Klasies River Caves
|Klasies River Caves|
|Location||Tsitsikamma coast, Humansdorp district of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa|
The Klasies River Caves are a series of caves located to the east of the Klasies River mouth on the Tsitsikamma coast in the Humansdorp district of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The three main caves and two shelters at the base of a high cliff have revealed evidence of middle stone age-associated human habitation from approximately 125,000 years ago. The 20 metres (66 ft) thick deposits were accumulated from 125,000 years ago. Around 75,000 years ago, during cave remodelling, the stratigraphic sediments were moved out into external middens.
From 1960, Ronald Singer, Ray Inskeep, John Wymer, Hilary Deacon, Richard Klein and others suggested the excavation yielded the earliest known evidence of behaviourally modern humans. Further analysis suggested that the specimens fall "outside the range of modern variation".
Analysis of 14 proximal ulnar dimensions compared to morphological properties of African archaic humans, and Levantine Mousterian, archaic European humans, west Asian and, European Upper Paleolithic, African Epipaleolithic and recent modern human also of recent African descent suggest an archaic total morphological pattern for the KRM specimens. "MSA-associated humans from KRM may not be as modern as has been claimed from the craniofacial material"
Evidence for behavioural modernity
There is a 20 metres (66 ft) thick accumulation of deposits, both inside the caves and outside against the cliff face, proving that Klasies River Mouth people knew how to hunt small game, fish (later), gather plants and roots, cook by roasting on hearths, and manage their land (later). There is extensive evidence of shellfish collecting; MSA stone artefact technology; gathering plants, roots and flowers for food; cooking plants, corms, seal, penguins, and antelope meat on hearths with fire; general organisation of the settlement; and land/veld management by fire.
The evidence also appears to indicate that their presence was seasonal or migratory. There is also evidence of cannibalism, charred and carved 'modern human' bones discarded with other food remnants.
While Middle Stone Age (MSA) assemblage associated with those people are described as anatomically modern, there is ongoing debate about when they were also behaviourally modern. There is a marked difference between the Paleolithic stone technology used in the earliest layers from 125,000 years ago, and the superior MST blades of the 70,000-year-old Howiesons Poort period that used raw material which had been 'mined' 20 kilometres inland. There is also a differentiation between the Paleolithic food detritus that accumulated underfoot inside the caves 125,000 years ago and the ejection of such detritus from the cave into external middens by the occupants of ca. 75,000 years ago, suggesting the development of rudimentary "houskeeping" by that time.
Discovery and excavation
The artifacts and bones were originally reported by Paul Haslem and Ludwig Abel, then in 1960 Ray Inskeep and Ronald Singer identified the artifacts as Middle Stone Age. In 1967 and 1968 Ronald Singer and John Wymer started extensive excavations, with their initial findings published in 1972 by the University of Chicago Press. Since 1984 research has been continued by Hilary Deacon.
(Locations – best viewed in Google Earth)
- Klasies River Mouth at
- Klasies Main Site, Caves 1 & 2, at
- Klasies Caves 3 & 4 at
- Klasies Cave 5 at
- Boomplaas Cave
- Jebel Irhoud – possibly the earliest known fossils of Homo sapiens, dated to circa 300,000 years ago.
- Omo remains – fossils of Homo sapiens, dated to circa 190,000 years ago.
- Herto remains – an extinct subspecies of Homo sapiens, dated to circa 160,000 years ago.
- List of fossil sites (with link directory)
- List of hominina (hominid) fossils (with images)
- List of archaeological periods
- List of caves in South Africa
- Keurboomstrand, Western Cape
- "The Emergence of Modern Humans: The Pleistocene occupation sites of South Africa". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- Deacon, HJ (2001). "Guide to Klasies River" (PDF). p. Pg. 5. Retrieved 2007-03-04.
- Rightmire, GP; Deacon, HJ; Schwartz, JH; Tattersall, I. (Jan 2006). "Human foot bones from Klasies River main site, South Africa". Journal of Human Evolution. 50 (1): 96–103. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2005.08.010. ISSN 0047-2484. PMID 16242755.
- Churchill, SE; Pearson, OM; Grine, FE; Trinkaus, E; Holliday, TW (1996). "Morphological affinities of the proximal ulna from Klasies River main site: archaic or modern?". Journal of Human Evolution. 31 (3): 213. doi:10.1006/jhev.1996.0058.
- Klasies River Caves by K. Kris Hirst. Retrieved 2007-03-04. Article
- Deacon, HJ (2001). "Guide to Klasies River" (PDF). p. Pg. 10. Retrieved 2007-03-04.
- Deacon, HJ (2001). "Guide to Klasies River" (PDF). p. Pg. 8. Retrieved 2007-03-04.
- Deacon, H.J. (1998). "Elandsfontein and Klasies River revisited". In Wymer, John; Ashton, Nick; Pettitt, Paul; et al. Stone Age Archaeology: Essays in honour of John Wymer. Oxford: Oxbow Books. pp. 23–28. ISBN 1-900188-66-X.
- "The J J Wymer Archive". Archaeology Data Service. Retrieved 2010-03-26.
- Singer, R; Wymer, JJ. (1982). The Middle Stone Age at Klasies River Mouth in South Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-76103-7.
- Deacon, HJ (2001). "Guide to Klasies River" (PDF). p. Pg. 11. Retrieved 2007-03-04.
- Deacon, HJ (2001). "Guide to Klasies River" (PDF). p. Pg. 3 Map. Retrieved 2007-03-04.
- Unesco World Heritage listing for Pleistocene occupation sites of Klasies River, Border Cave, Wonderwerk Cave and comparable sites relating to the emergence of modern humans
- Prehistory of South Africa
- Klasies River Caves by K. Kris Hirst at About Archaeology
- Images of Klasies material at the South Africa Museum