Forbidden Colours" (1983).
The group's final UK performances came in November 1982, culminating in a six-night sell-out stint at London's Hammersmith Odeon (which would be recorded and filmed to produce Oil on Canvas, a live album and video released in June 1983). During this period, guitarist and keyboardist Masami Tsuchiya performed with the band on stage. Japan's last ever performance was on 16 December 1982 in Nagoya, Japan.
The band decided to split just as they were beginning to achieve major commercial success both in the UK and internationally, with Oil on Canvas becoming their highest charting UK album, reaching No. 5 on the UK Albums Chart, a rare feat for a live album. By this time, the band's back catalogue had begun to sell steadily and both Hansa-Ariola and Virgin Records continued to release Japan singles into 1983, ultimately earning the band a total of nine Top 40 hits in the UK.
All of the band members went on to work on other projects, with varying degrees of success. After his collaborations with Sakamoto, Sylvian's first solo album Brilliant Trees reached #4 in the UK Album Charts in 1984. Meanwhile, Karn had become a sought-after session musician and worked with artists such as Gary Numan, Kate Bush, and Joan Armatrading. He also had a Top 40 hit ("After a Fashion") with Midge Ure in 1983, and collaborated with Peter Murphy of Bauhaus as the duo Dalis Car, releasing an album in 1984. Jansen and Barbieri worked together as The Dolphin Brothers, and Rob Dean went on to work with Gary Numan and Sinead O'Connor.
In 1990, Sylvian, Karn, Jansen and Barbieri reunited under the name Rain Tree Crow. They released an eponymously titled album in April 1991, which was well received by music critics and reached the UK Top 25. However, once again, the band dissolved following frictions between Sylvian and the other members.
Richard Barbieri moved on to become the keyboardist for progressive rock band Porcupine Tree, a role he has filled since 1995's The Sky Moves Sideways. Although band members would work with each other again on various individual projects (including Sylvian and Jansen's Nine Horses project), no further full Japan reunions were planned in any form.
Throughout the 1990's Karn, Jansen and Barbieri reunited in instrumental projects with different guitarists such as David Torn and Steve Wilson.
Twenty years after their reunion as Rain Tree Crow, Mick Karn died from cancer in January 2011.
- David Sylvian – vocals, guitars, keyboards (1974–1982, 1990–1991)
- Mick Karn – bass guitars, saxophone, backing vocals (1974–1982, 1990–1991; died 2011)
- Steve Jansen – drums, percussion, keyboards (1974–1982, 1990–1991)
- Richard Barbieri – keyboards, synthesisers (1974–1982, 1990–1991)
- Rob Dean – guitars, backing vocals (1975–1981)
- Live personnel
- Jane Shorter – saxophone (1979-1980)
- David Rhodes – guitars (1981)
- Masami Tsuchiya – guitars, keyboards (1982)
|Year||Album||Peak chart positions||Certifications|
|1980||Gentlemen Take Polaroids
|1991||Rain Tree Crow
(Japan under the name Rain Tree Crow)
|"—" denotes releases that did not chart or was not released|
|Year||Album||Peak chart positions||Certifications|
|1983||Oil on Canvas
- Assemblage 1981 (UK, Europe, Japan) (UK No. 26) — [Certified Gold in January 1983] – features Hansa-Ariola material (1978–80) including several non-album singles.
- Japan 1982 (North America) (Billboard Album Chart No. 204) – features tracks from Gentlemen Take Polaroids and Tin Drum.
- Exorcising Ghosts 1984 (UK, Europe, Japan) Virgin (UK No. 45) — [Certified Gold in February 1997] – mainly features material from the Virgin Records (1980–82) era but also some tracks from the Hansa-Ariola Quiet Life era.
- Souvenir from Japan 1989 (UK) BMG 260,360 – features Hansa-Ariola material. Credited to Japan (featuring David Sylvian).
- The Other Side of Japan 1991 (UK) Receiver Records RRLP-150 & RRCD-150 – compilation of Hansa-Ariola era tracks, with the earliest appearance on CD in the UK of "A Foreign Place".
- Best Selection 1994 (Japan) BMG Victor Inc. BVCP-2606 – Japanese compilation oh Hansa-Ariola era tracks including the whole "Live in Japan" EP.
- Japan Is the Masterpiece, but New Too 1996 (Japan) BMG PDTD-1152 – promo CD features Hansa-Ariola era tracks and cover versions from the "Life in Tokyo – A Tribute To Japan" project.
- The Singles 1996 (Japan) BMG BVCP8613/4 – Japanese double CD compilation of all the singles and remixes issued by Hansa on the UK 7" and 12" from 1978 through to 1983.
- In Vogue 1996 (UK) BMG 74321 393382 – features Hansa-Ariola material including 12" versions of All Tomorrow's Parties, European Son and Life in Tokyo. Note that this CD's sound is in mono: the right channel of the original recordings is duplicated in both channels; the original left channel is missing altogether.
- The Masters 1997 (UK, Europe) Eagle Records EAB CD 003 – features Hansa-Ariola material.
- The Best of Japan (Eternal Best) 1998 (Japan) BMG Japan BVCM-37019 – features Hansa-Ariola era tracks.
- The Collection 2000 (UK) Armoury Records ARMCD0011 – features Hansa-Ariola tracks.
- The Best of Japan – Original Hits 2002 (Europe) Paradiso PA 762/2 – a remastered re-issue of Assemblage with a new cover (gold pressed CD)
- The Best of Japan 2002 (Japan) BMG Japan BVCM 37343 – compilation of Hansa-Ariola era tracks using the 24 bit remastered tracks used on the 2001 Japanese paper sleeve releases.
- The Very Best of Japan 2006 (Worldwide) Virgin – features the remastered material from both the Hansa-Ariola and Virgin eras.
- The Collection 2009 (UK, Europe) Sony 88697556792 – features material from both the Hansa-Ariola and Virgin eras.
Singles and EPs
- "Don't Rain on My Parade"/"Stateline" (UK, Germany, Australia, Italy) 1978
- "The Unconventional"/"Adolescent Sex (re-recorded version)" (UK) 1978
- "Sometimes I Feel So Low"/"Love Is Infectious" (UK, USA, Japan) 1978
- "Life in Tokyo"/"Life in Tokyo (Part Two)" (UK, USA, Canada, Germany, France, Japan, Australia, Italy) 1979
- "Special Edition Five Song EP" (Canada) 1980
- "I Second That Emotion"/"Quiet Life" (UK, Germany, Netherlands) 1980
- "Gentlemen Take Polaroids EP" (UK No. 60, Germany, Japan) 1980
- "The Art of Parties"/"Life Without Buildings" (UK No. 48) 1981 – also Canadian EP with two tracks from the "Gentlemen Take Polaroids" EP
- "Life in Tokyo"/"European Son" (UK, Germany) 1981
- "Quiet Life"/"A Foreign Place" (UK No. 19) 1981
- "Visions of China"/"Taking Islands in Africa" (UK No. 32, Australia) 1981
- "European Son (remix)"/"Alien" (UK No. 31, Germany) 1981
- "Ghosts"/"The Art of Parties (live version)" (UK No. 5, released in various other countries except Japan) 1982
- "Cantonese Boy"/"Burning Bridges" (UK No. 24) 1982 – also a double pack with "Gentlemen Take Polaroids"/"The Experience of Swimming"
- "I Second That Emotion (remix)"/"Halloween" (UK No. 9, Germany) 1982
- "Life in Tokyo (remix)" (UK No. 28) 1982
- "Nightporter"/"Ain't That Peculiar" (remix) (UK No. 29, Germany) 1982
- "All Tomorrow's Parties (1983 remix)"/"In Vogue (live)" (UK No. 38) 1983
- "Canton"/"Visions of China" (live versions) (UK No. 42) 1983
Videos and DVDs
- "Oil on Canvas" 1983 (VHS, Beta, LD) – live material filmed at the Hammersmith Odeon in 1982.
- "Instant Pictures" 1984 (VHS, Beta, LD) – promo videos and alternate versions of live tracks.
- "The Very Best of Japan" 2006 (DVD) – includes the Oil on Canvas concert and a collection of promo videos.
In 2003, Virgin Records re-issued remastered editions of Gentlemen Take Polaroids, Tin Drum and Oil on Canvas. BMG followed suit next year, and re-issued Adolescent Sex, Obscure Alternatives, Quiet Life, and Assemblage. All of these re-releases came in the 'digipak' format, collecting many bonus tracks. In 2006 all were repackaged in jewel cases to allow sale at a lower price point.
The Tin Drum digipak re-issue was of particular interest as it was packaged in a cardboard box and contained a bonus 5-inch single The Art of Parties, which comprised The Art of Parties (12" single and live versions), Ghosts (single version) and Life Without Buildings (B-side to The Art of Parties single). The package also included a booklet with black-and-white photos of the band members.
- Fisher, Mark. Ghosts of My Life: Writings on Depression, Hauntology and Lost Futures. Zero Books, May 30, 2014. 978-1-78099-226-6
- Lenig, Stuart (2010). The Twisted Tale of Glam Rock. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger. p. 88.
- Ankeny, Jason. "Japan | Biography | AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- Ohanesian, Liz. "Mick Karn, Bassist for Synth Heroes Japan and Peter Murphy's Dalis Car, Dead at 52". LA Weekly. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- Rimmer, Dave (October 1981). "Japanese Boys (an interview with David Sylvian and Mick Karn)". Smash Hits. Vol. 3 no. 22 (EMAP Metro). pp. 42–43.
- Ola's Kool Kitchen with interview of Robert Dean from Japan, from the Internet Archive
- Strong, Martin C. (2000). The Great Rock Discography (5th ed.). Edinburgh: Mojo Books. pp. 496–498. ISBN 1-84195-017-3.
- Burnett, Joseph. "Thirty Years On: Japan's Oil On Canvas Revisited". The Quietus. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- "Rolling Stone Random Notes", The Tuscaloosa News (Tuscaloosa, AL), p. 6, 17 July 1981
- Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. p. 279. ISBN 1-904994-10-5.
- "The Japanese Connection". Japan: Life in Tokyo. July 1982. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
- Chart Stats UK (Japan)(Link redirected to OCC website)
- Meikle, James (5 January 2011). "Former Japan bass player Mick Karn loses battle with cancer". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- Oricon Album Chart Book: Complete Edition 1970–2005. Roppongi, Tokyo: Oricon Entertainment. 2006. ISBN 4-87131-077-9.
- "dutchcharts.nl – Discographie Japan" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "norwegiancharts.com – Discography Japan". Hung Medien. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "swedishcharts.com – Discography Japan" (in Swedish). Hung Medien. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Certified Awards". British Phonographic Industry.