Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante

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EMB 110 Bandeirante
SKL in flight cropped (105091729).jpg
Role Regional airliner
National origin Brazil
Manufacturer Embraer
Designer Max Holste
First flight 26 October 1968
Introduction 16 April 1973
Status Active
Primary users Brazilian Air Force
AirNow
Produced 1968–1990
Number built 501

The Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante is a general purpose 15–21 passenger twin-turboprop light transport aircraft suitable for military and civil duties. It was manufactured by the Brazilian corporation Embraer.

Bandeirante (English: pioneer) was the name given to the Portuguese settlers and pioneers who expanded the limits of the Portuguese Empire, language and culture in Brazil by progressively moving in and then settling from the early coastal settlements towards the inner, then unknown and uncharted zones of the vast continent.[1]

Design and development[edit]

YC-95 first prototype (EMB-100) in Aerospace Museum, Rio de Janeiro

The EMB 110 was designed by the French engineer Max Holste following the specifications of the IPD-6504 program set by the Brazilian Ministry of Aeronautics in 1965.[2] The goal was to create a general purpose aircraft, suitable for both civilian and military roles with a low operational cost and high reliability. On this measure, the EMB 110 has succeeded.

The first prototype, with the military designation YC-95, was flown on 26 October 1968.[3] and two other prototypes were built, known as EMB 100.[4] By 1969 an order was placed for 80 production aircraft, by now known as EMB 110 Bandeirante, for the Brazilian Air Force (FAB) with the newly formed aircraft company Embraer. The Bandeirante received its Brazilian airworthiness certificate at the end of 1972.[5] and on 9 February 1973 was made the first delivery to FAB.[5][6]

EMB 110A cockpit
EMB 110 cabin, operated by Air Rarotonga

Further development of the EMB 110 was halted by the manufacturer in order to shift focus to the larger, faster, and pressurized 30-seat EMB 120 Brasilia.

On Dec 15, 2010, the Brazilian Air Force first flew an upgraded EMB 110 equipped with modern avionics equipment. Designated as the C/P-95, the aircraft has had several new systems installed by Israeli firm Elbit Systems' Brazilian subsidiary, Aeroeletronica. The Brazilian Air Force has an active fleet of 96 EMB-110s.[7]

Operational history[edit]

EMB 110 registration G-TABS, operated by Skydrift, loading through the large cargo door.[8]

Deliveries started to the Brazilian Air Force in February 1973.[5] The passenger model first flew on 9 August 1972 and entered commercial service on 16 April 1973 with the now defunct Brazilian airline company Transbrasil.

Over the next 21 years Embraer built 494 aircraft in numerous configurations for a variety of roles. Production was halted in 1990, as the EMB 110 had been superseded by the Embraer EMB 120 Brasilia.

Variants[edit]

  • YC-95 or EMB 100Prototype, powered by two 550 shp (410 kW) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-20 turboprop engines. Three built.[9]
  • EMB 110 Initial production version, powered by 680 shp (507 kW) PT6A-27 engines – Twelve seat military transport for the Brazilian Air Force, who designate it the C-95. 60 built.[9]
  • EMB 110A – Radio calibration version for the Brazilian Air Force (EC-95). Three built.[9]
  • EC-95B – Calibration version for the Brazilian Air Force.
  • EMB 110BAerial survey, aerial photography version. Seven built, six as R-95 for the Brazilian Air Force.[9]
  • EMB 110C – The first commercial model, similar to C-95, a 15-seat passenger version.[9]
  • EMB 110C(N) – Three navalised EMB 110Cs sold to the Chilean Navy.[9]
  • EMB 110E Executive version of EMB 110C. Six to eight seats.[9]
    • EMB 110E(J) Modified version of EMB 110E.[9]
  • EMB 110K Stretched version with 0.85 m (2 ft 9½ in) fuselage plug and 750 shp (560 kW) PT6A-34 engines and fitted with ventral fin.[9]
    • EMB 110K1 – Cargo transport version for the Brazilian Air Force, with cargo door in rear fuselage. 20 built, designated C-95A.[9]
  • EMB 110P Dedicated commuter version of EMB 110C for Brazilian airlines, powered by PT6A-27 or -34 engines.[9]
  • EMB 110P1 – Quick change civil cargo/passenger transport version based on EMB 110K1, with same rear cargo door.[9]
  • EMB 110P2 – Dedicated civil passenger version of EMB 110P1, without cargo door.[9]
  • EMB 111A – Maritime patrol version for the Brazilian Air Force. The aircraft also has the Brazilian Air Force designation P-95 Bandeirulha.[10] Two were leased to the Argentine Navy during the Falklands War due to the retirement of their last SP-2H Neptune and until the introduction of modified L-188 Electras.[11]
  • P-95B
  • EMB 111AN – Six maritime patrol aircraft sold to the Chilean Navy.
  • C-95B – Quick change cargo/passenger version for the Brazilian Air Force.
  • EMB 110P1 SAR – Search and rescue version.
  • EMB 110P/A – 18 seat passenger version, intended for export.
  • EMB 110P1/A – Mixed passenger/freight version with enlarged cargo door.
  • EMB 110P1/41 – Cargo/passenger transport aircraft.
  • EMB 110P1K/110K – Military version.
  • C-95C – The Brazilian Air Force version of the EMB 110P2.
  • EMB 110P2
  • EMB 110P2/A – Modifications for airline commuter role, seating up to 21 passengers.
  • EMB 110P2/41 – 21-seat pressurised commuter airliner.
  • EMB 110S1Geophysical survey version.
  • SC-95Search and rescue version for the Brazilian Air Force.
  • XC-95 – Rain research version for the Brazilian Air Force.
  • C/P-95 – Updated version with modernised avionics.[7]

Operators[edit]

In 2016, 38 Bandeirantes were still in Airline service with 14 operators, 30 in North/South America and 8 in Asia Pacific & Middle East :[12]

The Brazilian Air Force operates 48 EMB-110.[13]

Specifications (EMB 110P1A/41)[edit]

A Bandeirante with its PT6A engine uncovered

Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988–89[14]

General characteristics

Performance

Incidents and accidents[edit]

  • 27 February 1975: a VASP Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante registration PP-SBE operating flight 640 from São Paulo-Congonhas to Bauru crashed after take-off from Congonhas. All 2 crew members and 13 passengers died.[15][16]
  • 22 January 1976: a Transbrasil Embraer EMB 110C Bandeirante registration PT-TBD operating flight 107 from Chapecó to Erechim, crashed upon take-off from Chapecó. Seven of the nine passengers and crew on board died.[17][18]
  • 23 April 1977: Brazilian Air Force, an Embraer C-95 Bandeirante registration FAB-2169 crashed upon landing at Natal Air Force Base.[19]
  • 3 June 1977: Brazilian Air Force, an Embraer C-95 Bandeirante registration FAB-2157 crashed after take-off from Natal Air Force Base. All 18 occupants died.[20]
  • 20 June 1977: a Transporte Aéreo Militar Uruguayo Embraer EMB110C Bandeirante registration CX-BJE/T584 flying from Montevideo to Salto crashed after striking trees in an orange grove during approach to Salto. The crew of 2 and 3 of the 13 passengers died.[21]
  • 31 January 1978: a TABA – Transportes Aéreos da Bacia Amazônica Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante registration PT-GKW crashed upon take-off from Eirunepé. The crew of 2 died but all 14 passengers survived.[22]
  • 8 February 1979: a TAM Airlines Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante registration PT-SBB operating a flight from Bauru to São Paulo-Congonhas, while on initial climb from Bauru, struck trees and crashed into flames. All 2 crew and 16 passengers died.[23][24]
  • 24 February 1981: a VOTEC Embraer EMB110P Bandeirante registration PT-GLB flying from Tucuruí to Belém-Val de Cans collided with a ship in dry dock while approaching Belém in rain and high winds. The aircraft subsequently struck two barges and broke in two. The front part crashed onto a tug, and the tail section sank. Only 3 passengers of a total of 14 passengers and crew survived.[25]
  • 6 November 1982: an Air Ecosse Embraer EMB110PI Bandeirante registration G-OAIR flying from Prestwick to Aberdeen lost left engine and shortly thereafter right generator. The pilot, which was the sole occupant, made a landing in a field north east of Hatton, Scotland. Aircraft sustained substantial damage.[26]
  • 7 October 1983: a TAM Airlines Embraer EMB 110C Bandeirante registration PP-SBH flying from Campo Grande and Urubupungá to Araçatuba struck the ground just short of the runway threshold after missing the approach at Araçatuba Airport twice. Seven crew and passengers died.[27][28]
  • 18 April 1984: two VOTEC Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante registrations PT-GJZ and PT-GKL collided on air, while on approach to land at Imperatriz. PT-GJZ was flying from São Luís to Imperatriz and crashed on ground killing all its 18 passengers and crew died. PT-GKL was flying from Belém-Val de Cans to Imperatriz and its pilot was able to make an emergency landing on Tocantins river. One passenger of its 17-passenger and crew died.[29][30][31]
  • 28 June 1984: a TAM Airlines Embraer EMB 110C Bandeirante registration PP-SBC operating a chartered flight by Petrobras from Rio de Janeiro–Galeão to Macaé flew into São João Hill while descending through rain and clouds over the Municipality of São Pedro da Aldeia. All 16 passengers and 2 crew died. The passengers were journalists of well-known Brazilian networks who were preparing a special report about the Campos Basin oil fields.[32][33]
  • 6 December 1984: PBA Flight 1039, using an Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante (registration N96PB-) crashed shortly after taking off from Jacksonville International Airport in Jacksonville, Florida, United States. All 11 passengers and both pilots died.
  • 23 June 1985: a TABA – Transportes Aéreos da Bacia Amazônica Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante registration PT-GJN flying from Juara to Cuiabá, while on approach to land at Cuiabá, had technical problems on engine number 1. An emergency landing was attempted but the aircraft stalled and crashed 1 km short of the runway. All 17 occupants died.[34][35]
  • 9 October 1985: a Nordeste Embraer EMB110C Bandeirante registration PT-GKA operating a cargo flight from Vitória da Conquista to Salvador da Bahia crashed during initial climb from Vitória da Conquista after flying unusually low. The two crew members died.[36]
  • 1 March 1988: Comair Flight 206, using an Embraer 110, crashed in Johannesburg, killing all 17 occupants.[37]
  • 14 November 1988: Oy Wasawings Ab flight to Seinäjoki crashed during landing in Ilmajoki, Finland. 6 deaths, 6 injured.[38]
  • 20 September 1990: an Embraer EMB110P1 Bandeirante registration PT-FAW belonging to the Government of Pernambuco, flying from Fernando de Noronha to Recife, crashed into the sea shortly after take-off. All 12 crew and passengers died.[39]
  • 11 November 1991: a Nordeste Embraer EMB110P1 Bandeirante registration PT-SCU operating flight 115 from Recife to Maceió, during on initial climb had an engine failure followed by fire. The aircraft crashed on populated area. All 13 occupants of the aircraft and 2 persons on the ground died.[40][41]
  • 3 February 1992: a Nordeste Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante registration PT-TBB en route from Salvador da Bahia to Guanambi descended below minimum levels in bad weather and crashed on a hill hidden by clouds near Caetité. All 12 passengers and crew aboard died.[42][43]
  • 13 January 1993: A Titan Airways cargo flight crashed into a hill near Sellafield, en route from London Southend Airport to Glasgow International Airport. The flight used G-ZAPE, a 110P, and both pilots were killed in the crash.[44]
  • 26 October 1993: A Brazilian Air Force patrol P-95 (Embraer EMB 111 Bandeirante Patrulha) registration FAB-2290 that departed from Canoas Air Force Base crashed into the ocean near Angra dos Reis while flying in bad weather conditions. All crew of 3 died.[45]
  • 19 July 1994: Alas Chiricanas Flight 901 Panamanian domestic airline ALAS, registration HP-1202AC using an Embraer 110P1, the aircraft crashed after a bomb exploded in the cabin killing 21, twelve Jewish businessmen were among the passengers.
  • 24 May 1995 G-OEAA, an Embraer EMB-110-P1 operated by UK domestic airline Knight Air flight between Leeds and Aberdeen entered a steeply descending spiral dive, broke up in flight and crashed into farmland at Dunkeswick Moor near Leeds. All 12 occupants were killed. The probable cause of the accident was the failure of one or both artificial horizon instruments. There was no standby artificial horizon installed (as there was no airworthiness requirement for one on this aircraft) and the accident report concluded that this left the crew without a single instrument available for assured attitude reference or simple means of determining which flight instruments had failed. The aircraft entered a spiral dive from which the pilot, who was likely to have become spatially disoriented, was unable to recover.[46][47][48]
  • 13 September 1996: a Helisul Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante registration PT-WAV operating a cargo flight from Porto Alegre to Joinville collided with a hill and crashed during final approach to land at Joinville. The crew of two died.[49]
  • 17 November 1996: Brazilian Air Force, an Embraer P-95 Bandeirante registration FAB-7102 flying from Salvador da Bahia Air Force Base to Natal Air Force Base had an accident in the vicinity of Caruaru. Four Brazilian Air Force Bandeirantes were flying on formation from Salvador to Natal when the tail of FAB-7102 was struck by the propeller of another aircraft. Control of the aircraft was lost and it crashed. All 9 occupants died.[50]
  • 24 July 1999: an Air Fiji Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante registration DQ-AFN on a domestic flight from Nausori to Nadi in the Fiji Islands crashed on a slope of a ridge. The aircraft had apparently descended below the 5400 feet safety altitude until the right wing struck a tree on a ridgeline at 1300 feet altitude. The Bandeirante then broke up and impacted the slope of a ridge 1,3 km further on. The tail section and right wing were found 150m from the main wreckage. Weather at 05:00 was good: nil wind, 40 km visibility, scattered clouds at 2200 feet and an insignificant small shower band. Investigation revealed a.o. that the captain had insufficient rest prior to the flight and that he had consumed an above-therapeutic level of antihistamine prior to the flight, which would have degraded his ability to safely pilot the aircraft. Also Air Fiji’s published standard operating procedures were inadequate for the Bandeirante aircraft.
  • 26 December 2002: Brazilian Air Force, an Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante registration FAB-2292 en route from São Paulo-Campo de Marte to Florianópolis Air Force Base, crashed while trying to carry out an emergency landing at Curitiba-Afonso Pena. Reportedly, both engines had quit. The airplane had taken off with insufficient fuel on board to complete the flight to Florianópolis. Three passengers and crew of the 16 aboard died.[51]
  • 7 February 2009 An Embraer 110, operated by Manaus Aerotáxi, registration PT-SEA, flying a domestic route in Brazil from Coari to Manaus (Amazonas) struggled in bad weather conditions and crashed 80 km from Manaus killing 24 passengers. 4 survivors were reported.[52][53]
  • 3 July 2013 An Embraer 110, operated by Batair Cargo, registration ZS-NVB, en route from Lanseria Airport in Johannesburg for Lubumbashi in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, crashed while attempting to land in Francistown, Botswana. The pilots had planned to land and refuel but thick mist on the ground caused them to miss the landing strip on their first pass. They called in to the control tower to notify that they would make a second pass because they could see the landing strip, but never did. The wreckage was found two hours later about 10 km from the airport. The plane crashed with no survivors.[54]

See also[edit]

Related development

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ "pioneer"
  2. ^ Air International April 1978, pp. 163–164.
  3. ^ Air International April 1978, p.164.
  4. ^ "EMB 100 Bandeirante". Embraer Historical Center. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c Air International April 1978, p.165.
  6. ^ "EMB 110 Bandeirante". Embraer Historical Center. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  7. ^ a b Hoyle, Craig. "PICTURES: Brazil flies first upgraded EMB-110 Bandeirante". Flightglobal, 15 December 2010.
  8. ^ "G-TABS". Planespotters. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Air International April 1978, p.170.
  10. ^ "Bandeirulha" is a nickname – junction of the names "Bandeirante" and "Patrulha" (Patrol).
  11. ^ "PDF book: Historia de la Aviación Naval Argentina" (in Spanish). trackerenmalvinas.com.ar. Archived from the original on 2007-05-17. Retrieved 2009-04-07. 
  12. ^ "World Airliner Census". Flight Global. 2016. 
  13. ^ "World air forces". Flight Global. 2017. 
  14. ^ Taylor 1988, p. 11.
  15. ^ "Accident description PP-SBE". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  16. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "O primeiro Bandeirante". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928–1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 294–301. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  17. ^ "Accident description PT-TBD". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 26 May 2011. 
  18. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Estouro de pneu na decolagem". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928–1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 302–307. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  19. ^ "Accident description FAB-2169". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  20. ^ "Accident description FAB-2157". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  21. ^ "Accident description CX-BJE/T584". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  22. ^ "Accident description PT-GKW". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 30 May 2011. 
  23. ^ "Accident description PT-SBB". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  24. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Compensador automático". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928–1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 308–312. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  25. ^ "Accident description PT-GLB". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  26. ^ "Report No: 6/1983. Report on the accident to Embraer Bandeirante, G-OAIR at Hatton near Pcterhead, Scotland on 6 November 1982" (PDF). AAIB. Retrieved 29 April 2017. 
  27. ^ "Accident description PP-SBH". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  28. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Três é demais". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928–1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 332–334. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  29. ^ "Accident description PT-GJZ". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  30. ^ "Accident description PT-GKL". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  31. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Roleta russa". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928–1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 335–337. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  32. ^ "Accident description PP-SBC". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  33. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Visumento". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928–1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 338–341. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  34. ^ "Accident description PT-GJN". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 11 August 2011. 
  35. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Obstáculo imprevisto". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928–1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 342–344. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  36. ^ "Accident description PT-GKA". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  37. ^ "Accident Synopsis » 03011988," Airdisaster.com
  38. ^ Onnettomuustutkintakeskus – 2/1988
  39. ^ "Accident description PT-FAW". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  40. ^ "Accident description PT-SCU". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  41. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Fogo na decolagem". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928–1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 364–369. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  42. ^ "Accident description PT-TBB". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 1 May 2011. 
  43. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Nordeste 092". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928–1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 371–375. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  44. ^ Air Safety Network, accident description
  45. ^ "Accident description FAB-2290". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 12 May 2011. 
  46. ^ "AAIB Report No: 2/1996". UK AAIB. Retrieved 2008-03-05. 
  47. ^ "EMB-110, G-OEAA". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2007-12-13. 
  48. ^ "PMP Simple EMB-110". Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on 2010-03-01. Retrieved 2010-02-13. 
  49. ^ "Accident description PT-WAV". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved October 3, 2012. 
  50. ^ "Accident description FAB-7102". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  51. ^ "Accident description FAB-2292". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 6 May 2011. 
  52. ^ "Embraer vai ajudar nas investigações sobre acidente no AM". Estado de S. Paulo. Archived from the original on 2009-02-12. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  53. ^ "Queda de avião no Brasil faz 24 mortos". Publico.pt. Archived from the original on 2009-02-13. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  54. ^ "SA pilots die as 'Batman' plane crashes". Retrieved 2013-07-03. 
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