List of English words of Old Norse origin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Words of Old Norse origin have entered the English language, primarily from the contact between Old Norse and Old English during colonisation of eastern and northern England between the mid 9th to the 11th centuries (see also Danelaw). Many of these words are part of English core vocabulary, such as egg or knife. There are hundreds of such words, and the list below does not aim at completeness.

To be distinguished from loan words which date back to the Old English period are modern Old Norse loans originating in the context of Old Norse philology, such as kenning (1871),[a] and loans from modern Icelandic (such as geyser, 1781). Yet another class comprises loans from Old Norse into Old French, which via Anglo-Norman were then indirectly loaned into Middle English; an example is flâneur, via French from the Old Norse verb flana "to wander aimlessly".

A[edit]

ado
influenced by Norse "at" ("to", infinitive marker) which was used with English "do" in certain English dialects[1]
aloft
  • á ("=in, on, to") + lopt ("=air, atmosphere, sky, heaven, upper floor, loft")[2]
  • English provenance = c 1200 AD
anger
  • angr ("=trouble, affliction"); root ang (="strait, straitened, troubled")[3]
  • English provenance = c 1250 AD
are
merger of Old English (earun, earon) and Old Norse (er) cognates[4]
auk
A type of Arctic seabird.[5]
awe
  • agi ("=terror")[6]
  • English provenance = c 1205 AD (as aȝe, an early form of the word resulting from the influence of Old Norse on an existing Anglo-Saxon form, eȝe)
awkward
the first element is from Old Norse ǫfugr ("=turned-backward"), the '-ward' part is from Old English weard[7]
awn
From Old Norse ögn[8]
axle
May be a combination of Old English eax and Old Norse öxull (="axis")[9]

B[edit]

bag
baggi[10]
bait
beita[11]
band
band (="rope")[12]
bank (geography)
from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse banki, Old Danish banke (="sandbank").[13]
bark
bǫrkr[14]
bash
From Old Norse *basca (="to strike")[15]
bask
baðask reflex. of baða "bathe" (baðast, baða sig)[16]
bat (animal)
probably related to Old Swedish natbakka, Old Danish nathbakkæ "night bat," and Old Norse leðrblaka "bat," literally "leather flapper".[17]
berserk
berserkr, lit. 'bear-shirt', (alt. berr-serkr, 'bare-shirt') frenzied warriors[18]
billow
bylgja[19]
birth
byrðr[20]
blather
Probably from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse blaðra (="mutter, wag the tongue")[21]
bleak
bleikr (="pale")[22]
blend
Possibly from Old Norse blanda (="to mix")[23]
blister
From a Scandinavian source via Old French[24]
bloat
From a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse blautr (="soaked, soft from being cooked in liquid")[25]
bloom
"blossom of a plant," c. 1200, a northern word, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse blomi "flower, blossom".[26]
blunder
blundra (="shut one's eye")[27]
boast
Probably from a Scandinavian source via Anglo-French[28]
bole
From Old Norse bolr (="tree trunk")[29]
both
baðir[30]
boon
bon (="a petition, prayer")[31]
booth
From Old Danish boþ (="temporary dwelling"), from East Norse *boa (="to dwell")[32]
boulder
from a Scandinavian source akin to Swedish dialectal bullersten "noisy stone" (large stone in a stream, causing water to roar around it), from bullra "to roar" + sten "stone".[33]
brink
Possibly related to Danish brink (="steepness, shore, bank, grassy edge")[34]
brisket
perhaps from Old French bruschet, with identical sense of the English word, or from Old Norse brjosk "gristle, cartilage" (related to brjost "breast") or Danish bryske[35]
brunt
Likely from Old Norse brundr (="sexual heat") or bruna =("to advance like wildfire")[36]
bulk
bulki[37]
bull
boli[38]
bump
Perhaps from Scandinavian, probably echoic[39]
bur
From a Scandinavian source related to Old Norse burst (="bristle")[40]
bylaw
bylög ('by'=village; 'lög'=law; 'village-law')[41]

C[edit]

cake
kaka (="cake")[42]
call
kalla (="cry loudly")[43]
cart
From Old Norse kartr or a similar Scandinavian source[44]
cast
kasta (="to throw")[45]
chubby
Perhaps influenced by Old Norse kumba "log," kumben "stumpy".[46]
clip
klippa (="to cut")[47]
club
klubba (="cudgel")[48]
clumsy
From a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse klumsa (="make speechless, palsy; prevent from speaking")[49]
cog
Probably a Scandinavian borrowing, related to Norwegian kugg[50]
cozy
Likely of Scandinavian origin via Scots, perhaps related to Norwegian kose seg[51]
crawl
krafla (="to claw")[52]
craze
Possibly from Old Norse krasa (="shatter") via Old French crasir[53]
creek
kriki ("corner, nook") through ME creke ("narrow inlet in a coastline") altered from kryk perhaps influenced by Anglo-Norman crique itself from a Scandinavian source via Norman-French[54]
crochet
from Old Norse krokr "hook" via French crochet "small hook; canine tooth"[55]
crocket
from the same Norse root as "crochet" via French.[56]
crook
krokr (="hook-shaped instrument or weapon")[57]
crotch
from Old North French croche "shepherd's crook," variant of croc "hook," from Old Norse krokr "hook".[58]
crotchet, crotchety
from Old Norse krokr "hook" via Old French crochet.[59][60]
crouch
from the same Norse root as "crochet" via French.[61]
cur
kurra (="to growl")[62]
cut
Possibly from North Germanic*kut- [63]

D[edit]

dangle
Probably from Scandinavian, related to Danish dangle, Swedish dangla (="to swing about") and Norwegian dangla[64]
dank
Related to Swedish dank (="moist place") and dänka (="to moisten")[65]
dash, dashing
Probably from a Scandinavian source (compare Swedish daska, Danish daske "to beat, strike")[66]
dastard, dastardly
Probably from *dast, "dazed," past participle of dasen "to daze" or the equivalent past participle in Old Norse + deprecatory suffix -ard.[67]
daze, dazed
Perhaps from Old Norse *dasa[68]
die
deyja (="pass away")[69]
dirt
drit (="feces")[70]
down (feathers)
"first feathers of a baby bird; soft covering of fowls under the feathers, the under-plumage of birds," used for stuffing pillows and feather-beds, mid-14c., from Old Norse dunn, which is of uncertain origin.[71]
doze
Probably from a Scandinavian source (compare Old Norse dusa "to doze," Danish døse "to make dull," Swedish dialectal dusa "to sleep").[72]
dregs
dregg (="sediment")[73]
droop
From Old Norse drupa (="to drop, sink, hang (the head)")[74]
dump
Possibly related to Danish dumpe (="fall hard"), Norwegian dumpa (="to fall suddenly"), and Old Norse dumpa (="to beat"). Not found in Old English. [75]

E[edit]

egg
egg (="egg")[76]
eider
a type of duck.
equip, equipment
skipa (="organize, arrange, place in order") through Middle French équiper, from Old French esquiper "fit out a ship, load on board",[77] itself from Norman-French esquipper, eschiper[78]

F[edit]

fell (geography)
from Old Norse fiall "mountain"[79]
fellow
félagi[80]
filly
Possibly from Old Norse fylja, fem. of foli (="foal")[81]
fir
from Old Norse fyri- "fir" or Old Danish fyr.[82]
firth
From Old Norse fjörðr via Scottish[83]
fjord
From Norwegian fiord, from Old Norse fjörðr (="an inlet, estuary")[84]
flag
Probably from Old Norse flaka (="to flicker, flutter, hang loose")[85]
flaneur
flana ("to wander aimlessly") + French suffix -eur through (19th cent.) French flâneur, itself from Norman-French flaner, flanner[86][87]
flat
flatr[88]
flaunt
Related to Swedish flankt (="loosely, flutteringly") and flakka (="to waver")[89]
flaw
From Old Norse flaga (="stone slab, layer of stone")[90]
fleck
Probably from Old Norse flekka (="to spot, stain, cover with spots")[91]
fling
Probably from Old Norse flengja[92]
flit
flytja (="cause to fit")[93]
floe
From Norwegian flo (="layer, slab") from Old Norse flo[94]
flounder
From Old Norse flydhra via Anglo-French floundre[95]
fluster
Probably from a Scandinavian source related to Icelandic flaustr (="fluster")[96]
fog
from Old Norse fok through Danish fog, meaning "spray", "shower", "snowdrift"[97]
fro
from Old Norse fra (="from)[98]
freckle
freknur (="freckles")[99]

G[edit]

gab
gabbnna (="to mock") through Northern England dialect, Scottish or Norman-French[100][101]
gable
from Old French gable "facade, front, gable," from Old Norse gafl "gable, gable-end" (in north of England, the word probably is directly from Norse).[102]
gad
gaddr (="spike, nail")[103][104]
gag
Perhaps influenced by Old Norse gag-hals (="with head thrown back") [105]
gait
Related to Old Norse gata (="way, road, path")[106]
gale
Perhaps from Old Norse gol (="breeze") or Old Danish gal (="bad, furious")[107]
gang
gangr (="act of going, a group of men")[108]
gap
gap (="chasm")[109]
gape
From an unrecorded English word or from Old Norse gapa (="to open the mouth wide, gape")[110]
gasp
geispa (="to yawn")[111]
gaunt
Perhaps from a Scandinavian source[112]
gawk
from Middle English gawen, from Old Norse ga (="to heed")[113]
gear
from Old Norse gørvi (="apparel, gear")[114]
geld
from Old Norse gelda (="to castrate")[115]
gelding
from Old Norse geldingr (="wether; eunuch")[116]
get
geta, gat (got), gittan (gotten)[117]
geyser
from Icelandic geysir, from Old Norse geysa (="to gush")[118]
gift
gift (="dowry")[119]
gill
Possibly related to Old Norse gjölnar[120]
girth
gjörð (="circumference, cinch")[121]
give
gefa (="to give")[122]
glitter
glitra (="to glitter")[123]
gloat
From a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse glotta (="to grin, smile scornfully and show the teeth")[124]
gosling
gæslingr (="goose")[125]
grovel
Shakespearean term originating from Old Norse grufe[126]
guest
gestr (="guest")[127]
gun
from Old Norse Gunnhildr (female name, both elements of the name, gunn and hildr, have the meaning "war, battle")[128]
gust
gustr (="gust")[129]

H[edit]

haggle
haggen (="to chop")[130]
hail
heill (="health, prosperity, good luck")[131]
hank
Probably from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse hönk (="a hank, coil")[132]
hap, happy
happ (="chance, good luck, fate")[133]
harness
From Old Norse *hernest (="provisions for an army") via Old French harnois[134]
harsh
probably from Middle English harske "rough, coarse, sour" (c. 1300), a northern word of Scandinavian origin.[135]
haunt
heimta (="to bring back home") through Anglo-Norman haunter (="to reside", "to frequent"), (Old) French hanter from Norman hanter.[136][137]
haven
From Old Norse höfn (="haven, harbor")[138]
hit
hitta (="to find")[139]
how (or howe)
haugr (="barrow, small hill") Usage preserved mainly in place names[140]
husband
husbondi (="master of the house")[141]
hug
Possibly from Old Norse hugga (="to comfort")[142]

I[edit]

ill
illr (="bad")[143]
irk
yrkja (="to work")[144]

J[edit]

jökulhlaup
from Icelandic jökulhlaup from Old Norse jǫkull and hlaup.
jarl
From Old Norse jarl[145]

K[edit]

kedge
Probably from a Scandinavian source or related to "cadge"[146]
keg
From a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse kaggi (="keg, cask")[147]
keel
kjölr[148]
kenning
a descriptive phrase used in Germanic poetry, a modern learned word from Old Norse kenning in a special sense.[149]
kick
Of uncertain origin, perhaps from Old Norse kikna (="bend backwards, sink at the knees")[150]
kid
kið (="young goat")[151]
kidnap
From kid + a variant of nab, both of which are of Scandinavian origin.[152]
kilt
From Middle English kilten, from a Scandinavian source[153]
kindle
kynda[154]
knife
knífr[155]

L[edit]

lad
ladd (="young man (unlikely)")[156]
lag
Possibly from a Scandinavian source, related to Norwegian lagga (="go slowly")[157]
lass
From a Scandinavian source related to Old Swedish løsk kona (="unmarried woman") or Old Norse löskr (="idle, weak")[158]
lathe
hlaða (="to load")[159]
law
*lagu[160]
leg
leggr[161]
lemming
From Old Norse lomundr via Norwegian lemming[162]
lift
lypta (="to raise")[163]
likely
líkligr[164]
link
*hlenkr[165]
litmus
litmose (="lichen for dyeing", lita ="to stain")[166]
loan
lán (="to lend")[167]
loft
lopt (="an upper room or floor : attic, air, sky")[168]
loose
lauss (="loose/free")[169]
lope
From Old Norse hlaupa (="to run, leap, spring up")[170]
low
lagr[171]
lug
From Scandinavian, related to Swedish lugga and Norwegian lugge (="to pull by the hair")[172]

M[edit]

meek
From a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse mjukr (='soft, pliant, gentle')[173]
midden
Of Scandinavian origin, related to Danish mødding[174]
mink
From a Scandinavian source, related to Swedish menk (="a stinking animal in Finland")[175]
mire
myrr (='bog')[176]
mistake
mistaka (="miscarry")[177]
muck
myki (="cow dung")[178]
mug
mugge[179]
muggy
mugga (="drizzle, mist")[180]

N[edit]

nab
Probably a variant of dialectal nap "to seize, catch, lay hold of", which possibly is from Scandinavian.[181]
nag
Probably ultimately from a Scandinavian source, related to Old Norse gnaga (="to complain," literally "to bite, gnaw")[182]
narwhal
From Danish and Norwegian narhval, probably a metathesis of Old Norse nahvalr, literally "corpse-whale," from na "corpse"[183]
nay, naysayer
From a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse nei[184]
niggard, niggardly
Perhaps from a Scandinavian source related to Old Norse *hniggw, possibly via French[185]
Norman, Normandy
from Old Norse through Old French, meaning "northman", due to Viking settlement in Normandy region[186]
nudge
Perhaps from Scandinavian, related to Norwegian nugge/nyggje (="to jostle, rub") and Icelandic nugga (="to rub, massage")[187]

O[edit]

oaf
alfr (="elf")[188]
odd
oddi (="third number", "the casting vote")[189]
ombudsman
from Old Norse umboðsmaðr through Swedish ombudsman, meaning "commissary", "representative", "steward"[190]
outlaw
utlagi[191]

P[edit]

peen
Probably from a Scandinavian source, related to Norwegian penn and Old Swedish pæna[192]
plough, plow
plogr[193]
prod
From Old Norse broddr (="shaft, spike")[194]

Q[edit]

queasy
Possibly from a Scandinavian source, such as Old Norse kveisa (="a boil") (Middle English Compendium compares Old Norse iðra-kveisa "bowel pains").[195]

R[edit]

race
rás (="to race", "to run", "to rush", "to move swift")[196]
raft
raptr (="log")[197]
rag
Probably from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse rögg (="shaggy tuft, rough hair")[198]
ragged
Related to "rag", perhaps from or reinforced by Old Norse raggaðr (="shaggy").[199]
ragtag
From rag + tag, both component words being of Scandinavian origin.[200]
raise
reisa[201]
ransack
rannsaka (="to search the house")[202]
reef
Likely from Old Norse rif (="ridge in the sea; reef in a sail") via Dutch riffe[203]
regret
gráta ("to weep, groan") + French prefix re- through Old French regreter, itself from Old Norman-French regrater, regreter, influenced by Old English grætan[204][87]
reindeer
hreindyri[205]
rid
Possibly from Old Norse ryðja (="to clear (land) of obstructions")[206]
rift
Related to Old Norse ripa/rifa (=""to tear apart, break a contract")[207]
rig
Probably from a Scandinavian source. May be related to Danish/Norwegian rigge (="to equip") and Swedish rigga (="to rig, harness")[208]
rive
rífa (="to scratch, plow, tear")[209]
root
rót[210]
rotten
rotinn (="decayed")[211]
rug
rogg (="shaggy tuft")[212]
rugged
rogg (="shaggy tuft")[213]
rump
From a Scandinavian source related to Danish/Norwegian rumpe and Swedish rumpa[214]

S[edit]

saga
saga (="story, tale")[215]
sale
sala[216]
same
same, samr (="same")[217]
scale
(for weighing) from skal (="bowl, drinking cup", or in plural "weighing scale" referring to the cup or pan part of a balance) in early English used to mean "cup"[218]
scalp
From a Scandinavian source related to Old Norse skalli (="a bald head") or skalpr (="sheath, scabbard")[219]
scant
skamt & skammr (="short, lacking")[220]
scare
skirra (="to frighten)[221]
scarf
skarfr (="fastening joint") ("scarf" and "scarves" have possibly been reintroduced to modern Swedish[citation needed] in their English forms as slang, but Swedes almost always use the compound "neck-cloth" (hals-duk).[222]
scathe
skaða (="to hurt, injure")[223]
scoff
From a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse skaup, skop (="mockery, ridicule")[224]
scofflaw
From scoff + law, both of which are of Old Norse origin.[225]
scold
From Old Norse skald (="poet")[226]
scorch
Perhaps from Old Norse skorpna (="to be shriveled"). It was previously thought to be from Old French, but this is now considered unlikely.[227]
score
skor (="notch"; "twenty")[228]
scowl
Probably from a Scandinavian source, related to Norwegian skule (="look furtively, squint, look embarrassed") and Danish skule (="to scowl, cast down the eyes")[229]
scrag
Related to Norwegian skragg "a lean person;" dialectal Swedish skraka "a great, dry tree; a long, lean man," skragge "old and torn thing," Danish skrog "hull of a ship; carcass," Icelandic skröggr, a nickname of the fox[230]
scrap
skrap (="scraps, trifles") from skrapa[231]
scrape
skrapa (="to scrape, erase")[232]
scrawny
Of uncertain origin but probably from a Scandinavian source, such as Old Norse skrælna (="to shrivel")[233]
scree
From Old Norse skriða (="landslide")[234]
scuff
Probably from a Scandinavian source related to Old Norse skufa, skyfa (="to shove, push aside"), via Scottish[235]
seat
sæti (="seat, position")[236]
seem
sœma (="to conform")[237]
shrimp
Probably from or related to Old Norse skreppa (="thin person")[238]
shrivel
Perhaps from a Scandinavian source and related to Swedish skryvla (="to wrinkle, to shrivel")[239]
shrug
perhaps connected to Danish skrugge "to stoop, crouch."[240]
silt
Probably from a Scandinavian source, related to Norwegian and Danish sylt (="salt marsh") and Old Swedish sylta (="mud")[241]
skate
skata (="fish")[242]
skeet
ultimately from Old Norse skjota (="to shoot")[243]
skerry
From Old Norse sker[244]
skewer
Possibly from Old Norse skifa (="a cut, slice")[245]
ski
From Norwegian ski, related to Old Norse skið (="long snowshoe")[246]
skid
Probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse skið (="stick of wood")[247]
skill
skil (="distinction")[248]
skin
skinn (="animal hide")[249]
skip
skopa (="to skip, run)[250]
skit
Perhaps ultimately from Old Norse skjuta (="to shoot, move quickly")[251]
skitter, skittish
Perhaps relate to Old Norse skjota[252]
skirt
skyrta (="shirt")[253]
skive
From a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse skifa (="to cut, split")[254]
skrike
skríkja (="to scream")[255]
skua
from Faroese skugvur, related to Old Norse skufr (="seagull, tuft, tassel"), and possibly to skauf (="fox's tail").[256]
skull
skulle (="head")[257]
sky
ský (="cloud")[258]
skyscraper
From sky + scrape, both of which originate from Old Norse[259]
slam
From a Scandinavian source, ultimately of imitative origin.[260]
slant
sletta, slenta (="to throw carelessly")[261]
slaughter
*slahtr (="butchering")[262]
slaver
slafra (="slaver")[263]
sledge
sleggja (="sledgehammer")[264]
sleight
slœgð[265]
sleuth
sloð (="trail")[266]
slight
Probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse slettr (="smooth, sleek")[267]
sling
From Old Norse slyngva[268]
slob
From a Scandinavian source via Irish[269]
slouch
Related to Old Norse slokr ("lazy fellow")[270]
slump
Probably from a Scandinavian source such as Norwegian and Danish slumpe (="fall upon,") Swedish slumpa; perhaps ultimately of imitative origin.[271]
slush
Perhals from a Scandinavian source, related to Norwegian and Danish slask (="slushy ground")[272]
sly
sloegr (="cunning, crafty, sly")[273]
smithy
From Old Norse smiðja[274]
snag
From a Scandinavian source, related Old Norse snagi (="clothes peg")[275]
snare
snara (="noose, snare")[276]
snape
sneypa (="to outrage, dishonor, disgrace")[277]
snipe
From Old Norse -snipa[278]
sniper
From English snipe, which was derived from Old Norse[279]
snub
snubba (="to curse")[280]
snug, snuggle
Perhaps from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse snoggr (="short-haired")[281]
spike
perhaps from or related to a Scandinavian word, such as Old Norse spik "splinter," Middle Swedish spijk "nail".[282]
sprint
spretta (="to jump up")[283]
squabble
probably from a Scandinavian source and of imitative origin[284]
squall
Probably from a Scandinavian source, such as Old Norse skvala (="to cry out")[285]
stack
From a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse stakkr (="haystack")[286]
stagger
stakra (="to push")[287]
stain
steina (="to paint")[288]
steak
steik, steikja (="to fry")[289]
stern (nautical)
probably from a Scandinavian source, such as Old Norse stjorn "a steering," related to or derived from styra "to guide".[290]
stoup
From a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse staup (="cup")[291]
stumble
Probably from a Scandinavian source, may be related to Norwegian stumla, Swedish stambla (="to stumble")[292]
swag
From a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse sveggja (="to swing, sway")[293]
swain
from Old Norse sveinn "boy, servant, attendant".[294]
sway
sveigja (="to bend, swing, give way")[295]

T[edit]

tag
Probably from a Scandinavian source, related to Norwegian tagg (="point, prong, barb") and Swedish tagg (="prickle, thorn")[296]
tangle
From a Scandinavian source, possibly related to Old Norse þongull[297]
take
taka[298]
tarn
tjǫrn, tjarn[299]
tatter
From a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse töturr (="rags, tatters, tattered garment")[300]
teem
tœma (="to empty")[301]
tern
From a Scandinavian source akin via East Anglian dialect[302]
tether
Probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse tjoðr (="tether")[303]
their
þeirra[304]
they
þeir[305]
though
from Old English þēah, and in part from Old Norse þó (="though")[306]
thrall
þræll[307]
thrift
þrift (="prosperity")[308]
thrive
From a Scandinavian source akin to þrifask (="to thrive", originally "grasp to oneself")[309]
thrust
þrysta (="to thrust, force")[310]
thwart
þvert (="across")[311]
tidings
tíðindi (="news of events")[312]
tight
þéttr (="watertight, close in texture, solid")[313]
till
til (="to, until")[314]
toft
From Old Norse topt (="homestead")[315]
toom
tóm (="vacant time, leisure")
toss
Of uncertain origin, possibly from a Scandinavian source[316]
trash
Perhaps from Old Norse tros (="rubbish, fallen leaves and twigs")[317]
troll
troll (="giant, fiend, demon"; further etymology is disputed)[318]
trust (verb)
traust (="help, confidence")[319]
tryst
from Old French tristre (="waiting place, appointed station in hunting"), probably from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse treysta (="to trust, make firm").[320]
tyke
From a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse tik (="bitch")[321]

U[edit]

ugly
uggligr (="Dreadfull, repulsive")[322]
until
from Old Norse und (="as far as, up to") and til (="until, up to")[323]

V[edit]

valkyrie
from Old Norse valkyrja, literally "chooser of the slain," from valr (="those slain in battle") + kyrja (="chooser"), from ablaut root of kjosa (="to choose")[324]
viking
vikingr (="one who came from the fjords", vik = small and not deep fjord)[325]
vole
Probably from Old Norse völlr (="field")[326]

W[edit]

wad
from Old Norse vaðmal[327]
wag
Probably from a Scandinavian source related Old Norse vagga (="a cradle")[328]
waif
Probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse veif (="waving thing, flag") via Anglo-French waif[329]
wail
From Old Norse væla (="to lament")[330]
walrus
A loanword from Dutch, but probably ultimately an alteration of a Scandinavian word.[331]
wand
vondr (="rod")[332]
want
vanta (="to lack")[333]
wapentake
From Old Norse vapnatak[334]
wassail
From Old Norse vas heill (="be healthy")[335]
weak
veikr (="weak, pliant")[336]
wheeze
Probably from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse hvoesa (="to hiss")[337]
whirl
hvirfla (="to go around")[338]
whisk
viska (="to plait")[339]
wicker
From a Scandinavian source, related to Danish viger and Middle Swedish viker[340]
wicket
vík (="bay") + French suffix -et through Anglo-Norman wicket, itself from Old Norman-French wiket, Norman-French viquet > French guichet[341][342]
wight
vigr (="able in battle") – the other wight meaning "man" is from Old English[343]
wile
vél (="trick, craft, fraud")[344]
windlass
vindáss (= "windlass", literally "winding-pole"), through Old Norman / Anglo-Norman windas, from vinda ("to wind") + áss ("pole").[345][346]
window
vindauga (="wind-eye") – although gluggi was more commonly used in Old Norse[347]
wing
vængr (="a wing")[348]
wreck
From a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse *wrek (="wreck, flotsam"), via Anglo-Norman wrec[349]
wrong
rangr (="crooked, wry, wrong")[350]

Y[edit]

yaw
Perhaps ultimately from Old Norse jaga[351]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ There was a native Old English cenning "declaration" (in Middle English "cognition"), derived from the verb to ken The Old Norse kenning "set expression in early Germanic poetry" was loaned in 19th-century Germanic philology independently of the native word.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ado". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  2. ^ "Aloft". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  3. ^ "Anger". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  4. ^ "Are". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  5. ^ "Auk". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  6. ^ "Awe". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  7. ^ "Awkward". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  8. ^ "Awn". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  9. ^ "Axle". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  10. ^ "Bag". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  11. ^ "Bait". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  12. ^ "Band". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  13. ^ "Bank". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  14. ^ "Bark". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  15. ^ "Bash". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  16. ^ "Bask". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  17. ^ "Bat". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 4 December 2023.
  18. ^ "Berserk". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 13 July 2010.[dead link]
  19. ^ "Billow". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  20. ^ "Birth". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  21. ^ "Blather". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  22. ^ "Bleak". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
  23. ^ "Blend". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  24. ^ "Blister". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  25. ^ "Bloat". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  26. ^ "Bloom". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 4 December 2023.
  27. ^ "Blunder". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  28. ^ "Boast". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  29. ^ "Bole". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  30. ^ "Both". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  31. ^ "Boon". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  32. ^ "Booth". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  33. ^ "Boulder". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 19 December 2023.
  34. ^ "Brink". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 4 March 2023.
  35. ^ "Brisket". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  36. ^ "Brunt". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  37. ^ "Bulk". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  38. ^ "Bull". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  39. ^ "Bump". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 5 March 2023.
  40. ^ "Bur". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  41. ^ "Bylaw". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  42. ^ "Cake". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  43. ^ "Call". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  44. ^ "Cart". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  45. ^ "Cast". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  46. ^ "Chubby". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  47. ^ "Clip". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  48. ^ "Club". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  49. ^ "Clumsy". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  50. ^ "Cog". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 29 October 2022.
  51. ^ "Cozy". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 29 October 2022.
  52. ^ "Crawl". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  53. ^ "Craze". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  54. ^ "Creek". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  55. ^ "Crochet". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 17 October 2023.
  56. ^ "Crocket". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 24 October 2023.
  57. ^ "Crook". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  58. ^ "Crotch". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  59. ^ "Crotchet". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  60. ^ "Crotchety". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  61. ^ "Crouch". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  62. ^ "Cur". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  63. ^ "Cut". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  64. ^ "Dangle". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  65. ^ "Dank". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  66. ^ "Dash". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
  67. ^ "Dastard". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
  68. ^ "Daze". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  69. ^ "Die". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  70. ^ "Dirt". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  71. ^ "Down". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 June 2023.
  72. ^ "Doze". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
  73. ^ "Dregs". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  74. ^ "Droop". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  75. ^ "Dump". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  76. ^ "Egg". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  77. ^ "Equip". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  78. ^ Elisabeth Ridel, Les Vikings et les mots : L'apport de l'ancien scandinave à la langue française, éditions Errance, Paris, 2009, p. 198.
  79. ^ "Fell". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 14 December 2023.
  80. ^ "Fellow". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  81. ^ "Filly". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  82. ^ "Fir". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  83. ^ "Firth". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  84. ^ "Fjord". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  85. ^ "Flag". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 4 January 2023.
  86. ^ "Flaneur". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  87. ^ a b Elisabeth Ridel, Les Vikings et les mots : L'apport de l'ancien scandinave à la langue française, éditions Errance, Paris, 2009.
  88. ^ "Flat". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  89. ^ "Flaunt". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  90. ^ "Flaw". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  91. ^ "Fleck". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  92. ^ "Fling". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  93. ^ "Flit". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  94. ^ "Floe". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  95. ^ "Flounder". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  96. ^ "Fluster". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  97. ^ "Fog". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  98. ^ "Fro". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  99. ^ "Freckle". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  100. ^ "gab". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  101. ^ Elisabeth Ridel, Les Vikings et les mots : L'apport de l'ancien scandinave à la langue française, éditions Errance, Paris, 2009, pp. 213–214.
  102. ^ "Gable". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  103. ^ "Gang". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  104. ^ "Gad". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
  105. ^ "Gag". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 4 March 2023.
  106. ^ "Gait". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  107. ^ "Gale". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  108. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  109. ^ "Gap". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
  110. ^ "Gape". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  111. ^ "Gasp". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  112. ^ "Gaunt". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  113. ^ "Gawk". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  114. ^ "Gear". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  115. ^ "Geld". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  116. ^ "Gelding". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  117. ^ "Get". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  118. ^ "Geyser". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  119. ^ "Gift". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  120. ^ "Gill". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  121. ^ "Girth". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  122. ^ "Give". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  123. ^ "Glitter". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
  124. ^ "Gloat". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  125. ^ "Gosling". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  126. ^ "Grovel". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  127. ^ "Guest". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  128. ^ "Gun". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  129. ^ "Gust". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  130. ^ "Haggle". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  131. ^ "Hail". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  132. ^ "Hank". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  133. ^ "Hap". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  134. ^ "Harness". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  135. ^ "Harsh". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 3 December 2023.
  136. ^ Elisabeth Ridel, Les Vikings et les mots : L'apport de l'ancien scandinave à la langue française, éditions Errance, Paris, 2009, pp. 222–223.
  137. ^ "Haunt". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 20 October 2023.
  138. ^ "Haven". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  139. ^ "Hit". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  140. ^ "How". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  141. ^ "Husband". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  142. ^ "Hug". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  143. ^ "Ill". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  144. ^ "Irk". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
  145. ^ "Jarl". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  146. ^ "Kedge". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  147. ^ "Keg". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 3 January 2023.
  148. ^ "Keel". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
  149. ^ "Kenning". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 4 December 2023.
  150. ^ "Kick". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  151. ^ "Kid". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
  152. ^ "Kidnap". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11 June 2023.
  153. ^ "Kilt". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  154. ^ "Kindle". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  155. ^ "Knife". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  156. ^ "Lad". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  157. ^ "Lag". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  158. ^ "Lass". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  159. ^ "Lathe". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  160. ^ "Law". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  161. ^ "Leg". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  162. ^ "Lemming". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  163. ^ "Lift". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  164. ^ "Likely". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
  165. ^ "Link". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
  166. ^ "Litmus". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  167. ^ "Loan". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
  168. ^ "Loft". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  169. ^ "Loose". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  170. ^ "Lope". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  171. ^ "Low". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  172. ^ "Lug". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  173. ^ "Meek". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  174. ^ "Midden". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  175. ^ "Mink". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  176. ^ "Mire". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  177. ^ "Mistake". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  178. ^ "Muck". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  179. ^ "Mug". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  180. ^ "Muggy". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  181. ^ "Nab". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11 June 2023.
  182. ^ "Nag". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  183. ^ "Narwhal". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  184. ^ "Nay". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  185. ^ "Niggard". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  186. ^ "Norman". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  187. ^ "Nudge". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  188. ^ "Oaf". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  189. ^ "Odd". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  190. ^ "Ombudsman". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  191. ^ "Outlaw". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  192. ^ "Peen". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  193. ^ "Plow". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  194. ^ "Prod". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  195. ^ "Queasy". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 27 July 2023.
  196. ^ "Race". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  197. ^ "Raft". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  198. ^ "Rag". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  199. ^ "Ragged". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
  200. ^ "Ragtag". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
  201. ^ "Raise". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  202. ^ "Ransack". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  203. ^ "Reef". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  204. ^ "Regret". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  205. ^ "Reindeer". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  206. ^ "Rid". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  207. ^ "Rift". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  208. ^ "Rig". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  209. ^ "Rive". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 13 July 2010.[dead link]
  210. ^ "Root". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  211. ^ "Rotten". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
  212. ^ "Rug". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  213. ^ "Rugged". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  214. ^ "Rump". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  215. ^ "Saga". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  216. ^ "Sale". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  217. ^ "Same". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
  218. ^ "Scale". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  219. ^ "Scalp". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 5 March 2023.
  220. ^ "Scant". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  221. ^ "Scare". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  222. ^ "Scarf". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  223. ^ "Scathe". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  224. ^ "Scoff". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 5 March 2023.
  225. ^ "Scofflaw". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 23 December 2023.
  226. ^ "Scold". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  227. ^ "Scorch". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 5 March 2023.
  228. ^ "Score". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  229. ^ "Scowl". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  230. ^ "Scrag". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  231. ^ "Scrap". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  232. ^ "Scrape". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  233. ^ "Scrawny". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  234. ^ "Scree". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 29 October 2022.
  235. ^ "Scuff". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  236. ^ "Seat". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  237. ^ "Seem". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  238. ^ "Shrimp". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  239. ^ "Shrivel". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 5 March 2023.
  240. ^ "Shrug". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 4 December 2023.
  241. ^ "Silt". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  242. ^ "Skate". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  243. ^ "Skeet". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  244. ^ "Skerry". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  245. ^ "Skewer". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  246. ^ "Ski". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  247. ^ "Skid". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  248. ^ "Skill". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  249. ^ "Skin". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  250. ^ "Skip". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  251. ^ "Skit". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 5 March 2023.
  252. ^ "Skitter". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  253. ^ "Skirt". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  254. ^ "Skive". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  255. ^ "skrike - Wiktionary". en.wiktionary.org. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  256. ^ "Skua". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 9 July 2023.
  257. ^ "Skull". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  258. ^ "Sky". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  259. ^ "Skyscraper". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 20 April 2023.
  260. ^ "Slam". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  261. ^ "Slant". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  262. ^ "Slaughter". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  263. ^ "Slaver". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  264. ^ "Sledge". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  265. ^ "Sleight". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  266. ^ "Sleuth". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  267. ^ "Slight". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  268. ^ "Sling". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  269. ^ "Slob". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  270. ^ "Slouch". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  271. ^ "Slump". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  272. ^ "Slush". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  273. ^ "Sly". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
  274. ^ "Smithy". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  275. ^ "Snag". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  276. ^ "Snare". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  277. ^ "Snape". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  278. ^ "Snipe". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 April 2023.
  279. ^ "Sniper". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 April 2023.
  280. ^ "Snub". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  281. ^ "Snug". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 29 October 2022.
  282. ^ "Spike". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 5 January 2024.
  283. ^ "Sprint". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  284. ^ "Squabble". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  285. ^ "Squall". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  286. ^ "Stack". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  287. ^ "Stagger". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  288. ^ "Stain". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  289. ^ "Steak". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  290. ^ "Stern". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  291. ^ "Stoup". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  292. ^ "Stumble". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  293. ^ "Swag". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  294. ^ "Swain". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 4 December 2023.
  295. ^ "Sway". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  296. ^ "Tag". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 5 March 2023.
  297. ^ "Tangle". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  298. ^ "Take". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  299. ^ "Tarn". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  300. ^ "Tatter". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  301. ^ "Teem". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
  302. ^ "Tern". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  303. ^ "Tether". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  304. ^ "Their". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  305. ^ "They". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  306. ^ "Though". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
  307. ^ "Thrall". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  308. ^ "Thrift". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  309. ^ "Thrive". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  310. ^ "Thrust". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
  311. ^ "Thwart". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
  312. ^ "Tidings". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 25 August 2010.[dead link]
  313. ^ "Tight". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
  314. ^ "Till". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  315. ^ "Toft". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  316. ^ "Toss". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  317. ^ "Trash". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  318. ^ "Troll". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  319. ^ "Trust". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  320. ^ "Tryst". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  321. ^ "Tyke". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  322. ^ "Ugly". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  323. ^ "Until". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  324. ^ "Valkyrie". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 9 July 2023.
  325. ^ "Viking". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
  326. ^ "Vole". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  327. ^ "Wad". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 17 October 2023.
  328. ^ "Wag". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  329. ^ "Waif". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  330. ^ "Wail". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 4 January 2023.
  331. ^ "Walrus". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  332. ^ "Wand". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  333. ^ "Want". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  334. ^ "Wapentake". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  335. ^ "Wassail". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  336. ^ "Weak". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  337. ^ "Wheeze". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  338. ^ "Whirl". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  339. ^ "Whisk". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  340. ^ "Wicker". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 29 October 2022.
  341. ^ "Wicket". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  342. ^ Elisabeth Ridel, Les Vikings et les mots : L'apport de l'ancien scandinave à la langue française, éditions Errance, Paris, 2009, pp. 276–277.
  343. ^ "Wight". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  344. ^ "Wile". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  345. ^ Hoad, TF (ed) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1993) Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-283098-8, p. 542a
  346. ^ "Windlass". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 4 December 2023.
  347. ^ "Window". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  348. ^ "Wing". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  349. ^ "Wreck". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  350. ^ "Wrong". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
  351. ^ "Yaw". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 January 2023.

External links[edit]