|kbaran, kebalan (Kavalan)|
(dark green, north) The Kavalanic languages: Basai, Ketagalan, and Kavalan
Kavalan is no longer spoken in its original area. As of 1930, it was used only as a home language. As of 1987, it was still spoken in Atayal territories. In 2000, this language was still reported to be spoken by 24 speakers but considered moribund.
Kavalan consists of the following speech communities ordered from north to south:
- Kariawan (Jialiwan 加禮宛) – near Hualien, a formerly Sakizaya-speaking area
- Patʀungan (Xinshe 新社) – located in Fungpin (豐濱鄉), Hualien
- Kulis (Lide 立德)
- Kralut (Zhangyuan 樟原)
These speech communities in eastern Taiwan were named after older settlements from the north, such as Kariawan, Sahut, and Tamayan, where the Kavalan people originally migrated from. Modern-day Kavalan speakers are surrounded by the Amis.
There are 15 consonants and 4 vowels in Kavalan.
|voiced||z||ɮ [ɮ ~ d]||ʁ|
|Approximant||l [l ~ ɫ ~ r]||j||w|
- *n, *N, *j, *ɲ as n
- *t, *T, *c as t
- *d, *D, *Z as z
- *s, *S as s
- *q, *ʔ, *H are deleted
The following Proto-Austronesian phonemes are split:
- *k into q and k
- *l into r and ʁ (written as R)
- *a into i (if adjacent to q) and a
The Kavalan language is also notable for having a large inventory of consonant clusters. It is also one of the only two Formosan languages that has geminate consonants, with the other one being Basay. Consonant gemination is also common in the northern Philippine languages, but is non-existent in the Central Philippine languages except for Rinconada Bikol.
Kavalan nouns and verbs are distinguished by the lack of /a/ in the first syllable (nouns) or presence of /a/ (verbs). Kavalan syllables take on the structure (C)(C)V(C)(C). Kavalan is also one of two Formosan languages to have geminating consonants.
Kavalan affixes include:
- m- (agent focus)
- -um-/-m- (agent focus)
- -in/-n- as variants of ni- (patient)
- -a (irrealis patient-focus marker)
- -an (locative-focus marker, nominalizer)
- -i (imperative, patient focus)
- pa- (causative)
- qa- (future)
Unlike many other Formosan languages, there is no *-en suffix.
Kavalan, like most other Formosan and Philippine languages, has many case markers.
- Nominative: a/ya
- Oblique: ta, tu
- Genitive: na, ni
- Locative: sa, ta- -an
Types of focus in Kavalan include:
The Kavalan case markers below are from Li & Tsuchida (2006:27).
|Common||a, ya||tu||na||sa, ta- -an|
The Kavalan Personal pronouns below are from Li & Tsuchida (2006:30).
|1st person||singular||aiku, =iku||zaku, -ku||timaiku||tamaikuan|
|plural||excl.||aimi, =imi||zanyaq, -nyaq||timaimi||tamaimian|
|incl.||aita, =ita||zata, -ta, -kita||timaita||tamaitan|
|2nd person||singular||aisu, =isu||zasu, -su||timaisuanzen||tamaisuan|
|plural||aimu, =imu||zanumi, -numi||timaimu||tamaimuan|
|3rd person||singular||aizipna tiyau||zana, -na||timaizipna tiyau||tamaizipan tiyauan|
The Kavalan affixes below are from Li & Tsuchida (2006:14–24).
- i-: stative, having to do with location
- kar-: rapid motion; defective, not perfect
- ki-, qi-: pluck, pick
- kin-: number of humans
- lu-: flat
- luq(e)-: bumpy, rough (used with stative verbs)
- m-, -m-, mu-, -u-, -um-: agent-focus
- ma-, m-: stative
- maq-: where from
- mar-: sine kind of shape
- mi-: discharge something from the body
- mri-: settle down; to shrink, huddle up
- mrim-: a division of (a numeral)
- nan-: two people (kinship); distributive numeral
- ni-, n-, -in-, -n-: past, perfective
- pa-: causative (used with active verbs)
- pa- -an: agentive
- pa-ti: personal marker for the dead
- paq-, paqa-: causative (used with stative verbs)
- paq-: get on (a boat)
- pa-qi-: cause to become
- pat-: make a change
- pi-: put into, put away; do something to protect a body part; every (time)
- qa-: immediate future; ride, take (means of transportation)
- qa- -an: place of/for
- qaRu-: become, transform into; transformable into
- qi-: pick, gather, get
- qna-: nominaizer (used with stative verbs; -an is used with active verbs)
- Ra-: to transform into
- Ra-CV-: light color of
- Ri-: catch, get
- Ru-: just now; for the first time
- sa-: have the event (natural phenomena); do, make, produce, have; secrete (body fluid); tool
- sam-CV-: pretend
- saqa-: ordinal (numeral)
- si-: wear, own, possess
- sia-: go towards (place/direction); go to the side (often euphemistic for urinating/defecating)
- sim-: reciprocal
- siqa-: (number of) times
- smu-: finger
- sna-: model of, copy of
- su-: remove; move downwards, upside down, slanting
- su-CV-: stink or smell of
- tan-: speak the language
- taRi-: position, people in such a position
- ti-: instrumental-focus; to take each other (?)
- ti- (-an): beneficiary-focus
- tRi-CV(C)- (-an): discharge (body discharge) with control
- u-: agent-focus; non-human numeral
- -a: irrealis patient-focus marker
- -an: locative-focus marker, nominalizer
- -i: irrealis non-agent-focus imperative
- -m-, -um-: agent-focus
- -n-, -in-, ni-: perfective
- Yuan zhu minzu weiyuanhui, zu yu shuwei zhongxin 原住民族委員會, 族語數位中心. "Yuèdú shūxiě piān – gá mǎ lán yǔ dì 6 kè – zú yǔ E lèyuán" 閱讀書寫篇 – 噶瑪蘭語 第6課 – 族語E樂園. Yuedu shuxie pian – zu yu E leyuan (in Chinese).
- Kavalan at Ethnologue (24th ed., 2021)
- Perrault, Nicolas; Farrell, Maxwell J.; Davies, T. Jonathan (2017). "Tongues on the EDGE: Language Preservation Priorities Based on Threat and Lexical Distinctiveness". Royal Society Open Science. 4 (12): 171218. Bibcode:2017RSOS....471218P. doi:10.1098/rsos.171218. PMC 5750020. PMID 29308253. S2CID 23970007.
- Li & Tsuchida (2006), p. 1
- Tsuchida, Shigeru. 1985. Kulon: Yet another Austronesian language in Taiwan?. Bulletin of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica 60. 1-59.
- Li, Paul Jen-kuei (2001). "The Dispersal of the Formosan Aborigines in Taiwan" (PDF). Language and Linguistics / Yǔyán jì yǔyán xué. 2 (1): 271–278.
- Moriguchi, Tsunekazu (1983). "An Inquiry into Kbalan Phonology" (PDF). Journal of Asian and African Studies. 26: 202–219.
- Li & Tsuchida (2006)
- Blust (2009), p. 642
- Blust (2009), p. 220
- Li & Tsuchida (2006), p. 5
- Li & Tsuchida (2006), pp. 26–27
- Li, Paul Jen-kuei 李壬癸; Tsuchida, Shigeru 土田滋 (2006). Kavalan Dictionary (PDF). Language and Linguistics Monograph Series A-19. Taipei, Taiwan: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica. ISBN 978-986-00-6993-8.
- Blust, Robert (2009). The Austronesian Languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. ISBN 0-85883-602-5. ISBN 978-0-85883-602-0
- Chang, Yungli 張永利 (2000). Gámălán yŭ cānkăo yŭfă 噶瑪蘭語參考語法 [A Reference Grammar of Kavalan] (in Chinese). Taibei shi: Yuan liu chuban shiye yuxian gongsi. ISBN 957-32-3898-5.
- Hsieh, Fuhui 謝富惠 (2018). Gámǎlán yǔ yǔfǎ gàilùn 噶瑪蘭語語法概論 [Introduction to Kavalan Grammar] (in Chinese). Xinbei shi: Yuanzhu minzu weiyuanhui. ISBN 978-986-05-5692-6 – via alilin.apc.gov.tw.
|Kavalan language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
- Taiwan government publications: Kavalan dictionary (in Chinese)
- The Academy in Taipei press release: Kavalan dictionary published (in Chinese)
- Yuán zhù mínzú yǔyán xiànshàng cídiǎn 原住民族語言線上詞典 (in Chinese) – Kavalan search page at the "Aboriginal language online dictionary" website of the Foundation for the Research and Development of Indigenous Languages
- Kavalan teaching and leaning materials published by the Council of Indigenous Peoples of Taiwan (in Chinese)
- Kavalan translation of President Tsai Ing-wen's 2016 apology to indigenous people – published on the website of the presidential office