Johnson's Baby

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Johnson's Baby products at Kroger

Johnson's Baby is an American brand of baby cosmetics and skin care products owned by Johnson & Johnson. The brand dates back to 1893 when Johnson's Baby Powder was introduced. Product line consists of baby powder, shampoos, body lotions, massage oil, shower gels and baby wipes. The brand has reputation for making baby products that are "exceptionally pure and safe" since at least the 1980s.[1]

History[edit]

Johnson's Baby Powder and sanitary napkins (1893)[edit]

Johnson's Baby Powder (20th century)
Johnson's Baby Powder (2014)

Johnson's Baby Powder was an invention of Dr. Frederick B. Kilmer, company's first director of scientific affairs.[2] In 1892 he got a letter from a physician noting that patient suffered skin irritations after using medicated plasters. Kilmer suggested to use scented Italian talcum powder to mitigate the irritation and sent a can to the doctor.[3]

Baby Powder debuted in 1893 and went to the market in 1894.[4] The earliest Baby Powder was in a yellow and red tin with a label "For Toilet and Nursery”.[4]

According to Robert Shook, sanitary napkins were included in the young mother's kit but never considered a separate product until customers asked the company for it.

In 1893 the talc was packaged in a box that was originally distributed to midwives and given to mothers following childbirth. The mothers liked it so much, the company started to sell it in drugstores. Also in the midwife's box were twelve sanitary napkins. Prior to this, there was no such product available to purchase. After the company received hundreds of letter from women wanting to know where they could buy these products, the company started to manufacture them – the first company to make sanitary napkins in the United States.[5]

The first baby to appear on Johnson's Baby powder label was Mary Lea Johnson Richards, granddaughter of Robert Wood Johnson I (co-founder of Johnson & Johnson).[6][7]

Johnson's Baby Powder has a particular scent that for many Americans is associated with the smell of the baby itself. According to Johnson & Johnson's representative Fred Tewell, baby powder-scented cleaning products became almost a standard not only to cosmetics, but to diapers as well.[8]

Johnson's Baby Cream (1921)[edit]

Johnson's Baby cream was introduced in 1921.[9]

The Gift Box (1921)[edit]

According to Margaret Gurowitz, Johnson & Johnson's corporate historian, in 1921 the company released its first "Baby Gift Box" that contained small packages of Baby Powder, Baby Cream and Baby Soap and "was designed as a small gift that people could take when visiting a family with a new baby".[4]

Johnson's Baby oil (1938)[edit]

Introduced in 1938[10][11] Johnson's Baby massage oil was heavily advertised nationwide ("Life" magazine[12]) since 1943 as a complementary product to Baby Powder.[13]

Johnson's Baby Lotion (1942)[edit]

Often referred as the "Pink Brand"[14] (after the color of the bottle), Johnson's Baby Lotion appeared in 1942.[8][14]

Johnson's Baby Shampoo (1953)[edit]

"No More Tears" Johnson's Baby shampoo advertising from the "Family Circle" magazine (1956)
Baby reaching for the empty bottle of "No More Tears" shampoo while bathing

"No More Tears" shampoo was introduced in 1953.[15]

As noted by Nunes and Johnson:

In 1953 Johnson & Johnson introduced its No More Tears baby shampoo. Targeting this particular use involved a real soap breakthrough, however, with the company introducing amphoteric cleansing agents to consumer use. Though these agents are not as effective as traditional soaps, they are extremely mild, which makes them quite literally easy on the eyes and perfect for a baby's sensitive but presumably not-too-dirty skin. Designing this new category of cleaners for this user segment enabled Johnson & Johnson to capture a category it still dominates today, more than fifty years later. Within six months of its introduction, Johnson & Johnson had captured 75 percent of the baby shampoo market, a share it held as recently as 1995.[16]

In 1955 Johnson & Johnson placed advertising at the "Adventures of Robin Hood TV series for Band-Aid and Johnson's baby shampoo. The later was advertised with the tagline "Johnson's can't burn eyes".[17]

"No More Tears" has been registered as a trademark only since 1959.[18]

No More Tangles (1971)[edit]

"No More Tangles" shampoo (named after popular "No More Tears" shampoo) debuted in 1971.[19]

Book publishing (1976)[edit]

In 1976 the brand entered publishing business with the book "Infant development program: birth-12 months" by Richard A. Chase,[20] followed by "The First wondrous year: you and your baby" (1979) by Chase and Richard R. Rubin.[21]

Johnson's Baby Wipes (1980)[edit]

Johnson's baby wipes appeared in 1980 as Johnson's Baby Wash Cloths.[22]

The product was renamed "wipes" sometime during 90s (the product has already been present as early as 1990[23]). In 1994 it was advertised as a better option for cleansing baby skin than water due to mild, pH-neutral cleansing lotion that wipes contain.[24]

Sun Screen (1991)[edit]

Sun screen was introduced in Spring 1991.[25]

Head-To-Toe Cleanser (1997)[edit]

Head-To-Toe ultra mild cleanser was introduced in 1997.[26][27]

Bedtime range (2000)[edit]

Bedtime Bath introduced in 2000[28] was the first of products later known as Johnson’s Baby Bedtime range with four products (Bedtime Bath, Bedtime Lotion, Bedtime Wash and Bedtime Oil) that contain lavender and camomile.[29]

In 2001 Bedtime lotion was advertised in magazines like "Working Mom Magazine" as "The world's first lullaby in a lotion".[30]

"So much more" campaign (2015)[edit]

In 2015 the brand launched the "So much more" campaign focused on multi-sensory experiences (such as a massage during bathing[31]) highlighting the benefits of such experiences for baby's development.[32]

Marketing baby products to adults[edit]

The company has been using "Best for the Baby – Best for You" tagline since the early days. Some examples of such advertising can be spotted as early as 1913, when only Johnson's Baby Powder existed.[33]

Sometime in the beginning of 70s[34] Johnson & Johnson started marketing baby products to families, promoting so-called "family usage".

The strategy has been a success. By the 80s Johnson's Baby grew market share in the adult market due to the perception that "baby products are milder than others".[35] In 1985, for instance, 70 percent of Johnson's Baby powder in the United States was used by adults.[35]

Non-baby usage[edit]

Johnson's Baby products are widely used for non-baby occasions. For example, Johnson's Baby Oil is used as a facial cleanser (it has been reported by the "New York" magazine that popular TV talk show host Martha Stewart uses it this way[36]), by male strippers[37] as well as a lubricant in some sexual practices.

Health risk issues[edit]

In December 1985 two physicians urged parents not to use baby powder, stating that it was unsafe to inhale and Johnson & Johnson responded with an official statement that "product is safe when used as it is intended".[38]

In February 2016, J&J was ordered to pay $72 million in damages to the family of Jackie Fox, a 62-year-old woman who died of ovarian cancer in 2015. She had used Johnson's Baby Powder for many years. J&J claimed that the safety of cosmetic talc is supported by decades of scientific evidence and it plans to appeal the verdict. The British charity, Ovacome was quoted as saying that while there were 16 studies which showed that using talc increased the risk of ovarian cancer by around a third, and a 2013 review of US studies had similar results for genital, but not general, talcum powder use they were not convinced that the results were reliable. Furthermore, they said, "Ovarian cancer is a rare disease, and increasing a small risk by a third still gives a small risk."[citation needed]

Clinical studies[edit]

In 2007 Johnson & Johnson sponsored "1st European Round Table meeting on 'Best Practice for Infant Cleansing" (a panel of expert dermatologists and paediatricians from across Europe) focused on the use of liquid cleansers in bathing as opposed to washing with water. It has been concluded that "bathing is generally superior to washing, provided basic safety procedures are followed, and has psychological benefits for the infant and parents".[39]

A randomized clinical trial, sponsored by Johnson's baby brand in 2010 studied the effectiveness of using moisturizer as part of a standardized skin care regimen, for improving moisture levels in baby skin. Research showed that using baby lotion is effective for maintaining favorable moisture levels in baby skin (in comparison to not using baby lotion).[40]

In February 2013 Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing published a research by academics at The University of Manchester that showed that washing newborn babies with Johnson’s Baby Top-to-Toe wash is just as safe as using water alone.[41] Research has been sponsored by Johnson & Johnson "but carried out under strict, independent scientific protocols, including blind testing and peer review".[42]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Beauty; THE BOOM IN NO-FRILLS COSMETICS". The New York Times. February 8, 1981. Archived from the original on August 5, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  2. ^ Turner, Tyya (2007). Vault Guide to the Top Consumer Products Employers. Vault. p. 185. ISBN 978-1-58131-323-9. Retrieved August 3, 2014.
  3. ^ Oppenheimer, Jerry (2013). Crazy Rich: Power, Scandal and Tragedy Inside the Johnson and Johnson Dynasty. St. Martin's Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-312-66211-0. Retrieved August 3, 2014.
  4. ^ a b c Margaret Gurowitz (April 30, 2007). "The Birth of Our Baby Products". Kilmerhouse.com. Archived from the original on August 3, 2014. Retrieved August 3, 2014.
  5. ^ Shook, Robert L. (2007). Miracle Medicines: Seven Lifesaving Drugs and the People Who Created Them. Penguin Group. ISBN 978-1-4406-9607-7. Retrieved August 3, 2014.
  6. ^ Rhoda Koenig (February 23, 1987). Crazier Than You and Me. New York Magazine. Retrieved November 25, 2014. (Google Books)
  7. ^ Shirley Horner (February 15, 1987). "About books". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 24, 2014. Retrieved November 25, 2014.
  8. ^ a b Samantha Critchell (April 18, 2008). "Smelling like a baby: now at the grownup fragrance counter – the scent of a baby". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on August 6, 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
  9. ^ Meyer, Thomas A. (2010). Innovate!: How Great Companies Get Started in Terrible Times. John Wiley & Sons. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-470-56058-7. Retrieved August 3, 2014.
  10. ^ Joanna Douglas (June 16, 2014). "Old School Products That Still Rock". Yahoo!. Archived from the original on August 6, 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2014. Back in 1938 this was a must-have for newborns, but nowadays people of all ages have a million and one uses for oil. Among them: sealing in moisture post-shower, removing makeup, relieving dry skin, extending the life of fragrances, adding a subtle shine to your hair, and taking off wax, grease or other sticky things from your skin — all while smelling incredible.
  11. ^ "Introduction of JOHNSON'S® Baby Oil (February 23, 1938)". Johnson's Baby Facebook page. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
  12. ^ Page 6. LIFE. August 9, 1943. Retrieved August 3, 2014.
  13. ^ "Page 4". The Evening News from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. February 25, 1943. Retrieved August 3, 2014. JOHNSON'S BABY GIFT SET For any lucky baby! Contain. John' son. Baby powder, oil, cream, soap
  14. ^ a b Shrimp, Terence; Andrews, J. Craig (2013). Advertising Promotion and Other Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications. Cengage Learning. p. 361. ISBN 978-1-111-58021-6. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
  15. ^ Dominique Browning (August 22, 2012). "The Real Lesson of Formaldehyde In Baby Shampoo". Time. Archived from the original on August 3, 2014. Retrieved August 3, 2014.
  16. ^ Nunes, Paul; Johnson, Brian (2004). Mass Affluence: Seven New Rules of Marketing to Today's Consumer. Harvard Business Review Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-59139-196-8. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  17. ^ Adventures of Robin Hood (1955–59) Complete Open (J&J). 1955. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  18. ^ "NO MORE TEARS – Trademark Details". Justia.com. Archived from the original on August 7, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
  19. ^ "Introduction of JOHNSON'S® Baby NO MORE TANGLES® (December 4, 1971)". Johnson's Baby Facebook page. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
  20. ^ Infant development program: birth-12 months. OCLC. 1976. Archived from the original on October 4, 2015. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
  21. ^ The First wondrous year: you and your baby. OCLC. 1979. ISBN 9780020771005. Archived from the original on October 4, 2015. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
  22. ^ "Get your baby wash cloth clean at every diaper change". The Palm Beach Post. July 17, 1980. Retrieved December 12, 2014.[dead link]
  23. ^ Biracree, Tom; Biracree, Nancy (1990). Buying the Best for Your Baby. Knightsbridge Publishing Company Trade. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-877961-69-4.
  24. ^ "Water alone does not provide total cleansing". New Sunday Times. December 18, 1994. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
  25. ^ Stephanie Strom (July 6, 1991). "Creating the Well-Groomed Child". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 5, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  26. ^ "Introduction of JOHNSON'S® Baby HEAD-TO-TOE® Wash (December 12, 1997)". Johnson's Baby Facebook page. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
  27. ^ "Johnson's head-to-toe". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Archived from the original on June 28, 2015. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  28. ^ "Introduction of JOHNSON'S® Baby BEDTIME® BATH (May 10, 2000)". Johnson's Baby Facebook page. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
  29. ^ "Baby toiletries – Cradle to cradle". Cosmetics Business. July 13, 2010. Archived from the original on August 7, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
  30. ^ "world's first lullaby in a lotion". Working Mom, #6. June 2001. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  31. ^ "Meet the adorable new face of Johnson's Baby Wash". CBS News. September 7, 2015. Archived from the original on October 4, 2015. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
  32. ^ Nathalie Tadena (February 4, 2015). "J&J's Baby Unit Launches New Campaign to Show Baths are 'So Much More'". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on June 28, 2015. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  33. ^ "The Red Cross Pharmacy". The Miami News. January 13, 1913. Retrieved August 8, 2014. Johnson's Toilet and Baby Powder. Best for Baby and Best for You. The Purest Toilet Powder that it is possiblt to manufacture"[dead link]
  34. ^ "Us Births Decline, Baby Businesses Grow". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. September 9, 1974. Retrieved August 8, 2014. The company has produced heavy family-oriented advertising for the past few years"
  35. ^ a b Deborah Blumenthal (May 19, 1985). "Babying grown-ups". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 5, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  36. ^ Kathleen Hou (January 9, 2014). "Martha Stewart's $2,000 Beauty Regimen". The Cut. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
  37. ^ Christina Han (June 28, 2012). "The Male Exotic Dancers of Hunk-A-Mania on Their Grooming Routines". The Cut. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
  38. ^ "2 physicians assert baby powder can endanger infants' breathing". The New York Times. December 27, 1985. Archived from the original on August 5, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  39. ^ Blume-Peytavi, U; Cork, MJ; Faergemann, J; Szczapa, J; Vanaclocha, F; Gelmetti, C (June 3, 2009). "Bathing and cleansing in newborns from day 1 to first year of life: recommendations from a European round table meeting". Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. 23 (7): 751–759. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3083.2009.03140.x. PMID 19646134.
  40. ^ Garcia Bartels, N; Scheufele, R; Prosch, F; Schink, T; Proquitté, H; Wauer, PR; Blume-Peytavi, U (February 23, 2010). "Effect of standardized skin care regimens on neonatal skin barrier function in different body areas". Pediatric Dermatology. 27 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1470.2009.01068.x. PMID 20199402.
  41. ^ Tina Lavender; et al. (February 19, 2013). "Randomized, Controlled Trial Evaluating a Baby Wash Product on Skin Barrier Function in Healthy, Term Neonates". Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing : Jognn. 42 (2): 203–14. doi:10.1111/1552-6909.12015. PMC 3664406. PMID 23421327.
  42. ^ "Baby wash does not damage baby's skin barrier function, study finds". manchester.ac.uk/. University of Manchester. February 19, 2013. Archived from the original on August 23, 2014. Retrieved August 23, 2014.

External links[edit]