He debuted in the K-pop industry as the lead singer for g.o.d. (short for "groove overdose"); the group became one of the most popular groups in the 2000s. Although he did guest vocals for other artists, he did not release his own solo album until October 26, 2006. As both Kim and Son Ho Young released their albums around the same time, they often appeared on the same variety shows together, including a joint appearance on Happy Together: Friends.
As of November 2006, he has sold 106,506 copies of his album, which is listed as a "special album". On March 20, 2007, Kim enlisted in the army to serve his mandatory military service. Kim returned into the music scene in 2009, releasing his album T-Virus on September 3. Kim was also a permanent cast-member of the KBS Variety Show, Invincible Youth which he had to leave because he was having throat surgery.
In March 2011, Woo terminated his contract with Polaris and established his own one-man agency, Soul Shop Entertainment.
Kim Tae Woo married his wife Kim Aeri, who is a year younger than him, at the Sheraton Hotel in Seoul in December 2011. They are parents to daughters So-yool (born April 2012) and Ji-yool (born August 2013) and son Hye-yool (born September 2015). In 2014, Kim, his wife, and his two daughters were regulars on SBSOh! My Baby.