Let L-410 Turbolet
|Let L-410MU at Kubinka|
|Role||Airliner, transport aircraft|
|First flight||16 April 1969|
The Let L-410 Turbolet is a twin-engine short-range transport aircraft, manufactured by the Czech aircraft manufacturer LET, mostly used for passenger transport. Since 1969, more than 1,100 airframes have been produced.
Development of the L-410 was started in the 1960s by the Czechoslovak aircraft manufacturer Let Kunovice. The Soviet airline Aeroflot was looking for a turbine-powered replacement for the Antonov An-2 aircraft, initiating the design development by Let. After preliminary studies of an aircraft called the L-400, a new version was introduced called the L-410 Turbolet. The first prototype, designated XL-410, flew on April 16, 1969. Because of delays in the development of a suitable Czech engine (Walter M601), the prototype and first production version were powered by Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 engines.
After M601 development was completed, the PT6 engine was replaced by M601 engines coupled with Avia V508 three-blade propellers and the next variant was introduced, the L-410M.
A further version for Aeroflot was the L-410 UVP. This has improved performance in take-off and landing due to increased wing and tail area - STOL. However, due to an increased empty weight and a shift in the center of gravity, the aircraft had a decreased seating capacity: 15 passengers.
The L-410UVP-E (the most common variant of the L-410) has increased maximum take-off weight to 6400 kg, M601E engines with increased power, new five-blade propellers designated V 510 and the provision for wing tip tanks to increase fuel quantity. First flight was made in 1984, and production started in 1986.
The L-410UVP-E9 and UVP-E20 are versions which vary from each other only by minor changes arising from various certification regulations. The last L-410 family member is the L-420 which uses the new Walter engine variant, the M601F. Currently produced L 410 UVP-E20's are powered by next derivative of M601 engine designated as GE H80-200 and new Avia Propeller AV-725 five blade propellers.
The L-410 UVP-E is an unpressurized all-metal high-wing commuter aircraft, with Avia V 510 five-blade propellers. It is equipped with a retractable undercarriage. The aircraft uses two hydraulic circuits: main and emergency. The main electrical system operates with 28V DC. The de-icing system is leading edge pneumatic deicers and electrical heating of propellers, cockpit windshields and pitot-static system heads. Maximum take-off weight of the L-410 UVP-E is 6400 kg with the possibility of an increase to 6600 kg for the E9 and E20 variants, seating capacity 17 to 19. Cruise speed is 170 KIAS, maximum range about 770 nautical miles (1,430 km). The airplane is certified for IFR operation, CAT I ILS approach, and flights in icing conditions.
Of the more than 1,100 units built, roughly 500 remain in service. The majority were delivered to the former Soviet Union, but have been resold, particularly to airlines in Asia, Africa and South America. Forty aircraft are in use throughout Europe for commercial operation or skydiving. There are also an unknown number in Russia and ex-Soviet states. The aircraft can be used with short or even unpaved runways.
On 3 September 2013 the Russian company UGMK (Iskander Machmudov) became the wholesale owner of LET Kunovice Aircraft Industries. They announced that they would move production of the L-410 to Russia within the year. On 7 July 2015 UGMK represented first L-410NG aircraft manufactured in Russia.
- Prototype, three units built.
- First series with Pratt & Whitney PT6A-27 turbo-prop engines.
- Version with four-bladed propellers.
- Aerial photo version supplied to Hungary.
- With modified equipment.Never built.
- Test aircraft, supplied to the USSR. Five airplanes built
- Second series with Walter M601A engines.
- Version with improved M601Bs, also known as L-410MA or L-410MU.
- Third series, fundamentally modified. Main changes are a trunk, an extended wingspan by 0.80 m, M601Bs, a higher horizontal stabilizer. The UVP variants possesses STOL characteristics (UVP=Russian for "short take-off and landing).
- Salon variant of the UVP with upward hinged entrance hatch.
- Re-equipped with M601Es, five-bladed propellers, additional fuel tanks at the wing ends. The L 410 UVP-E20 variant is type certified on the basis of FAR 23 regulation (Amendment 34) and have received the Type Certificates in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Sweden, Indonesia, the Philippines, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Russian Federation, Cuba and Chile. After establishing the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) the aircraft also received full EASA Type Certificate valid for all EU (EASA) countries.
The aircraft has also been approved for operation in a number of other countries, such as Algeria, Republic of South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Tunisia, Colombia, Venezuela, South Korea, India, plus others.
- Photogrammetry version based on L-410UVP
- Transport variant of the UVP with larger loading hatch (1.25 m × 1.46 m), can transport 6 stretchers as a medical airplane + a medic, or 12 parachutists. It can also carry 1,000 kg of cargo containers.
- upgraded L-410UVP-E - new M601Fs The Let-420 is the US FAA certified variant of the L 410 UVP-E20 model, has been certified on the basis of FAR 23 regulation (Amendment 41) and have received the Type Certificates in the Czech Republic, USA, Australia and Indonesia and also full EASA Type Certificate.
- New version featuring new GE H85 engines, a longer nose and a larger rear area to contain more luggage, new wings and a new glass cockpit. The fuselage will be the same of the classic L-410 but it will be made of newer materials. Following the roll out of the prototype it made its maiden flight on 29 July 2015. Type certification is expected in 2016 with production planned to start in 2017. Power will grow to 850 shp instead of the previous 800 shp GE H80-200, speed increases to 223kt (412 km/h). Maximum take-off weight rises 500 kg to 7,000 kg and range to 1,350 nm up from the current 820 nm (1,520 km). Fuel capacity rises from 1,300 kg to 2,450 kg and endurance from 5h to 9h. FAA, EASA and Russian certification due in late 2017.
As of August 2006, 313 L-410 aircraft remained in airline service. Major operators included: Air-Tec Africa (17), Rivne Universal Avia (13), Atlantic Airlines de Honduras (10), SEARCA (9), Orenburzhie (7), Heli Air Services (7), South East Asian Airlines (6), NHT Linhas Aéreas (6), KrasAvia (5), Kin-Avia (5), Komiavaiatrans (4), Aerolineas Sosa (4), Citywing (3), CM Airlines (3), Green Air (P) Ltd Nepal (1), Tortug' Air (3), Mombasa Air Safari (3), ABC Air Hungary (3), Khabarovsk Airlines (3), Kazan Air Enterprise (2), TEAM Linhas Aéreas (2), PANH (2), Transportes Aéreos Guatemaltecos (2), Benair (2) and UTair (2). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Air Enterprise Around 111 other airlines operate smaller numbers of the type.
Current civilian operators
- Vanilla Sky
Former civilian operators
- Government of the Czech Republic
- Government of Slovenia
- Government of Slovakia
- Private Companies in the Aviation Industries
Current military operators
Former military operators
- On August 6, 1977, an L-410 crashed into the Lake Balaton killing one man on board.
- On June 7, 1995, an L-410 belonging to Latvian military participated in an airshow in Lielvarde military base in Latvia, during which the pilots tried to perform an (unsanctioned) barrel roll. The maneuver would likely be successful, but the initial altitude was too low (about 350 meters) and the aircraft crashed some 150 meters from spectators, killing both men on board.
- On May 18, 1996, in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India, an Archana Airways L-410 aircraft operating on the Delhi - Kanpur sector touched down late and could not be stopped within the available runway length, ending up beyond the runway. The aircraft hit the boundary wall of the airport and came to a halt. The aircraft sustained major damages, but there was no fire and no injury to persons on board the aircraft.
- On December 7, 1999, Asian Spirit Flight 100, using an L-410 crashed onto a mountainside between the municipalities of Kasibu, Nueva Vizcaya and Cabarroguis, Quirino, both in the Philippines. All 15 passengers and both crew members on board lost their lives.
- On January 15, 2000, an L-410 with 15 people on board, crash after takeoff off from Tobías Bolaños airport in San José, Costa Rica killing 5 people.
- On September 10, 2001, an L-410 carrying 19 people, including University of Washington Husky football fans, alumni and alumni association members crashed into the jungle in the Mexican state of Yucatán, killing all people on board.
- On September 18, an L-410 carrying 13 crash during takeoff off from La Aurora Intl. Guatemala City.
- On March 2, 2003, an L-410 carrying a load of sport skydivers crashed at the dropzone Borki, Russia. The aircraft stalled at high altitude and many of the skydivers survived thanks to their parachutes.
- On August 24, 2003, a Tropical Airways L-410 carrying 19 passengers and 2 crews crashed onto a sugar cane field shortly after taking off from Hugo Chávez International Airport in Cap-Haïtien, Haiti after the cargo door opened in mid-flight. All 21 people on board were killed in the crash.
- On May 23, 2004, two Blue Bird Aviation Let L-410 planes hit each other inflight near Mwingi, Kenya. One of the planes crashed into the ground, killing both crew members on board, while the other landed safely.
- On January 27, 2005, a Farnair Hungary Let L-410 aircraft was carrying out a non-directional beacon let-down with radar assistance at Iași Airport, Romania, but when the crew notified air traffic control of their position over the airport beacon and their intention to turn right outbound, they were seen to turn left. Then the aircraft spiralled down to crash on the airfield. Both crew members on board were killed.
- On March 26, 2005, a West Caribbean Airways Let L-410 Turbolet aircraft, registration HK-4146, on departure from El Embrujo Airport, Isla de Providencia in the Caribbean, failed to climb and hit hills close to runway 01, killing the 2 crew and 6 of the 12 passengers on board.
- On June 2, 2005, an L-410 of Transportes Aéreos Guatemaltecos, registration TG-TAG, carrying 17 passengers on board crashed near Zacapa shortly after take-off. The crew tried to return to the airfield after reporting technical problems. All crew and passengers survived the accident.
- On October 30, 2005, a Let L-410UVP-E19A Turbolet of Trade Air, registration 9A-BTA, crashed few minutes after take off from Bergamo-Orio Al Serio Airport on its way to Zagreb. All three on board were killed. Weather was poor with a limited visibility due to fog.
- On March 31, 2006 an L-410UVP-E20, operated by TEAM Linhas Aéreas had a fatal accident. TEAM Flight 6865 departed Macaé at 17:19 on a scheduled flight to Rio de Janeiro-Santos Dumont. The airplane PT-FSE was expected to arrive at 18:02. Contact was lost and the flight appeared to have crashed between the cities of Saquarema and Rio Bonito. All 19 people on board died.
- On September 24, 2007, an L-410 operated by Free Airlines and owned by Karibu Airways crashed on landing at Malemba Nkulu Airport killing one and injuring five.
- On October 8, 2007, an L-410UVP-E10A carrying 15 soldiers and 3 crew members crashed in Cerro Bravo, Colombia.
- On January 4, 2008, an L-410UVP-E, registration number YV2081, operated by Transaven carrying 12 passengers and two crew crashed near Islas Los Roques, Venezuela, killing all on board. The aircraft itself was discovered and recovered five years after the accident.
- On August 25, 2010, an L-410 crashed with 20 fatalities in Bandundu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. According to the sole survivor, the crash was caused by a stampede of passengers after a crocodile escaped from a bag in the cabin. The crocodile itself survived the crash, but was killed by rescuers.
- On February 14, 2011, an L-410 operated by Central American Airways carrying 12 passengers and 2 crew members, crashed before landing at Toncontín International Airport. All passengers and crew were killed.
- On the same day an L-410 operated by African Air Services Commuter, flying on behalf of the World Food Programme on a cargo flight from Kavumu Airport, Democratic Republic of the Congo to Lusenge near Kava in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, crashed into Mont Bienga shortly after departure. Both crew members were killed.
- On 13 July 2011, a Noar Linhas Aéreas Let L-410 registration PR-NOB operating flight 4896 from Recife to Natal and Mossoró crashed shortly after take-off from Recife. All 16 occupants were killed.
- On June 10, 2012, an L-410 crash landed at the Borodyanka airstrip, located 50 km north-west of Kiev, Ukraine. Five people were killed and thirteen injured when the aircraft attempted to make an emergency landing in stormy weather. The aircraft was carrying 16 parachutists and two crew members.
- On August 22, 2012, a Mombasa Air Safari Let L-410UVP-E9 registration 5Y-UV7, with 11 passengers and 2 crew, crashed at an airstrip in the Maasai Mara Game Reserve, Kenya, killing both pilots and two passengers. Nine passengers on board the aircraft received injuries of varying degree. The aircraft that impacted ground shortly after takeoff from Ngerende Airstrip was destroyed.
- on August 23, 2014, A Doren Air Congo Let L-410, registration 9Q-CXB performing a flight from Bukavu to Pangi (Democratic Republic Congo) with 2 passengers, 2 crew and 1500 kg of cargo, had normally departed from Bukavu's Kavumu Airport at 13:42L (11:42Z) and left the frequency of Kavumu about 10 minutes after departure. There was no further radio transmission and the aircraft did not arrive in Pangi, estimated to land about one hour after departure (approximate flying distance 140 nm), nor on any airport reachable. A search for the aircraft found the aircraft crashed and burned out in the southern vicinity of Kahuzi-Biega Park on Aug 25th, about 2-3 nm east of the village of Kalika in the neighbourhood of Mulume Munene.
- On January 24, 2014 a Let L-410UVP-E9 with registration number 5H-ZAP operated by Zanair overshot the runway in Pemba airport, Tanzania while landing after the brakes of the airplane failed. The plane skidded off the runway, onto a grassy area, and skidded into a bush. All passengers escaped the runway incident without injuries.
- On August 20, 2015, two Let L-410 of Dubnica Air with registration numbers OM-ODQ and OM-SAB, collided in mid-air at an altitude of around 5000 feet near Cerveny Kamen village in Slovakia, close to the Czech border. The planes were carrying skydivers, rehearsing for a nearby air show. Thirty-one skydivers survived by jumping out of the planes after the collision. Two crew members from each plane and three parachutists were killed when the planes crashed in a hilly area. Probable reason was an lack of discipline and inattention of second plane pilot, which was enganged in taking photographs of first plane flying ahead and above him.
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1993–94
- Capacity: 19 passengers or 1,615 kg (3,560 lb) of cargo
- Length: 14.42 m (47 ft 4 in)
- Wingspan: 19.48 m (63 ft 11 in)
- Height: 5.83 m (19 ft 1½ in)
- Wing area: 34.86 m² (375.2 ft²)
- Empty weight: 3,985 kg (8,785 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 6,400 kg (14,110 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Walter M601E turboprop engines, 559 kW (750 hp) each
- Maximum speed: 380 km/h (205 knots, 236 mph) at 4,200 m (13,800 ft) (max cruise)
- Cruise speed: 365 km/h (197 knots, 227 mph) (econ cruise)
- Range: 1,380 km (744 nm, 857 mi) (max fuel)
- Service ceiling: 6,320 m (20,725 ft)
- Rate of climb: 7.4 m/s (1,455 ft/min)
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- excludes tip tanks - 19.98 m (65 ft 6½in) with tanks
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