John Wilson Bengough
|John Wilson Bengough|
John Wilson Bengough in 1920
7 April 1851|
Toronto, Province of Canada
|Died||2 October 1923
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
John Wilson Bengough (//, 7 April 1851 – 2 October 1923) was one of Canada's first cartoonists, as well as an editor, publisher, writer, poet, entertainer and politician. Bengough is best known for his biting political cartoons which ran in Grip, a humour magazine he published and edited, and which was modeled after the British humour magazine Punch.
Born in Toronto in the Province of Canada to Scottish and Irish immigrants, Bengough grew up in Whitby, where after graduating from high school he began a career in newspapers as a typesetter. The political cartoons of the American Thomas Nast inspired Bengough to direct his drawing talents towards cartooning; a lack of outlets for his work drove him to found Grip in 1873. The Pacific Scandal and the gave Bengough ample material to lampoon, and soon Bengough's image of prime minister John A. Macdonald was famous across Canada. After Grip folded in 1894, Bengough published books, contributed cartoons to Canadian and foreign newspapers, and toured chalk talks internationally.
Bengough subscribed to free trade, prohibition of alcohol and of tobacco, women's suffrage, and other liberal beliefs, though he was opposed to Canadian bilingualism. Bengough had ambitions to run for Parliament, but Liberal leader Wilfrid Laurier convinced him against it. In 1907 he won election to the Toronto City Council. He was inducted into the Canadian Cartoonist Hall of Fame in 2005.
Life and career
Early life (1851–73)
The second of six children, John Wilson Bengough was born into a deeply Protestant family on 7 April 1851 in Toronto in the Province of Canada. His parents were John Bengough, a Scottish immigrant cabinetmaker, and Margaret Wilson, an Irish immigrant. The family soon moved to nearby port town Whitby, where job opportunities beckoned surrounding the construction of Trafalgar Castle, the residence of Nelson Gilbert Reynolds, Sheriff of Ontario County. The elder Bengough later opened a shop in Whitby.
Bengough attended Whitby Grammar School, where he was an average student; he won a prize one year for general proficiency, for which he received a book titled Boyhood of Great Artists. He was an avid sketcher, a talent which caught the notice of his teacher, who presented his student with a set of paints one Christmas. This act Bengough credited with setting him on the career path of an artist. Whitby residents later reminisced of the young Bengough drawing chalk portraits of his neighbours on fences. He described himself as a "voracious reader", particularly of the Whitby Gazette, a didactic weekly that stressed Christian values.
After graduation, Bengough tried his hand at a number of jobs, including photographer's assistant, and he articled to a lawyer for some time before getting a typesetting job at the Whitby Gazette. The Gaztte 's editor was George Ham, an extroverted journalist who later was public relations chief for the Canadian Pacific Railway. Bengough contributed short local-interest articles. In mid-1870 Ham issued a four-page daily to capitalize on interest in the Franco-Prussian War, and commissioned Bengough to provide a serialized novel for it. The popular reception of The Murderer's Scalp (or The Shrieking Ghost of the Bloddy Den) encouraged Bengough to devote himself to a journalism career.
The papers and magazines that came into the Gazette offices, in particular Harper's Weekly, introduced Bengough to the growing field of cartooning. Bengough reminisced, "I divided my time between mechanical duties for sordid wages and poetry for the good of humanity, and meanwhile I kept an eye on Thomas Nast the cartoonist." The politically and socially aware cartoonist of Nast he considered a "beau ideal" whose "moral crusade against abject wrong"—in particular his relentless Boss Tweed cartoons—inspired the young Bengough to "emulate Nast in the field of Canadian politics". Bengough so admired Nash that he sent a cartoon to Harper's in the cartoonist's style of Nast confronting the Tammany Hall political machine. At the time, editorial catooning had no presence in Canadian newspapers, and was not to have one until Hugh Graham brought the practice to his Montreal Star in 1876.[a]
At twenty Bengough moved to Toronto and became a reporter on politician George Brown's newspaper The Globe. The Liberal paper was the most influential in the country; Bengough's family had had a history of supporting the Liberal Party since before Confederation, and these connections likely played a role in his getting the position at the paper. The lack of cartooning opportunities disappointed at him, and he enrolled briefly in the Ontario School of Art, which he found pedantic and stifling.
"the legitimate forces of humor and caricature can and ought to serve the state in its highest interests, and that the comic journal which has no other aim than to amuse its readers for the moment, falls short of its highest mission"—John Wilson Bengough, Grip, 1888
Bengough told of how he took up publishing: he had made a caricature of James Beaty, Sr., editor of the conservative Toronto Leader, and Beaty's nephew Sam found it so amusing that he made a lithographic copy for himself at the printer Rolph Bros. Impressed with his first exposure to lithography, and frustrated with the lack of opportunities to have his cartoons published, Bengough asked himself, "Why not start a weekly comic paper with lithographed cartoons?" His brother Thomas remembered a somewhat different story in which Bengough first began distributing copies of his cartoons on the street.
A raven character in the Charles Dickens novel Barnaby Rudge inspired the name of the magazine Grip. Its pages carried political and social commentary and cartoons, and its debut issue of 24 May 1873 declared: "Grip will be entirely independent and impartial, always and on all subjects." Bengough set the editorial policy and was the lead cartoonist. Financing came from Toronto publisher Andrew Scott Irving.
Grip listed its editor as a "Charles P. Hall", a name widely believed a pseudonym of Bengough's. Thomas Phillips Thompson took over as editor on 26 July under the pseudonym "Jimuel Briggs"; he lasted until the 6 September issue, when he printed a pro-alcohol article despite Bengough's prohibitionist views. The Toronto Globe's R. H. Larminie then took on co-editing duties as "Demos Mudge" with Bengough as "Barnaby Rudge".[b]
Grip 's early issues attracted little notice. Events arising from the Canadian federal election of 1872 shortly gave Bengough sufficient popular material to lampoon: accusations of bribery and other improprieties involving prime minister John A. Macdonald and business magnate Hugh Allan inflated into the Pacific Scandal, the most closely followed scandal in the young nation's history. Macdonald's features lent themselves easily to caricature and gave Bengough the chance to proselytize. Circulation hit about 2,000 copies pre issue at the time; Bengough's brother Thomas reported that each new issue was eagerly awaited at the House of Commons. A 23 August 1873 cartoon entitled "The Beauties of a Royal Commission: When shall we three meet again?" drew praise from newspapers across Canada, as well as from Liberal MP Lucius Seth Huntington in a speech to the House of Commons.
Despite their Liberal leanings, in 1878 Bengough and Grip took the side of the proposed Conservative National Policy of high tariffs on trade with the US, against the governing Liberal stance of free trade. The issue contributed to the loss of Alexander Mackenzie's Liberals to Macdonald's Conservatives in the election of 1878, despite Grip's prediction that Mackenzie would win again. The magazine ssupported no party officially in its early years, but made its support for the Liberals explicit in the elections of 1887 and of 1891, after Wilfrid Laurier became party leader. In the mid-1880s, the Grip Printing and Publishing Company took on printing duties for the Ontario Liberal government. This support, however, resulted in no federal election wins. By 1886, Bengough reported a weekly circulation of 50,000.
Grip had considerable influence on the public perception of politicians. That it was slanted in favour of Liberals and against Conservatives drove Conservative supporters to launch rival publications. The first of was Jester, begun in 1878, which featured cartoons by Henri Julien that painted Macdonald in a benevolent light. Jester failed to find an audience to match Bengough's and folded the following year.
Beginning in the early 1870s, Bengough frequently toured the country giving comic chalk talk performances. At Bengough's request in 1882, early Canadian feminist writer Sarah Ann Curzon write the closet drama The Sweet Girl Graduate for the book The Grip Sack. The drama tells of a woman who disguises herself as a man to attend university at a time when women were barred in Canada from post-secondary education.
In 1883, Frank Wilson took over management of the printing of Grip. Thomas Phillips Thompson became associate editor. He shared with Bengough a radical political outlook and a taste for satire, though was less open to new ideas than Bengough, who was quick to attach himself to new causes. Thompson was anti-imperialist, and-capitalist, and anti-militarist. In 1892, the managers of Grip passed the editorship from Bengough to Thompson, and under the new editorship readership fell until in mid-1893 the magazine ceased publication. the tone had become increasingly strident: anti-French, anti-Catholic, pro-socialist. This and an increased use of racial caricature seem to have alienated readers. Bengough revived it in 1894 and softened its tone, but the content seemed rushed and it lasted only a year more. Macdonald had died in 1891, and Bengough blamed the publication's ill fortunes on the loss of such a target. Bengough had met the prime minister himself only once.
Later life (1895–1923)
After Grip ceased publication, he worked for the next quarter-century as a newspaper cartoonist for the Toronto Globe, The Toronto Evening Telegram, the Montreal Star, Canadian Geographic, the American The Public and The Single Tax Review, The Morning Chronicle in England, and others. He toured his chalk talks across Canada as well as the US, Australia, and New Zealand.
In 1907 he won election to the Toronto City Council's Ward 3, and was re-elected in 1908 and 1909. There he promoted social reform, public ownership of hydroelectric power, and restriction of liquor licenses, but found little support for his ideas and left the office partway through his third term. When the First World War broke out, he devoted his energies to promoting patriotism and the war effort, and supported conscription, a cause that was popular in English Canada but unpopular in Quebec and which ran counter to the Liberal Party position. Bengough nevertheless contnued to support the party and used his cartoons to promote party leader William Lyon Mackenzie King in the 1921 federal election.
Following a chalk talk performance in Moncton, New Brunswick, in 1922 Bengough suffered an attack of angina pectoris, attributed to overwork during a previous tour of Western Canada. He died of it in October 1923 at his drawing board at his home at 58 St Mary Street in Toronto while working on a cartoon in support of an anti-smoking campaign.
Bengough's cartooning was for the most part in the realm of political cartoons, and tended towards being preachy and didactic. He believed "that the legitimate forces of humor and caricature can and ought to serve the state in its highest interests, and that the comic journal which has no other aim than to amuse its readers for the moment, falls short of its highest mission".
His sketchy cartoons, while often drawn well, were crowded in composition, and sometimes were borrowed from other sources. He could draw in contrasting styles, as evidenced by cartoons he did under the pseudonym of L. Côté. His cartoons are best remembered for fixing his renditions of Macdonald in the public imagination.
There was a premier named John A.
Who, wishing in office to stay,
To one Allen did barter a great railway charter—
And dated his ruin from that day.—John Wilson Bengough, "Recollections of a Cartoonist", Bengough Papers, Volume VIII
Bengough's reputation was as a supporter of the Liberal Party of Canada and its pro-democratic platform. His family had been supporters since before Confederation, and his father had supported Oliver Mowat, and both his brother Thomas and sister Mary worked in Mowat's provincial government. Members of his family were to play roles in the LIberal Party into the twentieth century; Bengough and his brother Thomas had ties close enough with Wilfrid Laurier to ask with favours, and both were also close to William Lyon Mackenzie King. Bengough had ambitions to run for Parliament, but Liberal leader Laurier convinced him against it.
Grip 's political stance was one of disinterest, but a large portion of Bengough's income came from Liberal publications, and Macdonald and his Conservatives were favourite targets of Bengoughs cartoon attacks, notably during the Pacific Scandal. His association with the Liberals was so strong that Charles Tupper quipped in Parliament that Grip should change its name to Grit—a popular nickname for Liberal Party members. His best-remembered targets were those aimed at Macdonald and the Conservatives, but his criticisms aimed at Liberals as well—Edward Blake had his subscription cancelled when he was the victim of a particular cartoon. Macdonald's Conservative Daily Mail, launched in 1872, provided a rivalry with the Liberal Globe that provided fuel for Bengough's satire, as did infighting in the Liberal Party over The Globe, which allowed Bengough to distance himself to a degree from criticism of Liberal partisanship.
Bengough was a proponent of such issues as women's suffrage, proportional representation, prohibition of alcohol and of tobacco, the single tax espoused by Henry George, and worldwide free trade. He showed a marked ethnic nationalism in that he promoted English as the nation's sole official language, and the separation of church and state, a view that was directed particularly at the Catholic, French-speaking Québécois, declaring he looked forward to:
when the monstrosity of a double official language and dual schools will be done away with throughout the whole country. Our real national life will date from that day.—John Wilson Bengough, 7 April 1851, 
Bengough had liberal views on race relations, and painted a picture of Canada as being more open to integration than the US during the Reconstruction Era; according to David R. Spencer, his views on race were not likely widely shared in Canada at the time. While Bengough sympathized with the plight of Canada's native peoples, he condemned the 1885 North-West Rebellion and called for the execution of Métis rebel leader Louis Riel, and celebrated Major-General Frederick Dobson Middleton's victory at the Battle of Batoche in Saskatchewan with a poem.
Bengough proclaimed a Protestant work ethic widely expressed by Canadian artists and intellectuals of the late 19th century. In his writing he frequently made statements about the role of Man in God's world, and insisted that politics should conform to the will of God. His didactic cartoons he intended to impart moral instruction.
Bengough married twice; neither marriage produced children. He married Helena "Nellie" Siddall in Toronto on 30 June 1880; she died in 1902. He married a friend from his school days, the widow Annie Robertson Matteson, in Chicago on 18 June 1908. Neither appears to have written about Bengough.
Bengough's caricatures left an impression on the public consciousness in Canada for generations to follow, and frequently appeared in Canadian history textbooks. As Nast had in the US, Bengough succeeded in establishing editorial cartooning as a force in journalism in the late 19th century. Outlets for such cartoons remained most limited to illustrated magazines until they found a home in daily newspapers in the 20th century. The reformist English newspaper editor William Thomas Stead considered Bengough "one of the ablest cartoonists in the world".
The small town of Bengough, Saskatchewan, incorporated 15 March 1912, was named after the cartoonist. On 19 May 1938 the Canadian government listed Bengough as a Person of National Historic Significance and dedicated a plaque to him at 66 Charles Street East in Toronto. Bengough was inducted into the Canadian Cartoonist Hall of Fame in 2005.
- 1875 — The Grip Cartoons. Rogers and Larminie
- 1876 — The Decline and Fall of Keewatin. Grip Publishing Co.
- 1882 — Bengough's Popular Readings: Original and Select. Bengough, Moore and Bengough
- 1882 — The Grip-Sack: A Receptacle of Light Literature, Fun and Fancy. The Grip Printing and Publishing Co.
- 1882 — Grip's Comic Almanac for 1882. Bengough, Moore and Bengough
- 1886 — A Caricature History of Canadian Politics (two volumes). The Grip Publishing and Printing Co.
- 1895 — Motley: Verse Grave and Gay. William Briggs
- 1896 — The Up-to-date Primer. Funk and Wagnalls
- 1897 — The Prohibition Aesop. Royal Templar Book and Publishing House
- 1898 — The Gin Mill Primer. William Briggs
- 1902 — In Many Keys. William Briggs
- 1908 — The Whole Hog Book. American Free Trade League
- 1908 — On True Political Economy
- 1922 — Chalk Talks. The Musson Book Co.
No copies remain of comic opera Hecuba; or Hamlet's Father's Deceased Wife's Sister, a comic opera with score by G. Barton Brown. Publisher F.F. Siddall registered it for copyright in 1885. The opera may have been an earlier version of Puffe and Co., or Hamlet, Prince of Dry Goods, an undated and possibly unpublished script for which exists, for which Clarence Lucas had written a score that Bengough appears to have rejected.
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- Cumming, Carman (1997). Sketches from a Young Country: The Images of Grip Magazine. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-7646-5.
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