1905 Kangra earthquake

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1905 Kangra earthquake
1905 Kangra earthquake is located in India
1905 Kangra earthquake
Date 4 April 1905 (1905-04-04)
Origin time 0:50 UTC [1]
Magnitude 7.8 Ms [2]
Epicenter 33°00′N 76°00′E / 33.0°N 76.0°E / 33.0; 76.0Coordinates: 33°00′N 76°00′E / 33.0°N 76.0°E / 33.0; 76.0 [1]
Areas affected India
Himachal Pradesh
Max. intensity IX (Destructive) [3]
Casualties more than 20,000 [1][2]

The 1905 Kangra earthquake occurred in the Kangra Valley and the Kangra region of the Punjab Province (modern day Himachal Pradesh) in India on 4 April 1905. The earthquake measured 7.8 on the surface wave magnitude scale and killed more than 20,000 people. Apart from this, most buildings in the towns of Kangra, Mcleodganj and Dharamshala were destroyed.[4][5][6]

Background[edit]

The calculated epicenter of the earthquake lies within the zone of thrusts along the front of the Himalayas formed by the continuing collision of the Indian plate into the Eurasian plate.[7]

Damage[edit]

As many as 100,000 buildings were reported to have been demolished by the earthquake. At least 20,000 people are estimated to have been killed and 53,000 domestic animals were also lost. There was also major damage to the network of hillside aqueducts that fed water to the affected area. The total cost of recovering from the effects of the earthquake were calculated as 2.9 million (1905) rupees.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Utsu, T. R. (2002), "A List of Deadly Earthquakes in the World: 1500–2000", International Handbook of Earthquake & Engineering Seismology, Part A, Volume 81A (First ed.), Academic Press, p. 702, ISBN 978-0124406520 
  2. ^ a b c Ambraseys, N.; Bilham, R. (2000). "A note on the Kangra Ms = 7.8 earthquake of 4 April 1905" (PDF). Current Science. Current Science Association. 79 (1): 45–50. 
  3. ^ Martin, S.; Szeliga, W. (2010), "A Catalog of Felt Intensity Data for 570 Earthquakes in India from 1636 to 2009", Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Electronic Supplement (table S2), Seismological Society of America, 100 (2): 562–569, doi:10.1785/0120080328 
  4. ^ Dharamsala Earthquake 1905 - Images
  5. ^ History Archived 2007-12-21 at the Wayback Machine. Kangra district Official website.
  6. ^ Earthquakes The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 1, p. 98.
  7. ^ Wallace, K.; Gaur, V.; Blume, F.; Hough, S.; Bilham, R., Geodetic Study of the Kangra Earthquake 1905 (PDF) 

Further reading[edit]