Let L-410 Turbolet

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L-410 Turbolet
Transaviabaltika, LY-AVA, Let L-410 UVP-E (28419188591).jpg
Let L-410 UVP-E of Transaviabaltika
Role Airliner, transport aircraft
Manufacturer Let Kunovice
First flight 16 April 1969
Introduction 1970
Status In service
Produced 1971–present
Number built 1,138[1][2]
Developed into L-410NG

The Let L-410 Turbolet is a twin-engine short-range transport aircraft, manufactured by the Czech aircraft manufacturer LET, mostly used for passenger transport. The aircraft is capable of landing in small and unkempt airports and capable of operating under extreme conditions from +50 °C to -50 °C.[3] Since 1969, more than 1,100 airframes have been produced, which were shipped to Europe, Asia, Africa and South America.

Development[edit]

Development of the L-410 was started in the 1960s by the Czechoslovak aircraft manufacturer Let Kunovice. The Soviet airline Aeroflot was looking for a turbine-powered replacement for the Antonov An-2 aircraft, initiating the design development by Let. After preliminary studies of an aircraft called the L-400, a new version was introduced called the L-410 Turbolet. The first prototype, designated XL-410, flew on April 16, 1969. Because of delays in the development of a suitable Czech engine (Walter M601), the prototype and first production version were powered by Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 engines.

After M601 development was completed, the PT6 engine was replaced by M601 engines coupled with Avia V508 three-blade propellers and the next variant was introduced, the L-410M.

A further version for Aeroflot was the L-410 UVP. This has improved performance in take-off and landing due to increased wing and tail area - STOL. However, due to an increased empty weight and a shift in the center of gravity, the aircraft had a decreased seating capacity: 15 passengers.

The L-410UVP-E (the most common variant of the L-410) has increased maximum take-off weight to 6400 kg, M601E engines with increased power, new five-blade propellers designated V 510 and the provision for wing tip tanks to increase fuel quantity. First flight was made in 1984, and production started in 1986.

The L-410UVP-E9 and UVP-E20 are versions which vary from each other only by minor changes arising from various certification regulations. The last L-410 family member is the L-420 which uses the new Walter engine variant, the M601F. Currently produced L 410 UVP-E20's are powered by next derivative of M601 engine designated as GE H80-200 and new Avia Propeller AV-725 five blade propellers.

The L-410 UVP-E is an unpressurized all-metal high-wing commuter aircraft, with Avia V 510 five-blade propellers. It is equipped with a retractable undercarriage. The aircraft uses two hydraulic circuits: main and emergency. The main electrical system operates with 28V DC. The de-icing system is leading edge pneumatic deicers and electrical heating of propellers, cockpit windshields and pitot-static system heads. Maximum take-off weight of the L-410 UVP-E is 6400 kg with the possibility of an increase to 6600 kg for the E9 and E20 variants, seating capacity 17 to 19. Cruise speed is 170 KIAS, maximum range about 770 nautical miles (1,430 km). The airplane is certified for IFR operation, CAT I ILS approach, and flights in icing conditions.

Of the more than 1,100 units built, roughly 500 remain in service. The majority were delivered to the former Soviet Union, but have been resold, particularly to airlines in Asia, Africa, Central America, and South America. Forty aircraft are in use throughout Europe for commercial operation or skydiving. There are also an unknown number in Russia and ex-Soviet states. The aircraft can be used with short or even unpaved runways.

On 3 September 2013 the Russian company UGMK (Iskander Machmudov) became the wholesale owner of LET Kunovice Aircraft Industries. They announced that they would move production of the L-410 to Russia within the year.[4] On 7 July 2015 UGMK represented first L-410NG aircraft manufactured in Russia.[5]

Variants[edit]

Let L410UVP-E16 at an air show in Góraszka, Poland
Let L-410UVP-E of the Slovenian Armed Forces
Let L-410UVP-E of SEAir.
Let L-420 demonstrator at Perth Airport (2000).
  • L-410: Prototype, three units built.
  • L-410A: First series with Pratt & Whitney PT6A-27 turbo-prop engines. Twelve built.
    • L-410AB: Version with four-bladed propellers.
    • L-410AF: Aerial photo version supplied to Hungary.
    • L-410AG: With modified equipment. Never built.
    • L-410AS: Test aircraft, supplied to the USSR. Five airplanes built
  • L-410FG: Aerial photography version based on L-410UVP
  • L-410M: Second series with Walter M601A engines.
    • L-410AM: Version with improved M601Bs, also known as L-410MA or L-410MU.
  • L-410UVP: (Ukorochennaya vzlot-posadka, "short take-off and landing") Third series, fundamentally modified. Main changes are a trunk, an extended wingspan by 0.80 m (2.6 ft), M601Bs, a higher horizontal stabilizer. The UVP variants possesses STOL characteristics.
    • L-410UVP-S: Salon variant of the UVP with upward hinged entrance hatch.
    • L-410UVP-E: Re-equipped with M601Es, five-bladed Avia V510 propellers, additional fuel tanks at the wing ends. The L-410UVP-E20 variant is type certified on the basis of FAR 23 regulation (Amendment 34) and have received the Type Certificates in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Sweden, Indonesia, the Philippines, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Russian Federation, Cuba and Chile. After establishing the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) the aircraft also received full EASA Type Certificate valid for all EU (EASA) countries.[6] The aircraft has also been approved for operation in a number of other countries, such as Algeria, Republic of South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Tunisia, Colombia, Venezuela, South Korea, India, plus others.
    • L-410T: Transport variant of the UVP with larger loading hatch (1.25 m × 1.46 m (4.1 ft × 4.8 ft)), can transport 6 stretchers as a medical airplane with a medic, or 12 parachutists. It can also carry 1,000 kg of cargo containers.
  • L-420: upgraded L-410UVP-E - new M601Fs The Let-420 is the US FAA certified variant of the L 410 UVP-E20 model, has been certified on the basis of FAR 23 regulation (Amendment 41) and have received the Type Certificates in the Czech Republic, USA, Australia and Indonesia and also full EASA Type Certificate.[6]
L-410NG at the ILA 2016
  • L-410NG: New version featuring new GE H85 engines, a longer nose and a larger rear area to contain more luggage, new wings and a new glass cockpit. The fuselage will be the same of the classic L-410 but it will be made of newer materials. Following the roll out of the prototype it made its maiden flight on 29 July 2015. Type certification is expected in 2016 with production planned to start in 2017.[7] Power will grow to 850 shp instead of the previous 800 shp GE H80-200, speed increases to 223kt (412 km/h). Maximum take-off weight rises 500 kg to 7,000 kg and range to 1,350 nm up from the current 820 nm (1,520 km). Fuel capacity rises from 1,300 kg to 2,450 kg and endurance from 5h to 9h. FAA, EASA and Russian certification due in late 2017.[8]

Operators[edit]

Civilian[edit]

In July 2015, 178 Let L-410 were in airline service : 73 in Africa, 58 in Europe, 41 in Americas and 6 in Asia Pacific & Middle East ; its airline operators with four or more aircraft were:[9]

Notable accidents[edit]

The L-410 has experienced 116 accidents with 426 fatalities.[10]

1975
An L-410A (OK-DKD) still owned by Let burned out in a fire.[11]
7 July 1977
The third prototype L-410 (OK-162) crashed near Nedakonice due to tail separation caused by pilot error during a test flight, killing the four crew.[12]
6 August 1977
An Air Service Hungary L-410AF (HA-YFA) crashed into Lake Balaton while flying low, killing one of four on board.[13][14]
18 January 1979
An Aeroflot L-410M (CCCP-67210) crashed in a field near Belgorod Airport during a training flight following a loss of control, killing the three crew. The crew was practicing flying turns with one engine out.[15]
3 August 1979
Aeroflot Flight 1643, an L-410M (CCCP-67206), crashed near Rzhevka Airport due to a loss of control following engine failure, killing 10 of 14 on board.[16][17]
18 February 1981
An Aeroflot L-410M (CCCP-67273) burned out in Russia following a cabin or cockpit fire.[18]
7 January 1982
Aeroflot Flight G-96, an L-410M (CCCP-67290), struck a hill near Gelendzhik, Russia, killing all 18 on board.[19][20]
10 February 1982
An Aeroflot L-410M (CCCP-62737) was written off after it was struck by an out-of-control An-2 (CCCP-70349).[21]
14 August 1982
Aeroflot Flight G-73, an L-410M (CCCP-67191), was taxiing for takeoff at Babusheri Airport when it was struck by Aeroflot Flight 974, a Tu-134 (CCCP-65836) that was taking off from the same airport, killing all 11 on board the L-410; all 82 on board the Tu-134 survived. Both aircraft were written off.[22][23]
29 March 1983
Aeroflot Flight G-70, an L-410M (CCCP-67190), struck the side of a hill at Poti Airport while attempting a forced landing following engine failure, killing six of 18 on board.[24][25]
19 October 1983
An Aeroflot L-410UVP (CCCP-67315) overran the runway at Kransk and struck an obstacle.[26]
4 July 1984
An Aeroflot L-410M (CCCP-67276) was written off after landing hard at Chulman Airport, collapsing the landing gear.[27]
4 December 1984
Aeroflot Flight F-637, an L-410MA (CCCP-67225), crashed near Kostroma, Russia due to a loss of control after the pilots became disorientated, killing all 17 on board.[28][29]
29 December 1984
An Aeroflot L-410UVP (CCCP-67140) force-landed 48 mi from Astrakhan, Russia.[30]
14 October 1985
An Aeroflot L-410M (CCCP-67264) crashed into a river on takeoff from Ust-Maya Airport.[31]
31 December 1986
An Aeroflot L-410UVP (CCCP-67428) ran off the apron at Cherenko, Russia.[32]
13 June 1987
An Aeroflot L-410M (CCCP-67239) was written off following a ground incident with two An-2s.[33]
24 September 1987
An Aeroflot L-410MU (CCCP-67249) was written off following an aborted takeoff at Yakutsk Airport.[34]
18 October 1987
An Aeroflot L-410UVP (CCCP-67334) was written off following a wheels-up landing at Saratov Airport.[35]
19 April 1988
An Aeroflot L-410UVP (CCCP-67518) struck a hill near Bagdarin, Russia in bad weather, killing all 17 on board.[36]
26 August 1988
An Aeroflot L-410MU (CCCP-67235) struck a mountain side at Irkutsk, killing all four on board. The crew had failed to set the altimeters properly.[37]
7 December 1988
An Aeroflot L-410UVP (CCCP-67127) crashed short of the runway at Kodinsk, killing six of 14 on board. The altimeter warning was set incorrectly and the crew did not use the outer marker.[38]
28 August 1989
An Aeroflot L-410UVP (CCCP-67104) was written off following a forced landing at Labinsk, Russia.[39]
13 September 1989
An Aero Vodochody L-410M (OK-FDC) was written off following a night landing at Klecany Airport; the aircraft is now in a museum.[40]
26 August 1993
Sakha Avia Flight 301, an L-410UVP-E (RA-67656), stalled and crashed short of the runway at Aldan Airport, killing all 24 on board. The aircraft was overloaded and the center of gravity was too far to the rear, causing the aircraft to pitch up while the flaps were extended for landing. The crash remains the deadliest involving the L-410.[41]
7 June 1995
Latvian Air Force L-410UVP 146 participated in an airshow in Lielvarde military base in Latvia, during which the pilots tried to perform an (unsanctioned) barrel roll. The maneuver would likely be successful, but the initial altitude was too low (about 350 meters) and the aircraft crashed some 150 meters from spectators, killing both men on board.[42]
18 May 1996
An Archana Airways L-410UVP-E9D (VT-ETB) touched down late and overran the runway at Kanpur Airport, striking the boundary wall of the airport and came to a halt. All 19 on board survived.[43][44]
7 December 1999
Asian Spirit Flight 100 crashed onto a mountainside between the municipalities of Kasibu, Nueva Vizcaya and Cabarroguis, Quirino, both in the Philippines. All 15 passengers and both crew members on board lost their lives.
15 January 2000
A Taxi Aero Centroamericano (TACSA) L-410UVP-E (YS-09-C) crashed shortly after takeoff off from Tobias Bolanos Airport due to crew error, killing 5 of 18 on board.[45]
12 September 2001
An Aero Ferinco L-410UVP-E (XA-ACM) with 19 people on board, including University of Washington Husky football fans, alumni and alumni association members crashed into the jungle in the Mexican state of Yucatán, killing all people on board.[46]
18 September 2001
Atlantic Airlines Flight 870, an L-410UVP-E, stalled and crashed on takeoff from La Aurora International Airport when the center of gravity was outside limits, killing eight of 13 on board.[47]
8 February 2002
USAF L-410UVP-E3 00-0292 crashed at Fort Bliss.[48]
1 March 2003
A Borki Air Club L-410UVP (FLARF-01032) crashed near Borki, Russia during a skydiving flight, killing both pilots and nine of 23 passengers. The aircraft was overloaded and the center of gravity was too far to the rear. At 3,900 m (12,800 ft) 11 skydivers prepared to jump out. When four of them jumped the aircraft pitched up. The aircraft stalled, entered a left dive, and lost control and later broke up.[49]
24 August 2003
Tropical Airways Flight 1301, an L-410UVP-E3, crashed in a sugarcane field while attempting to return to the airport after the forward baggage door opened during takeoff, killing all 21 people on board.[50]
23 May 2004
A Blue Bird Aviation L-410UVP-E3 (5Y-VVD) crashed 18 mi south of Mwingi following a mid-air collision with another Blue Bird Aviation L-410 (5Y-VVA), killing both pilots; although 5Y-VVA was damaged in the collision, it was able to land safely.[51]
27 January 2005
A Farnair Hungary L-410UVP-E4 (HA-LAR) was carrying out a non-directional beacon let-down with radar assistance at Iași Airport, Romania, but when the crew notified air traffic control of their position over the airport beacon and their intention to turn right outbound, they were seen to turn left. The aircraft then descended down to crash near a road. Both crew members on board were killed.[52]
26 March 2005
West Caribbean Airways Flight 9955, an L-410UVP-E (HK-4146), failed to gain altitude on takeoff from El Embrujo Airport due to engine failure and struck hills close to runway 17, killing both pilots and 7 of the 12 passengers on board.[53]
2 June 2005
A Transportes Aéreos Guatemaltecos L-410UVP-E3 (TG-TAG) carrying 17 passengers on board crashed near Zacapa shortly after take-off. The crew tried to return to the airfield after reporting technical problems. All crew and passengers survived the accident.[54]
30 October 2005
A Trade Air L-410UVP-E19A (9A-BTA) crashed a few minutes after take off from Bergamo-Orio Al Serio Airport on its way to Zagreb. All three on board were killed. Weather was poor with a limited visibility due to fog.[55][56]
31 March 2006
TEAM Linhas Aéreas Flight 6865, a L-410UVP-E20 (PT-FSE), struck trees near the peak of Pico da Pedra Bonita (3.8 mi southeast of Rio Bonito) and crashed, killing all 19 people on board.[57]
24 September 2007
A Free Airlines L-410UVP (9Q-CVL) crashed on landing at Malemba Nkulu Airport killing one of the pilots and injuring five. The aircraft was owned by Karibu Airways.[58]
8 October 2007
A Nacional de Aviación L-410UVP-E10A (HK-4055) crashed in the mountains near Paramo El Nevada due to pilot error, killing all 17 on board. The crew continued flying VFR in bad weather over mountainous terrain.[59][60]
4 January 2008
A Transaven L-410UVP-E3 (YV2081) crashed near Islas Los Roques, Venezuela after the pilot reported that both engines had failed, killing all 14 on board. The aircraft itself was discovered on 20 June 2013 6 mi off the coast of Los Roques in 3200 feet of water.[61]
25 August 2010
A Filair L-410UVP-E20C crashed with 20 fatalities in Bandundu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. According to the sole survivor, the crash was caused by a stampede of passengers after a crocodile escaped from a bag in the cabin. The crocodile itself survived the crash, but was killed by rescuers.[62]
14 February 2011
Central American Airways Flight 731, an L-410UVP-E20 carrying 12 passengers and 2 crew members, crashed before landing at Toncontín International Airport. All passengers and crew were killed.[63]
14 February 2011
An African Air Services Commuter L-410UVP (9Q-CIF) flying on behalf of the World Food Programme on a cargo flight from Kavumu Airport, Democratic Republic of the Congo to Lusenge near Kava in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, crashed into Mont Biega shortly after departure. Both crew members were killed.[64][65]
13 July 2011
Noar Linhas Aéreas Flight 4896, an L-410UVP-E20 (PR-NOB) stalled and crashed shortly after take-off from Recife, killing all 16 occupants on board.[66][67]
10 June 2012
A Ukrainska Shkola Pilotov (Ukrainian Pilots School) L-410UVP (UR-SKD) crashed at Borodyanka (50 km (31 mi) northwest of Kiev). Five people were killed and thirteen injured when the pilot attempted to return to the airstrip due to an approaching storm. The aircraft was carrying 16 parachutists and two crew members. The aircraft was probably caught in a downdraft 2 km (1.2 mi) short of the runway.[68]
22 August 2012
A Mombasa Air Safari L-410UVP-E9 (5Y-UVP) crashed on takeoff from Ngerende Airstrip in the Maasai Mara Game Reserve, Kenya, killing both pilots and two passengers. Nine passengers on board the aircraft received injuries of varying degree. The fuel control unit in the number two engine was contaminated, causing engine problems.[69]
23 August 2014
A Doren Air Congo Let L-410UVP (9Q-CXB) performing a flight from Bukavu to Pangi (Democratic Republic Congo) with 2 passengers, 2 crew and 1500 kg of cargo, had normally departed from Bukavu's Kavumu Airport at 13:42L (11:42Z) and left the frequency of Kavumu about 10 minutes after departure. There was no further radio transmission and the aircraft did not arrive in Pangi, estimated to land about one hour after departure (approximate flying distance 140 nm), nor on any airport reachable. A search for the aircraft found the aircraft crashed and burned out in the southern vicinity of Kahuzi-Biega Park on Aug 25th, about 2-3 nm east of the village of Kalika in the neighbourhood of Mulume Munene.[70]
24 January 2014
A Zanair L-410UVP-E9 (5H-ZAP) skidded off the runway and into a bush while landing at Pemba Airport, Tanzania following brake failure. All 17 on board survived.[71]
20 August 2015
Two Dubnica Air L-410s (OM-ODQ and OM-SAB) collided in mid-air at an altitude of around 5000 feet near Cerveny Kamen village in Slovakia, close to the Czech border. The planes were carrying skydivers, rehearsing for a nearby air show. Thirty-one skydivers survived by jumping out of the planes after the collision. Two crew members from each plane and three parachutists were killed when the planes crashed in a hilly area.[72] Probable reason was an lack of discipline and inattention of second plane pilot, which was enganged in taking photographs of first plane flying ahead and above him.[73]
27 May 2017
Summit Air Flight 409, an L-410UVP-E20 (9N-AKY) crashed while attempting to land at Tenzing-Hillary Airport, killing two of three crew. Circumstances of the crash remain unclear.[74]

Specifications (L-410UVP-E)[edit]

Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1993–94[75]

General characteristics

Performance

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References[edit]

  1. ^ flugzeuginfo.net: LET L-410 Turbolet Specification Retrieved on 20 January 2009
  2. ^ LET Aircraft Industries: History Retrieved on 20 January 2009
  3. ^ "Turbolet se na důchod nechystá". Czech Television. 22 September 2011. 
  4. ^ "Новости NEWSru.com :: Чешский самолет L-410 окончательно станет российским". newsru.com. Retrieved 7 March 2016. 
  5. ^ "ВЗГЛЯД / УГМК представила новый российский самолет L-410 NG". vz.ru. Retrieved 7 March 2016. 
  6. ^ a b (c) 2014 Straight-Out.cz. "Aircraft Industries - L 410 UVP-E20 - Úvod". Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  7. ^ "Let L-410NG". Airliner World: 19. October 2015. 
  8. ^ "ILA: Aircraft Industries targets 2016 sales for new L410 turboprop". Flight International. 31 May 2016. 
  9. ^ "World Airliner Census" (PDF). Flight Global. August 2015. 
  10. ^ Aviation Safety Network Database
  11. ^ Accident description for OK-DKD at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 31 May 2017.
  12. ^ Accident description for OK-162 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 31 May 2017.
  13. ^ "Vztorony.hu". Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  14. ^ Accident description for HA-YFA at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 31 May 2017.
  15. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67210 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  16. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67206 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  17. ^ "Катастрофа Л-410М Смоленского ОАО близ а/п Ленинград-Ржевка" [Accident L-410M near Rzhevka Airport] (in Russian). airdisaster.ru. Retrieved 5 June 2017. 
  18. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67273 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  19. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67290 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  20. ^ "Катастрофа Л-410М Грузинского УГА близ Геленджика" [Accident L-410M near Gelendzhik] (in Russian). airdisaster.ru. Retrieved 5 June 2017. 
  21. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67237 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  22. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67191 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  23. ^ "Столкновение Ту-134А и Л-410М Грузинского УГА в а/п Сухуми" [Collision of Tu-134A and L-410M at Sukhumi Airport] (in Russian). airdisaster.ru. Retrieved 5 June 2017. 
  24. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67190 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  25. ^ "Катастрофа Л-410М Грузинского УГА в Поти" [Accident L-410M near Poti] (in Russian). airdisaster.ru. Retrieved 5 June 2017. 
  26. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67315 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  27. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67276 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  28. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67225 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  29. ^ "Катастрофа Л-410М Костромского ОАО в р-не Костромы" [Accident L-410M near Kostroma] (in Russian). airdisaster.ru. Retrieved 5 June 2017. 
  30. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67140 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  31. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67264 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  32. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67428 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  33. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67239 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  34. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67249 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  35. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67334 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  36. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67518 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  37. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67235 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  38. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67127 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  39. ^ Accident description for CCCP-67104 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  40. ^ Accident description for OK-FDC at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  41. ^ Accident description for RA-67656 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 31 May 2017.
  42. ^ Accident description for 146 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  43. ^ "Civil Aviation Aircraft Accident Summary for the year 1996" (PDF). DGCA. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
  44. ^ Accident description for VT-ETB at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  45. ^ Accident description for YS-09-C at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  46. ^ UW Family Tragedy in Mexico Archived March 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  47. ^ Accident description for TG-CFE at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  48. ^ Accident description for 00-0292 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  49. ^ Accident description for FLARF-01032 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 May 2017.
  50. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 15 January 2017. 
  51. ^ Accident description for 5Y-VVD at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 31 May 2017.
  52. ^ Accident description for HA-LAR at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2 June 2017.
  53. ^ Accident description for HK-4146 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2 June 2017.
  54. ^ [1].
  55. ^ "Crash of a Let 410 in Bergamo: 3 killed". Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  56. ^ "Repubblica.it  » cronaca  » Bergamo, aereo cargo precipita morti i tre membri dell'equipaggio". Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  57. ^ "Accident description PT-FSE". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  58. ^ Accident description for 9Q-CVL at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 26 December 2014.
  59. ^ Aeronave con 15 militares y 3 tripulantes a bordo se accidentó, confirmó el Ejército - Archivo - Archivo digital eltiempo.com[dead link]
  60. ^ Accident description for HK-4055 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 26 December 2014.
  61. ^ Accident description for YV2081 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2 June 2017.
  62. ^ "Aircraft crashes after crocodile on board escapes and sparks panic". telegraph.co.uk. 21 October 2010. 
  63. ^ Reed Business Information Limited. "L-410 crashes in Honduras". Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  64. ^ Hradecky, Simon. "Crash: African Air Services L410 near Kavumu on Feb 14th 2011, impacted mountain". The Aviation Herald. Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  65. ^ Accident description for 9Q-CIF at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 5 June 2017.
  66. ^ Accident description for PR-NOB at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 13 July 2011.
  67. ^ "Noar emite comunicado sobre acidente em Recife" (in Portuguese). Panrotas. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  68. ^ "Storm hits Ukraine parachute jump, five killed". Kyiv Post. 11 June 2012. 
  69. ^ 22 August 2012. "Accident: Mombasa Air Safari L410 at Ngerenge". Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  70. ^ Simon Hradecky (24 August 2014). "Crash: Doren L410 over Congo on Aug 23rd 2014, aircraft found crashed and burned out". Aviation Herald. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  71. ^ Harro Ranter. "ASN Aircraft incident 24-JAN-2014 Let L-410UVP-E9 5H-ZAP". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 7 March 2016. 
  72. ^ Adam Withnall (20 August 2015). "Slovakia plane crash: Parachutists survive fatal mid-air collision by jumping from aircraft". The Independent. Retrieved 20 August 2015. 
  73. ^ Juraj Gyenes (4 April 2016). "Zrážku lietadiel v Ilave zavinil jeden z pilotov. Nevenoval sa riadeniu, ale fotil". aktuality.sk. Retrieved 4 April 2016. 
  74. ^ Accident description for 9N-AKY at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 5 June 2017.
  75. ^ Lambert 1993, pp. 66–67.
  76. ^ excludes tip tanks - 19.98 m (65 ft 6½in) with tanks

External links[edit]