Kaisariani is located about 3 km southeast of Athens city centre, and 3 km east of the Acropolis of Athens. Towards the east the municipality extends to the forested Hymettus mountain, where the 11th century Kaisariani Monastery is situated. The built-up area of Kaisariani is continuous with that of Athens and the suburb Vyronas to the southwest. The main thoroughfare is Ethnikis Antistasis Avenue, which connects Kaisariani with central Athens and the eastern beltway Motorway 64.
The town was founded in 1922 as a refugee camp for refugees driven from Asia Minor, most of whom coming from Smyrna. Formerly part of the city of Athens, Kaisariani was created as a municipality in 1933. The name was derived from Kaisareia, the historical capital city of Cappadocia, Asia Minor (now Kayseri, Turkey).