Let L-410 Turbolet
|Let L-410 UVP-E of Transaviabaltika|
|Role||Airliner, transport aircraft|
|First flight||16 April 1969|
The Let L-410 Turbolet is a twin-engine short-range transport aircraft, manufactured by the Czech aircraft manufacturer LET, mostly used for passenger transport. The aircraft is capable of landing in small and unkempt airports and capable of operating under extreme conditions from +50 °C to -50 °C. Since 1969, more than 1,100 airframes have been produced, which were shipped to Europe, Asia, Africa and South America.
Development of the L-410 was started in the 1960s by the Czechoslovak aircraft manufacturer Let Kunovice. The Soviet airline Aeroflot was looking for a turbine-powered replacement for the Antonov An-2 aircraft, initiating the design development by Let. After preliminary studies of an aircraft called the L-400, a new version was introduced called the L-410 Turbolet. The first prototype, designated XL-410, flew on April 16, 1969. Because of delays in the development of a suitable Czech engine (Walter M601), the prototype and first production version were powered by Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 engines.
After M601 development was completed, the PT6 engine was replaced by M601 engines coupled with Avia V508 three-blade propellers and the next variant was introduced, the L-410M.
A further version for Aeroflot was the L-410 UVP. This has improved performance in take-off and landing due to increased wing and tail area - STOL. However, due to an increased empty weight and a shift in the center of gravity, the aircraft had a decreased seating capacity: 15 passengers.
The L-410UVP-E (the most common variant of the L-410) has increased maximum take-off weight to 6400 kg, M601E engines with increased power, new five-blade propellers designated V 510 and the provision for wing tip tanks to increase fuel quantity. First flight was made in 1984, and production started in 1986.
The L-410UVP-E9 and UVP-E20 are versions which vary from each other only by minor changes arising from various certification regulations. The last L-410 family member is the L-420 which uses the new Walter engine variant, the M601F. Currently produced L 410 UVP-E20's are powered by next derivative of M601 engine designated as GE H80-200 and new Avia Propeller AV-725 five blade propellers.
The L-410 UVP-E is an unpressurized all-metal high-wing commuter aircraft, with Avia V 510 five-blade propellers. It is equipped with a retractable undercarriage. The aircraft uses two hydraulic circuits: main and emergency. The main electrical system operates with 28V DC. The de-icing system is leading edge pneumatic deicers and electrical heating of propellers, cockpit windshields and pitot-static system heads. Maximum take-off weight of the L-410 UVP-E is 6400 kg with the possibility of an increase to 6600 kg for the E9 and E20 variants, seating capacity 17 to 19. Cruise speed is 170 KIAS, maximum range about 770 nautical miles (1,430 km). The airplane is certified for IFR operation, CAT I ILS approach, and flights in icing conditions.
Of the more than 1,100 units built, roughly 500 remain in service. The majority were delivered to the former Soviet Union, but have been resold, particularly to airlines in Asia, Africa, Central America, and South America. Forty aircraft are in use throughout Europe for commercial operation or skydiving. There are also an unknown number in Russia and ex-Soviet states. The aircraft can be used with short or even unpaved runways.
On 3 September 2013 the Russian company UGMK (Iskander Machmudov) became the wholesale owner of LET Kunovice Aircraft Industries. They announced that they would move production of the L-410 to Russia within the year. On 7 July 2015 UGMK represented first L-410NG aircraft manufactured in Russia.
- L-410: Prototype, three units built.
- L-410A: First series with Pratt & Whitney PT6A-27 turbo-prop engines. Twelve built.
- L-410AB: Version with four-bladed propellers.
- L-410AF: Aerial photo version supplied to Hungary.
- L-410AG: With modified equipment. Never built.
- L-410AS: Test aircraft, supplied to the USSR. Five airplanes built
- L-410FG: Aerial photography version based on L-410UVP
- L-410M: Second series with Walter M601A engines.
- L-410AM: Version with improved M601Bs, also known as L-410MA or L-410MU.
- L-410UVP: (Ukorochennaya vzlot-posadka, "short take-off and landing") Third series, fundamentally modified. Main changes are a trunk, an extended wingspan by 0.80 m (2.6 ft), M601Bs, a higher horizontal stabilizer. The UVP variants possesses STOL characteristics.
- L-410UVP-S: Salon variant of the UVP with upward hinged entrance hatch.
- L-410UVP-E: Re-equipped with M601Es, five-bladed Avia V510 propellers, additional fuel tanks at the wing ends. The L-410UVP-E20 variant is type certified on the basis of FAR 23 regulation (Amendment 34) and have received the Type Certificates in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Sweden, Indonesia, the Philippines, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Russian Federation, Cuba and Chile. After establishing the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) the aircraft also received full EASA Type Certificate valid for all EU (EASA) countries. The aircraft has also been approved for operation in a number of other countries, such as Algeria, Republic of South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Tunisia, Colombia, Venezuela, South Korea, India, plus others.
- L-410T: Transport variant of the UVP with larger loading hatch (1.25 m × 1.46 m (4.1 ft × 4.8 ft)), can transport 6 stretchers as a medical airplane with a medic, or 12 parachutists. It can also carry 1,000 kg of cargo containers.
- L-420: upgraded L-410UVP-E - new M601Fs The Let-420 is the US FAA certified variant of the L 410 UVP-E20 model, has been certified on the basis of FAR 23 regulation (Amendment 41) and have received the Type Certificates in the Czech Republic, USA, Australia and Indonesia and also full EASA Type Certificate.
- L-410NG: New version featuring new GE H85 engines, a longer nose and a larger rear area to contain more luggage, new wings and a new glass cockpit. The fuselage will be the same of the classic L-410 but it will be made of newer materials. Following the roll out of the prototype it made its maiden flight on 29 July 2015. Type certification is expected in 2016 with production planned to start in 2017. Power will grow to 850 shp instead of the previous 800 shp GE H80-200, speed increases to 223kt (412 km/h). Maximum take-off weight rises 500 kg to 7,000 kg and range to 1,350 nm up from the current 820 nm (1,520 km). Fuel capacity rises from 1,300 kg to 2,450 kg and endurance from 5h to 9h. FAA, EASA and Russian certification due in late 2017.
In July 2015, 178 Let L-410 were in airline service : 73 in Africa, 58 in Europe, 41 in Americas and 6 in Asia Pacific & Middle East ; its airline operators with four or more aircraft were:
- 19: Air-Tec Africa
- 8: Orenburzhie Air Company
- 7: es:Searca
- 5: Kin Avia and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Air Enterprise
- 4: Air Express Algeria, Eagle Air, Solenta Aviation, 2nd Arkhangelsk United Aviation Division, Van Air Europe, Komiaviatrans, KrasAvia, Air Guyane Express and Comeravia
The L-410 has experienced 116 accidents with 426 fatalities.
- An L-410A (OK-DKD) still owned by Let burned out in a fire.
- 7 July 1977
- The third prototype L-410 (OK-162) crashed near Nedakonice due to tail separation caused by pilot error during a test flight, killing the four crew.
- 6 August 1977
- An Air Service Hungary L-410AF (HA-YFA) crashed into Lake Balaton while flying low, killing one of four on board.
- 18 January 1979
- An Aeroflot L-410M (CCCP-67210) crashed in a field near Belgorod Airport during a training flight following a loss of control, killing the three crew. The crew was practicing flying turns with one engine out.
- 3 August 1979
- Aeroflot Flight 1643, an L-410M (CCCP-67206), crashed near Rzhevka Airport due to a loss of control following engine failure, killing 10 of 14 on board.
- 18 February 1981
- An Aeroflot L-410M (CCCP-67273) burned out in Russia following a cabin or cockpit fire.
- 7 January 1982
- Aeroflot Flight G-96, an L-410M (CCCP-67290), struck a hill near Gelendzhik, Russia, killing all 18 on board.
- 10 February 1982
- An Aeroflot L-410M (CCCP-62737) was written off after it was struck by an out-of-control An-2 (CCCP-70349).
- 14 August 1982
- Aeroflot Flight G-73, an L-410M (CCCP-67191), was taxiing for takeoff at Babusheri Airport when it was struck by Aeroflot Flight 974, a Tu-134 (CCCP-65836) that was taking off from the same airport, killing all 11 on board the L-410; all 82 on board the Tu-134 survived. Both aircraft were written off.
- 29 March 1983
- Aeroflot Flight G-70, an L-410M (CCCP-67190), struck the side of a hill at Poti Airport while attempting a forced landing following engine failure, killing six of 18 on board.
- 19 October 1983
- An Aeroflot L-410UVP (CCCP-67315) overran the runway at Kransk and struck an obstacle.
- 4 July 1984
- An Aeroflot L-410M (CCCP-67276) was written off after landing hard at Chulman Airport, collapsing the landing gear.
- 4 December 1984
- Aeroflot Flight F-637, an L-410MA (CCCP-67225), crashed near Kostroma, Russia due to a loss of control after the pilots became disorientated, killing all 17 on board.
- 29 December 1984
- An Aeroflot L-410UVP (CCCP-67140) force-landed 48 mi from Astrakhan, Russia.
- 14 October 1985
- An Aeroflot L-410M (CCCP-67264) crashed into a river on takeoff from Ust-Maya Airport.
- 31 December 1986
- An Aeroflot L-410UVP (CCCP-67428) ran off the apron at Cherenko, Russia.
- 13 June 1987
- An Aeroflot L-410M (CCCP-67239) was written off following a ground incident with two An-2s.
- 24 September 1987
- An Aeroflot L-410MU (CCCP-67249) was written off following an aborted takeoff at Yakutsk Airport.
- 18 October 1987
- An Aeroflot L-410UVP (CCCP-67334) was written off following a wheels-up landing at Saratov Airport.
- 19 April 1988
- An Aeroflot L-410UVP (CCCP-67518) struck a hill near Bagdarin, Russia in bad weather, killing all 17 on board.
- 26 August 1988
- An Aeroflot L-410MU (CCCP-67235) struck a mountain side at Irkutsk, killing all four on board. The crew had failed to set the altimeters properly.
- 7 December 1988
- An Aeroflot L-410UVP (CCCP-67127) crashed short of the runway at Kodinsk, killing six of 14 on board. The altimeter warning was set incorrectly and the crew did not use the outer marker.
- 28 August 1989
- An Aeroflot L-410UVP (CCCP-67104) was written off following a forced landing at Labinsk, Russia.
- 13 September 1989
- An Aero Vodochody L-410M (OK-FDC) was written off following a night landing at Klecany Airport; the aircraft is now in a museum.
- 26 August 1993
- Sakha Avia Flight 301, an L-410UVP-E (RA-67656), stalled and crashed short of the runway at Aldan Airport, killing all 24 on board. The aircraft was overloaded and the center of gravity was too far to the rear, causing the aircraft to pitch up while the flaps were extended for landing. The crash remains the deadliest involving the L-410.
- 7 June 1995
- Latvian Air Force L-410UVP 146 participated in an airshow in Lielvarde military base in Latvia, during which the pilots tried to perform an (unsanctioned) barrel roll. The maneuver would likely be successful, but the initial altitude was too low (about 350 meters) and the aircraft crashed some 150 meters from spectators, killing both men on board.
- 18 May 1996
- An Archana Airways L-410UVP-E9D (VT-ETB) touched down late and overran the runway at Kanpur Airport, striking the boundary wall of the airport and came to a halt. All 19 on board survived.
- 7 December 1999
- Asian Spirit Flight 100 crashed onto a mountainside between the municipalities of Kasibu, Nueva Vizcaya and Cabarroguis, Quirino, both in the Philippines. All 15 passengers and both crew members on board lost their lives.
- 15 January 2000
- A Taxi Aero Centroamericano (TACSA) L-410UVP-E (YS-09-C) crashed shortly after takeoff off from Tobias Bolanos Airport due to crew error, killing 5 of 18 on board.
- 12 September 2001
- An Aero Ferinco L-410UVP-E (XA-ACM) with 19 people on board, including University of Washington Husky football fans, alumni and alumni association members crashed into the jungle in the Mexican state of Yucatán, killing all people on board.
- 18 September 2001
- Atlantic Airlines Flight 870, an L-410UVP-E, stalled and crashed on takeoff from La Aurora International Airport when the center of gravity was outside limits, killing eight of 13 on board.
- 8 February 2002
- USAF L-410UVP-E3 00-0292 crashed at Fort Bliss.
- 1 March 2003
- A Borki Air Club L-410UVP (FLARF-01032) crashed near Borki, Russia during a skydiving flight, killing both pilots and nine of 23 passengers. The aircraft was overloaded and the center of gravity was too far to the rear. At 3,900 m (12,800 ft) 11 skydivers prepared to jump out. When four of them jumped the aircraft pitched up. The aircraft stalled, entered a left dive, and lost control and later broke up.
- 24 August 2003
- Tropical Airways Flight 1301, an L-410UVP-E3, crashed in a sugarcane field while attempting to return to the airport after the forward baggage door opened during takeoff, killing all 21 people on board.
- 23 May 2004
- A Blue Bird Aviation L-410UVP-E3 (5Y-VVD) crashed 18 mi south of Mwingi following a mid-air collision with another Blue Bird Aviation L-410 (5Y-VVA), killing both pilots; although 5Y-VVA was damaged in the collision, it was able to land safely.
- 27 January 2005
- A Farnair Hungary L-410UVP-E4 (HA-LAR) was carrying out a non-directional beacon let-down with radar assistance at Iași Airport, Romania, but when the crew notified air traffic control of their position over the airport beacon and their intention to turn right outbound, they were seen to turn left. The aircraft then descended down to crash near a road. Both crew members on board were killed.
- 26 March 2005
- West Caribbean Airways Flight 9955, an L-410UVP-E (HK-4146), failed to gain altitude on takeoff from El Embrujo Airport due to engine failure and struck hills close to runway 17, killing both pilots and 7 of the 12 passengers on board.
- 2 June 2005
- A Transportes Aéreos Guatemaltecos L-410UVP-E3 (TG-TAG) carrying 17 passengers on board crashed near Zacapa shortly after take-off. The crew tried to return to the airfield after reporting technical problems. All crew and passengers survived the accident.
- 30 October 2005
- A Trade Air L-410UVP-E19A (9A-BTA) crashed a few minutes after take off from Bergamo-Orio Al Serio Airport on its way to Zagreb. All three on board were killed. Weather was poor with a limited visibility due to fog.
- 31 March 2006
- TEAM Linhas Aéreas Flight 6865, a L-410UVP-E20 (PT-FSE), struck trees near the peak of Pico da Pedra Bonita (3.8 mi southeast of Rio Bonito) and crashed, killing all 19 people on board.
- 24 September 2007
- A Free Airlines L-410UVP (9Q-CVL) crashed on landing at Malemba Nkulu Airport killing one of the pilots and injuring five. The aircraft was owned by Karibu Airways.
- 8 October 2007
- A Nacional de Aviación L-410UVP-E10A (HK-4055) crashed in the mountains near Paramo El Nevada due to pilot error, killing all 17 on board. The crew continued flying VFR in bad weather over mountainous terrain.
- 4 January 2008
- A Transaven L-410UVP-E3 (YV2081) crashed near Islas Los Roques, Venezuela after the pilot reported that both engines had failed, killing all 14 on board. The aircraft itself was discovered on 20 June 2013 6 mi off the coast of Los Roques in 3200 feet of water.
- 25 August 2010
- A Filair L-410UVP-E20C crashed with 20 fatalities in Bandundu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. According to the sole survivor, the crash was caused by a stampede of passengers after a crocodile escaped from a bag in the cabin. The crocodile itself survived the crash, but was killed by rescuers.
- 14 February 2011
- Central American Airways Flight 731, an L-410UVP-E20 carrying 12 passengers and 2 crew members, crashed before landing at Toncontín International Airport. All passengers and crew were killed.
- 14 February 2011
- An African Air Services Commuter L-410UVP (9Q-CIF) flying on behalf of the World Food Programme on a cargo flight from Kavumu Airport, Democratic Republic of the Congo to Lusenge near Kava in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, crashed into Mont Biega shortly after departure. Both crew members were killed.
- 13 July 2011
- Noar Linhas Aéreas Flight 4896, an L-410UVP-E20 (PR-NOB) stalled and crashed shortly after take-off from Recife, killing all 16 occupants on board.
- 10 June 2012
- A Ukrainska Shkola Pilotov (Ukrainian Pilots School) L-410UVP (UR-SKD) crashed at Borodyanka (50 km (31 mi) northwest of Kiev). Five people were killed and thirteen injured when the pilot attempted to return to the airstrip due to an approaching storm. The aircraft was carrying 16 parachutists and two crew members. The aircraft was probably caught in a downdraft 2 km (1.2 mi) short of the runway.
- 22 August 2012
- A Mombasa Air Safari L-410UVP-E9 (5Y-UVP) crashed on takeoff from Ngerende Airstrip in the Maasai Mara Game Reserve, Kenya, killing both pilots and two passengers. Nine passengers on board the aircraft received injuries of varying degree. The fuel control unit in the number two engine was contaminated, causing engine problems.
- 23 August 2014
- A Doren Air Congo Let L-410UVP (9Q-CXB) performing a flight from Bukavu to Pangi (Democratic Republic Congo) with 2 passengers, 2 crew and 1500 kg of cargo, had normally departed from Bukavu's Kavumu Airport at 13:42L (11:42Z) and left the frequency of Kavumu about 10 minutes after departure. There was no further radio transmission and the aircraft did not arrive in Pangi, estimated to land about one hour after departure (approximate flying distance 140 nm), nor on any airport reachable. A search for the aircraft found the aircraft crashed and burned out in the southern vicinity of Kahuzi-Biega Park on Aug 25th, about 2-3 nm east of the village of Kalika in the neighbourhood of Mulume Munene.
- 24 January 2014
- A Zanair L-410UVP-E9 (5H-ZAP) skidded off the runway and into a bush while landing at Pemba Airport, Tanzania following brake failure. All 17 on board survived.
- 20 August 2015
- Two Dubnica Air L-410s (OM-ODQ and OM-SAB) collided in mid-air at an altitude of around 5000 feet near Cerveny Kamen village in Slovakia, close to the Czech border. The planes were carrying skydivers, rehearsing for a nearby air show. Thirty-one skydivers survived by jumping out of the planes after the collision. Two crew members from each plane and three parachutists were killed when the planes crashed in a hilly area. Probable reason was an lack of discipline and inattention of second plane pilot, which was enganged in taking photographs of first plane flying ahead and above him.
- 27 May 2017
- Summit Air Flight 409, an L-410UVP-E20 (9N-AKY) crashed while attempting to land at Tenzing-Hillary Airport, killing two of three crew. Circumstances of the crash remain unclear.
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1993–94
- Capacity: 19 passengers or 1,615 kg (3,560 lb) of cargo
- Length: 14.42 m (47 ft 4 in)
- Wingspan: 19.48 m (63 ft 11 in)
- Height: 5.83 m (19 ft 1½ in)
- Wing area: 34.86 m² (375.2 ft²)
- Empty weight: 3,985 kg (8,785 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 6,400 kg (14,110 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Walter M601E turboprop engines, 559 kW (750 hp) each
- Maximum speed: 380 km/h (205 knots, 236 mph) at 4,200 m (13,800 ft) (max cruise)
- Cruise speed: 365 km/h (197 knots, 227 mph) (econ cruise)
- Range: 1,380 km (744 nm, 857 mi) (max fuel)
- Service ceiling: 6,320 m (20,725 ft)
- Rate of climb: 7.4 m/s (1,455 ft/min)
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- excludes tip tanks - 19.98 m (65 ft 6½in) with tanks
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