List of National Treasures of Japan (sculptures)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Portrait of a sculpture with three faces pointing to the front and both sides.
Ashura, a Japanese National Treasure sculpture from 734

In the mid-6th century, the introduction of Buddhism from Korea (Baekje) to Japan resulted in a revival of Japanese sculpture. Buddhist monks, artisans and scholars settled around the capital in Yamato Province (present day Nara Prefecture) and passed their techniques to native craftsmen. Consequently, early Japanese sculptures from the Asuka and Hakuhō periods show strong influences of continental art, which initially were characterized by almond-shaped eyes, upward-turned crescent-shaped lips and symmetrically arranged folds in the clothing. The workshop of the Japanese sculptor Tori Busshi, who was strongly influenced by the Northern Wei style, produced works which exemplify such characteristics. The Shakyamuni triad and the Guze Kannon at Hōryū-ji are prime examples. By the late 7th century, wood replaced bronze and copper. By the early Tang Dynasty, greater realism was expressed by fuller forms, long narrow slit eyes, softer facial features, flowing garments and embellishments with ornaments such as bracelets and jewels. Two prominent examples of sculptures of this period are the Shō Kannon at Yakushi-ji and the Yumechigai Kannon at Hōryū-ji.[1][2][3]

During the Nara period, from 710 to 794, the government established and supported workshops called zōbussho, the most prominent of which was located in the capital Nara at Tōdai-ji, which produced Buddhist statuary. Clay, lacquer and wood, in addition to bronze, were used. Stylistically, the sculptures were influenced by the high Tang style, showing fuller body modelling, more natural drapery and a greater sense of movement. Representative examples of Nara period sculpture include the Great Buddha and the Four Heavenly Kings at Tōdai-ji, or the Eight Legions at Kōfuku-ji.[4]

Early Heian period works before the mid-10th century appear heavy compared to Nara period statues, carved from single blocks of wood, and characterised by draperies carved with alternating round and sharply cut folds. Stylistically, they followed high to later Tang style. In the Heian period the zōbussho were replaced with temple-run and independent workshops; wood became the primary medium; and a specific Japanese style emerged. By the mid-10th century, the style was refined presenting a more calm and gentle appearance, with attenuated proportions. Jōchō was the most important sculptor of this time, and he used the yosegi technique, in which several pieces of wood are joined to sculpt a single figure. He was the ancestor of three important schools of Japanese Buddhist statuary: the Enpa, Inpa and Keiha school. The Amida Nyorai at Byōdō-in is the only extant work by Jōchō.[4][5][6] Japanese sculpture experienced a renaissance during the Kamakura period, led by the Kei school. Partially influenced by Song Dynasty China, their sculpture is characterised by realism featuring elaborate top knots, jewelry, and wavy drapery. Although predominantly wooden, bronze was also used as a material for the statues. As a novelty, portrait sculptures of prominent monks were created adjacent to the depiction of Buddhist deities.[7]

The term "National Treasure" has been used in Japan to denote cultural properties since 1897.[8] The definition and the criteria have changed since the inception of the term. These sculptures adhere to the current definition, and have been designated national treasures since the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties came into force on June 9, 1951. The items are selected by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology based on their "especially high historical or artistic value".[9][10] This list presents 128 entries of sculptures, including those from Classical and early Feudal Japan of the 7th-century Asuka period to the 13th-century Kamakura period, although the number of sculptures is higher, because, groups of related sculptures have sometimes been joined to form single entries. The sculptures listed depict Buddhist and Shintō deities or priests venerated as founders of temples. Some of the most ancient sculptures were imported directly from China.[10][11]

Statistics[edit]

Various materials have been used for the sculptures. Although most are wooden, 11 entries in the list are bronze, 11 are lacquer, 7 are made of clay and 1 entry, the Usuki Stone Buddhas, is a stone sculpture. Typically hinoki, Japanese nutmeg, sandalwood and camphorwood were the woods used for the wooden sculptures. Wooden sculptures were often lacquered or covered with gold-leaf. The smallest statue measures around 10 centimetres (3.9 in), whereas the Great Buddhas of Nara and Kamakura are about 13 metres (43 ft) and 15 metres (49 ft) high. The objects on the list are located in Buddhist temples, or in museums associated with temples. Some items are located in shrines, as well as in secular museums.[10][11][12]

Nara Prefecture is home to the largest number of National Treasure sculptures, with 71 of the 126 entries. Together with the 37 entries located in Kyoto Prefecture, they constitute the bulk of sculptural National Treasures. Hōryū-ji and Kōfuku-ji are the locations with the most entries, at 17 each.

Most of the National Treasures are found in cities in the Kyoto, Nara and Osaka prefectures, although some are in cities in the Hyōgo, Shiga and Wakayama prefectures.
Map showing the location of sculptural National Treasures in Japan
Prefecture City National Treasures
Fukushima Yugawa 1
Hyōgo Ono 1
Iwate Hiraizumi 1
Kanagawa Kamakura 1
Kyoto Kizugawa 3
Kyōtanabe 1
Kyoto 30
Uji 3
Nara Asuka 1
Ikaruga 18
Nara 46
Sakurai 2
Uda 3
Yoshino 1
Ōita Usuki 1
Osaka Fujiidera 2
Katano 1
Kawachinagano 1
Shiga Ōtsu 3
Takatsuki 1
Shizuoka Izunokuni 1
Tokyo Tokyo 1
Wakayama Hidakagawa 1
Kōya 2
Kudoyama 1
Shingū 1
Period National Treasures
Asuka period 14
Tang Dynasty 3
Nara period 26
Heian period 60[nb 1]
Northern Song 1
Kamakura period 25[nb 1]


Usage[edit]

The table's columns (except for Remarks and Pictures) are sortable pressing the arrows symbols. The following gives an overview of what is included in the table and how the sorting works.

  • Name: name as registered in the List of National Treasures
  • Remarks: placement of statues (as a group, separately,...) and artist (if known)
  • Date: period and year; The column entries sort by year. If only a period is known, they sort by the start year of that period.
  • Material and technique: wood/bronze/..., lacquered/colored/...; The column entries sort by the main material (stone/clay/wood/lacquer/bronze).
  • Pose: standing/seated Amida Nyorai/Yakushi Nyorai/...; The column entries sort by the name of the principal image or as "set" in the case of sets of sculptures that don't fall under a common group name.
  • Height: height in cm; The column entries sort by the largest height if an entry is a group of statues.
  • Present location: "building-name temple/museum/shrine-name town-name prefecture-name"; The column entries sort as "prefecture-name town-name temple/museum/shrine-name building-name".
  • Image: picture of the statue or a characteristic statue in a group of statues

Treasures[edit]

Name Remarks Date Material Pose Height Present location Image
Statues and canopy inside the Golden Hall (Konjiki-dō) (金色堂堂内諸像及天蓋 konjiki-dō dōnai shozō oyobi tengai?)[13] 32 statues in the three altars and another seated Amida Nyorai with fragments of a wooden halo-pedestal. The three canopies of the altars are part of the nomination. 1124Heian period, around 1124–1187 woodJoined wood-block sculpture (Hinoki wood for the Amida, katsura for the Jizō and Nitennō); lacquer with gold leaf embossing amida nyoraiThree seated Amida Nyorai, three sets of Amida attendants (Kannon and Seishi), three sets of Nitennō, 18 Jizō Bosatsu 007850–78 cm (20–31 in) Iwate Hiraizumi Chusonji KonjikidoKonjikidō (金色堂?), Chūson-ji, Hiraizumi, Iwate Interior of Konjikido, Chusonji (62).jpg

Interior GoldenHall Chusonji.JPG

Yakushi Nyorai and two attendants (木造薬師如来及両脇侍像 mokuzō yakushi nyorai oyobi ryōkyōjizō?)[14][15]
0806Heian period, c. 806–810 woodZelkova wood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) yakushi nyoraiSeated Yakushi Nyorai (healing Buddha) flanked by standing Nikkō Bosatsu and Gakkō Bosatsu (Bodhisattvas of sun and moon light) 0173.9141.8 cm (55.8 in) (Yakushi), 169.4 cm (66.7 in), 173.9 cm (68.5 in) Fukushima Yugawa ShojojiShōjō-ji, Yugawa, Fukushima
Fugen Bosatsu (Samantabhadra) on an elephant (木造普賢菩薩騎象像 mokuzō fugen bosatsu kizōzō?)[16][17]
1100Heian period, first half of 12th century woodColored wood and cut-gold foil (kirikane (截金?)) on wood fugen bosatsuSeated statue of Fugen Bosatsu on elephant 0140140 cm (55 in) (whole sculpture), 55.2 cm (21.7 in) (statue) Tokyo Tokyo Okura Shukokan Museum of Fine ArtsOkura Museum of Art, Tokyo Three-quarter view of a cross-legged seated deity on a pedestal with hands joined as in prayer in front of the body.
Great Buddha (銅造阿弥陀如来坐像 dōzō amida nyoraizō?) Outdoor statue cast by Hisatomo Tanji and Ōno Gorōemon. The second largest statue in the list. 1252Kamakura period, 1252 bronze Bronze cast, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) amida nyoraiSeated Amida Nyorai 133513.35 m (43.8 ft), 93 t (92 long tons; 103 short tons) Kanagawa Kamakura KotokuinKōtoku-in, Kamakura, Kanagawa Front view of an outside cross-legged seated statue. The eyes are closed and the hands rest on the lap with palms facing upward. The statue is left-right symmetric, appears green of copper rust and is placed on a stone platform.
Amida Nyorai (木造阿弥陀如来坐像 mokuzō amida nyorai zazō?), Fudō Myōō and two attendants (木造不動明王二童子立像 mokuzō fudō myōō oyobi ni dōji ritsuzō?), Bishamonten (木造毘沙門天立像 mokuzō bishamonten ritsuzō?)

[18]

By Unkei 1186Kamakura period, 1186 wood Colored wood amida nyoraiSeated Amida Nyorai, standing Bishamonten, Fudō Myōō and two attendants
Shizuoka Izunokuni GanjojuinGanjōju-in (願成就院?), Izunokuni, Shizuoka
Eleven-faced Goddess of Mercy (木造十一面観音立像 mokuzō jūichimenkannon ryūzō?)[16][19]
0850Heian period, mid-9th century woodColored wood juichimen kannonStanding Jūichimen Kannon 0177.3177.3 cm (69.8 in) Shiga Takatsuki KogenjiKōgen-ji (向源寺?) (Dōgan-ji Kannond Hall (渡岸寺観音堂?)}), Takatsuki, Shiga Kwannondo Temple Eleven-Head Kwannon (278).jpg
Shinra Myōjin (木造新羅明神坐像 mokuzō shinra myōjin zazō?)[20] Statue of Mii-dera's guardian deity 1000Heian period, 11th century woodColored wood and cut-gold foil (kirikane (截金?)) on wood shinra myojinSeated Shinra Myōjin (新羅明神?) 007878 cm (31 in) Shiga Otsu Miidera Shinra Zenshin HallShinra Zenshin Hall (新羅善神堂 shinra zenshindō?), Mii-dera, Ōtsu, Shiga
Chishō Daishi (Enchin) (木造智証大師坐像 mokuzō chishō daishi zazō?) or Okotsu Daishi (御骨大師?)[21]
0800Heian period, 9th century woodColored wood chishō daishiSeated Chishō Daishi (Enchin) 0086.386.3 cm (34.0 in) Shiga Otsu Miidera Toin Daishi HallTō-in Daishi Hall (唐院大師堂 tōin daishidō?), Mii-dera, Ōtsu, Shiga
Chishō Daishi (Enchin) (木造智証大師坐像 mokuzō chishō daishi zazō?) or Chūson Daishi (中尊大師?)[22]
0900Heian period, 10th century woodColored wood chishō daishiSeated Chishō Daishi (Enchin) 0084.384.3 cm (33.2 in) Shiga Otsu Miidera Toin Daishi HallTō-in Daishi Hall (唐院大師堂 tōin daishidō?), Mii-dera, Ōtsu, Shiga
Shakyamuni (Shaka Nyorai) (銅造釈迦如来坐像 dōzō shaka nyorai zazō?)[19][23]
0700Asuka period, beginning of 8th century bronzeGilt bronze shaka nyoraiSeated Shakyamuni (Shaka Nyorai) 0240.3240.3 cm (94.6 in) Kyoto Kizugawa Kanimanji HondoHon-dō, Kaniman-ji (蟹満寺?), Kizugawa, Kyoto Shakyamuni Bronze KANIMANJI.JPG
Eleven-faced Goddess of Mercy (木心乾漆十一面観音立像 mokushin kanshitsu jūichimenkannon ryūzō?)[24]
0750Nara period, second half of 8th century woodWood-core dry lacquer (木心乾漆 (mokushin kanshitsu?)), gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) Juichimen KannonStanding Jūichimen Kannon 0172.7172.7 cm (68.0 in) Kyoto Kyotanabe Kannonji HondoHon-dō, Kannon-ji (観音寺?), Kyōtanabe, Kyoto ElevenFaced Kannon Kannonji.JPG
Fūjin and Raijin (木造〈風神/雷神〉像 mokuzō Fūjin-Raijin zō?) or Wind God and Thunder God[19][25]
1250Kamakura period, mid-13th century woodColored wood and crystal eyes setStanding Fūjin and standing Raijin 0111.5111.5 cm (43.9 in) (Fūjin) and 100.0 cm (39.4 in) (Raijin) Kyoto Kyoto Myohoin SanjusangendoSanjūsangen-dō, Myōhō-in (妙法院?), Kyoto, Kyoto Fūjin. Three-quarter view of a statue. His left leg is bend as if climbing stairs and he is carrying a long bag-shaped object which goes from one shoulder to the other around the back of his head. Black and white photograph.

Raijin. Three-quarter view of a statue. His left leg is bend as if climbing stairs and he is leaning forward. His hair is standing up and his right hand is raised above his head. A thin halo around his head is decorated with thick circular disks. Black and white photograph.

Bonten (木造梵天坐像 mokuzō bonten zazō?)[26] and Taishakuten in half-lotus position (帝釈天半跏像 taishakuten hankazō?)
0839Heian period, 839 woodColored wood (faded) setSeated Bonten on a lotus pedestal carried by four geese and Taishakuten seated on an elephant in half-lotus position 0110101.1 cm (39.8 in) (Bonten) and 110 cm (43 in) Kyoto Kyoto Toji KodoLecture Hall (講堂 kō-dō?), Tō-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto Bonten Brahma TOJI.JPG
Amida Nyorai and two sitting attendants (木造阿弥陀如来及両脇侍坐像 mokuzō amida nyorai oyobi ryōwakiji zazō?)[27]
1148Heian period, 1148 woodWood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) amida nyoraiSitting Amida Nyorai and two sitting attendants (Kannon and Seishi) 0244233.0 cm (91.7 in) (Amida), 131.8 cm (51.9 in) (Kannon) and 130.9 cm (51.5 in) (Seishi) Kyoto Kyoto Sanzenin Ojo GokurakuinŌjō Gokuraku-in Amida Hall (往生極楽院 ōjō gokurakuin amidadō?), Sanzen-in, Kyoto, Kyoto Amidaba OHARA SANZENIN.JPG
Amida Nyorai and two sitting attendants (木造阿弥陀如来及両脇侍坐像 mokuzō amida nyorai oyobi ryōwakiji zazō?)[28] Former principal image of Seika-ji (棲霞寺?) 0896Heian period, 896 woodWood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) amida nyoraiSitting Amida Nyorai and two sitting attendants (Kannon and Seishi) 0172.2172.2 cm (67.8 in) (Amida), 165.7 cm (65.2 in) (Kannon) and 168.2 cm (66.2 in) (Seishi) Kyoto Kyoto SeiryojiSeiryō-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto
Amida Nyorai and two attendants (木造阿弥陀如来及両脇侍像 mokuzō amida nyorai oyobi ryōwakijizō?)[29] Originally enshrined in the kon-dō 0888Heian period, 888 woodWood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) amida nyoraiSitting Amida Nyorai and two standing attendants (Kannon and Seishi) 0123.488.6 cm (34.9 in) (Amida), 123.4 cm (48.6 in) (Kannon) and 123.3 cm (48.5 in) (Seishi) Kyoto Kyoto Ninnaji ReihokanTreasure Hall (霊宝館 reihōkan?), Ninna-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto
Amida Nyorai (木造阿弥陀如来坐像 mokuzō amida nyorai zazō?)[30]
1099Heian period, end of 11th century woodWood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) amida nyoraiSitting Amida Nyorai 0280.0280.0 cm (110.2 in) Kyoto Kyoto Hokaiji Amida HallAmida Hall (阿弥陀堂 amidadō?), Hōkai-ji (法界寺?), Kyoto, Kyoto Amida Hokaiji.jpg
Amida Nyorai (木造阿弥陀如来坐像 mokuzō amida nyorai zazō?)[31]
0840Heian period, 840 woodWood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) amida nyoraiSitting Amida Nyorai 0263.6263.6 cm (103.8 in) Kyoto Kyoto Koryuji Lecture HallLecture Hall (講堂 kō-dō?), Kōryū-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto Koryuji Monastery Amida of the Kodo (272).jpg
Nine Amida Nyorai (木造阿弥陀如来坐像 mokuzō amida nyorai zazō?)[32] Nine statues representing the nine stages of nirvana 1100Heian period, around 1100 woodWood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) amida nyoraiOne central sitting Amida Nyorai flanked by four sitting Amida Nyorai on both sides 0224.2224.2 cm (88.3 in) (central), 138.8–145.4 cm (54.6–57.2 in) (others) Kyoto Kizugawa Joruriji HondoHon-dō, Jōruri-ji, Kizugawa, Kyoto
Amida Nyorai (木造阿弥陀如来坐像 mokuzō amida nyorai zazō?)[33] The principal image in the Phoenix Hall of Byōdō-in and only extant work by Jōchō 1053Heian period, 1053 woodWood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) amida nyoraiSitting Amida Nyorai 0283.9283.9 cm (111.8 in) Kyoto Uji Byodoin Phoenix HallPhoenix Hall (鳳凰堂 hōō-dō?), Byōdō-in, Uji, Kyoto Front view of a cross-legged seated statue, showing the meditation gesture (Dhyāna Mudrā) with both hands placed on the lap, palms facing upwards.

Sacred Lotus Pedestal Byodoin.jpg

Bosatsu on clouds (木造雲中供養菩薩像 mokuzō unchū kuyō bosatsuzō?)[34] Thought to accompany departed believers to Amida's Pure Land.[35] 1053Heian period, 1053 woodWood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)), colored, partially cut-gold foil (kirikane (截金?)) on wood bosatsu52 Bosatsu on clouds attached to the wall 0087.040.0–87.0 cm (15.7–34.3 in) Kyoto Uji Byodoin Phoenix HallPhoenix Hall (鳳凰堂 hōō-dō?), Byōdō-in, Uji, Kyoto Byodoin bosatsu 18.jpg

Byodoin bosatsu 4.jpg

Tobatsu Bishamonten (木造兜跋毘沙門天立像 mokuzō tobatsu bishamonten ryūzō?)[12][36] Formerly enshrined in the Bishamon Hall (毘沙門堂 bishamon-dō?) 0800Tang Dynasty, 9th century woodWood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)), colored, nerimono (練物?) bishamontenStanding Bishamonten 0189.4189.4 cm (74.6 in) Kyoto Kyoto Toji Treasure HallTreasure Hall (霊宝館 reihōkan?), Tō-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto Kyowogokokuji Monastery Tobatsu Bishamonten (280).jpg
Five Great Kokūzō Bosatsu (Akasagarbha) (木造五大虚空蔵菩薩坐像 mokuzō godai kokūzō bosatsu zazō?)[12][37] Five almost identical Great Kokūzō Bosatsu are enshrined in the two-storied pagoda. 0800Heian period, 9th century woodColored wood kokuzo bosatsuFive sitting Kokūzō Bosatsu (Akasagarbha) 0099.194.2–99.1 cm (37.1–39.0 in) Kyoto Kyoto Jingoji TahotoTahōtō, Jingo-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto Front view of a statue in lotus position. The palm of the right hand is turned upward and held in front of the stomach. The left hand, close to the right foot, is holding a long pole with decorations at the end resembling a trident.
Five Great Bosatsu (木造五大菩薩坐像 mokuzō godai bosatsu zazō?)[19] The central figure is excluded from the nomination being a later work. 0839Heian period, 839 woodWood bosatsuFour seated Bosatsu 0096.496.4 cm (38.0 in) Kyoto Kyoto Toji Lecture HallLecture Hall (講堂 kō-dō?), Tō-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto The central Bosatsu (in back) and one of four Great Bosatsu. Three-quarter view of two cross-legged seated statues (one in front of the other). The statue in the back appears larger and shows the Vajra Mudrā, enclosing the index finger of the left hand with the fist of the right hand. The statue in front has both hands resting on the lap.
Five Wisdom Kings (木造五大明王像 mokuzō godai myōōzō?)[19][38]
0839Heian period, 839 woodColored wood five wisdom kingsFive Wisdom Kings: sitting Acala, standing Trilokavijaya, Kundali and Vajrayaksa, Yamantaka riding a bull 0201.0173.0 cm (68.1 in) (Acala), 174.0 cm (68.5 in) (Trilokavijaya), 201.0 cm (79.1 in) (Kundali), 143.0 cm (56.3 in) (Yamantaka), 172.0 cm (67.7 in) (Vajrayaksa) Kyoto Kyoto Toji Lecture HallLecture Hall (講堂 kō-dō?), Tō-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto Gozanze Myoo Toji Kodo.jpg
Kōbō Daishi (Kūkai) (木造弘法大師坐像 mokuzō Kōbō Daishi zazō?) By Kōshō (康勝?) 1233Kamakura period, 1233 woodColored wood, crystal eyes kobo daishiSeated Kōbō Daishi (Kūkai) 0069.069.0 cm (27.2 in) Kyoto Kyoto Toji Miei HallMiei Hall (御影堂 mieidō?), Tō-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto
Four Heavenly Kings (木造四天王立像 mokuzō shitennō ryūzō?)[39]
1100late Heian period, 11th–12th century woodColored wood and cut-gold foil (kirikane (截金?)) on wood four heavenly kingsStanding Four Heavenly Kings 0169.7169.7 cm (66.8 in) (Jikoku-ten), 169.7 cm (66.8 in) (Zōjō-ten), 168.8 cm (66.5 in) (Kōmoku-ten), 167.0 cm (65.7 in) (Tamon-ten) Kyoto Kizugawa JorurijiJōruri-ji, Kizugawa, Kyoto
Four Heavenly Kings (木造四天王立像 mokuzō shitennō ryūzō?)[12]
0839Heian period, 839 woodWood four heavenly kingsStanding Four Heavenly Kings 0197.9183.0 cm (72.0 in) (Jikoku-ten), 184.2 cm (72.5 in) (Zōjō-ten), 171.8 cm (67.6 in) (Kōmoku-ten), 197.9 cm (77.9 in) (Tamon-ten) Kyoto Kyoto Toji Lecture HallLecture Hall (講堂 kō-dō?), Tō-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto
Shakyamuni (Shaka Nyorai) (木造釈迦如来立像 mokuzō shaka nyorai ryūzō?) and objects found within the statue[12][40] Copy of lost Udayana Buddha by the Chinese sculptors and brothers Zhāng Yánjiǎo and Zhāng Yánxí. Brought to Japan from China in 986 by the monk Chōnen (奝然?). Includes a model of the internal organs, made of silk and other materials, a paper with the seal of Chōnen and other items. Inscription of repair dated 1218 0985Northern Song, 985 woodWood, natural wood surface (素地 kiji?), cut-gold foil (kirikane (截金?)) on wood shaka nyoraiStanding Shakyamuni (Shaka Nyorai) 0160.0 cm160.0 cm (63.0 in) Kyoto Kyoto Seiryoji HondoHon-dō, Seiryō-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto Seiryoji Monastery Sakya (315).jpg
Eleven-faced Goddess of Mercy (木造十一面観音立像 mokuzō jūichimenkannon ryūzō?)
0951Heian period, 951 woodWood juichimen kannonStanding Jūichimen Kannon 0258.0258.0 cm (101.6 in) Kyoto Kyoto Rokuharamitsuji HondoHon-dō, Rokuharamitsu-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto
Twelve Heavenly Generals (木造十二神将立像 mokuzō jūni shinshō ryūzō?)[12][41] By Chōsei (長勢?) 1064Heian period, 1064 woodColored wood twelve heavenly generalsStanding Twelve Heavenly Generals 0123.0123.0 cm (48.4 in) (Kumbhira), 115.1 cm (45.3 in) (Andira) Kyoto Kyoto Koryuji Treasure HouseTreasure House (霊宝殿 reihōden?), Kōryū-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto Twelve Generals Koryuji.jpg
Thousand-armed Kannon (木造千手観音坐像 mokuzō senjū kannon zazō?)[12][42] The principal image of Sanjūsangen-dō. By Tankei. 1251Kamakura period, 1251–1254 woodWood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)), crystal eyes thousand armed kannonSeated Thousand-armed Kannon 0334.8334.8 cm (131.8 in) Kyoto Kyoto Myohoin SanjusangendoSanjūsangen-dō, Myōhō-in (妙法院?), Kyoto, Kyoto Front view of a cross-legged seated statue with many arms positioned in a circular fashion around the body carrying various objects like bells and staffs. One pair of hands is folded in front of the body in prayer. The statue is positioned on a flower-shaped platform.
Thousand-armed Kannon (木造千手観音立像 mokuzō senjū kannon ryūzō?)[12][19][43]
0934Heian period, around 934 woodColored wood (faded) thousand armed kannonStanding Thousand-armed Kannon 0109.7109.7 cm (43.2 in) Kyoto Kyoto HosshojiHosshō-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto Thousand armed Kannon Hosshoji.JPG
Thousand-armed Kannon (木造千手観音立像 mokuzō senjū kannon ryūzō?)[12][44]
0794Heian period, before 873 woodColored wood (faded) thousand armed kannonStanding Thousand-armed Kannon 0266.0266.0 cm (104.7 in) Kyoto Kyoto Koryuji Lecture HallLecture Hall (講堂 kō-dō?), Kōryū-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto
Hachiman in the guise of a seated monk (木造僧形八幡神坐像 mokuzō sōgyō hachimanjin zazō?) and two Goddesses (木造女神坐像 mokuzō joshin zazō?)[45]
0800Heian period, 9th century woodhinoki wood-core dry lacquer (木心乾漆 (mokushin kanshitsu?)), painted or gilded hachimanSeated Hachiman and two seated attendant goddesses 0110.0c. 110 cm (43 in) each Kyoto Kyoto TojiTō-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto
Canopy (木造天蓋 mokuzō tengai?)
1053Heian period, 1053 woodWood nan/a ???
Kyoto Uji Byodoin Phoenix HallPhoenix Hall (鳳凰堂 hōō-dō?), Byōdō-in, Uji, Kyoto Canopy Phoenix Byodoin.JPG
Twenty eight attendants (木造二十八部衆立像 mokuzō nijūhachi bushū ryūzō?)[12][46]
1250Kamakura period, mid 13th century woodColored wood (faded) and cut-gold foil (kirikane (截金?)) on wood, crystal eyes twenty eight attendantsStanding 28 attendants of the Thousand-armed Kannon (千手観音 senjū kannon?). 0169.7153.6–169.7 cm (60.5–66.8 in) Kyoto Kyoto Myohoin SanjusangendoSanjūsangen-dō, Myōhō-in (妙法院?), Kyoto, Kyoto One of the Twenty eight attendants. Three-quarter view of a statue carrying a handdrum in front. A halo is visible around his head.

Twenty-Eight Attendants (Basu Sennin) Sanjusangendo.jpg

Twenty-Eight Attendants (Taishakuten) Sanjusangendo.jpg

Bishamonten, Kichijōten, Zennishi Dōji (木造毘沙門天及〈吉祥天/善膩師童子〉立像〉 mokuzō bishamonten kichijōten zennishi dōji ryūzō?)[12][19][47]
1127Heian period, 1127 woodWood, natural wood surface (素地 kiji?) bishamontenBishamonten accompanied by his wife Kichijōten and her son Zennishi Dōji (all standing) 0175.7175.7 cm (69.2 in) (Bishamonten) Kyoto Kyoto Kuramadera HondoHon-dō, Kurama-dera (鞍馬寺?), Kyoto, Kyoto Kuramadera Monastery Bishamon (308).jpg

Kuramadera Monastery Kichijoten (334).jpg

Fukū Kensaku Kannon (木造不空羂索観音立像 mokuzō fukū kensaku kannon ryūzō?)[48] Formerly enshrined in the Lecture Hall (講堂 kō-dō?) 0800Heian period, around 800 woodColored wood (faded) fuku kensaku kannonStanding Fukū Kensaku Kannon 0313.6313.6 cm (123.5 in) Kyoto Kyoto Koryuji Treasure HouseTreasure House (霊宝殿?), Kōryū-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto Front view of a standing statue with robes four pairs of arms. Each pair is almost left-right symmetric. Two hands are placed as in prayer with palms facing each other in front of the body. Other pairs of arms are in various positions holding flowers, a short object shaped like a flute, a necklace and long pole weapons. There is a large halo behind the head of the statue.
Fudō Myōō (Acala) (木造不動明王坐像 mokuzō fudō myōō zazō?) and Canopy (木造天蓋 mokuzō tengai?)[19]
0850Heian period, second half of 9th century woodWood fudo myooSeated Acala and canopy 0123.0123.0 cm (48.4 in) Kyoto Kyoto Toji Miei HallMiei Hall (御影堂 miei-dō?), Tō-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto Fudo Myoo Kodo Toji.jpg
Bodhisattva in half-lotus position (木造菩薩半跏像 mokuzō bosatsu hankazō?) or Nyoirin Kannon (如意輪観音?)[49][50]
0859Heian period, 9th century, Jōgan era woodWood, natural wood surface (素地 kiji?) nyoirin kannonNyoirin Kannon in half-lotus position 0088.288.2 cm (34.7 in) Kyoto Kyoto Gantokuji HondoHon-dō, Gantoku-ji (願徳寺?), Kyoto, Kyoto
Miroku Bosatsu in half-lotus position (木造弥勒菩薩半跏像 mokuzō miroku bosatsu hankazō?) or hōkan miroku (宝冠弥勒?)[51] Possibly imported to Japan from Korea. One of the oldest items in the list. 0600Asuka period, 7th century woodJapanese Red Pine wood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) miroku bosatsuMiroku Bosatsu in half-lotus position 0084.284.2 cm (33.1 in) Kyoto Kyoto Koryuji Treasure HouseTreasure House (霊宝殿 reihōden?), Kōryū-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto Three-quarter view of a seated statue in half-lotus position. The right foot rests on the left upper leg, the right elbow rests on the right knee with the right hand close to the head in contemplating pose.
Miroku Bosatsu in half-lotus position (木造弥勒菩薩半跏像 mokuzō miroku bosatsu hankazō?) or Weeping Miroku (泣き弥勒 naki miroku?)[52] Possibly made in Japan 0700Asuka period, around 700 woodCamphorwood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) miroku bosatsuMiroku Bosatsu in half-lotus position 0066.466.4 cm (26.1 in) Kyoto Kyoto Koryuji Treasure HouseTreasure House (霊宝殿 reihōden?), Kōryū-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto Maitreya2 Koryuji.JPG
Yakushi Nyorai and two attendants (木造薬師如来及両脇侍像 mokuzō yakushi nyorai oyobi ryōkyōjizō?)[53]>[16] Formerly enshrined in the Yakushi Hall (薬師堂?) 0913Heian period, 913 woodHinoki wood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) yakushi nyoraiSeated Yakushi Nyorai (healing Buddha) and two standing attendants: Nikkō Bosatsu and Gakkō Bosatsu (Bodhisattvas of sun and moon light) 0176.5176.5 cm (69.5 in) (Yakushi) Kyoto Kyoto Daigoji Treasure HouseTreasure House (霊宝館 reihōkan?), Daigo-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto
Yakushi Nyorai (木造薬師如来坐像 mokuzō yakushi nyorai zazō?)[12][54] By Ensei (円勢?) and Chōen (長円?). Halo with Seven Buddhas of healing (七仏薬師 shichibutsu yakushi?), Nikkō Bosatsu and Gakkō Bosatsu. Pedestal with Twelve Heavenly Generals (十二神将 jūni shinshō?) 1103Heian period, 1103 woodSandalwood, natural wood surface (素地 kiji?), cut-gold foil (kirikane (截金?)) on wood yakushi nyoraiSeated Yakushi Nyorai 0010.710.7 cm (4.2 in) Kyoto Kyoto Ninnaji ReimeidenReimeiden (霊明殿?), Ninna-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto
Yakushi Nyorai (木造薬師如来立像 mokuzō yakushi nyorai ryūzō?)[55] Principal image of Jingo-ji's predecessor temple Jingan-ji (神願寺?) 0799Heian period, end of 8th century woodWood, natural wood surface (素地 kiji?) yakushi nyoraiStanding Yakushi Nyorai 0169.7169.7 cm (66.8 in) Kyoto Kyoto Jingoji KondoKon-dō, Jingo-ji, Kyoto, Kyoto Yakushi Nyorai Jingoji2.JPG
Thousand-armed Kannon (乾漆千手観音坐像 kanshitsu senjū kannon zazō?)[56] The statue has a total of 1041 arms: 2 main arms with the hand palms facing each other in front of the statue, 38 large and 1001 small arms extending from behind the body. 0750Nara period, middle of 8th century lacquerDry lacquer (乾漆 kanshitsu?), Gold leaf over lacquer (漆箔 shippaku?) thousand armed kannonSeated Thousand-armed Kannon 0131.3131.3 cm (51.7 in) Osaka Fujiidera Fujiidera HondoHon-dō, Fujii-dera (葛井寺?), Fujiidera, Osaka
Eleven-faced Goddess of Mercy (木造十一面観音立像 mokuzō jūichimenkannon ryūzō?)[57]
0801Heian period, beginning of 9th century woodWood, natural wood surface (素地 kiji?) juichimen kannonStanding Jūichimen Kannon 0099.499.4 cm (39.1 in) Osaka Fujiidera Domyoji HondoHon-dō, Dōmyō-ji (道明寺?), Fujiidera, Osaka Portrait of a statue in three-quarter view with a full face and elongated earlobes. Small faces are located on top of its head.
Nyoirin Kannon (木造如意輪観音坐像 mokuzō nyoirin kannon zazō?)[58] One of three masterpiece images of Nyoirin Kannon called San Nyoirin (三如意輪).[59] 0840Heian period, around 840 woodColored wood nyoirin kannonSeated Nyoirin Kannon with one knee pulled up 0108.8108.8 cm (42.8 in) Osaka Kawachinagano Kanshinji KondoKon-dō, Kanshin-ji, Kawachinagano, Osaka Three-quarter view of a seated statue with six arms. The left leg is bend, touching the ground along its whole length. The right leg is also bend, but with the knee up. The right foot is above the left foot. One of the right hands is touching the right ear, another is lifting a jewel-shaped object in front of the breast. One of the left hands carries a flower, another a small wheel-shaped object.
Yakushi Nyorai (木造薬師如来坐像 mokuzō yakushi nyorai zazō?)[60]
0900Heian period, around 900 woodWood, natural wood surface (素地 kiji?) yakushi nyoraiSeated Yakushi Nyorai 0092.992.9 cm (36.6 in) Osaka Katano Shishikutsuji HondoHon-dō, Shishikutsu-ji (獅子窟寺?), Katano, Osaka Yakushi Nyorai Shishikutsuji1.JPG

Yakushi Nyorai Shishikutsuji2.JPG

Amida Nyorai and two standing attendants (木造阿弥陀如来及両脇侍立像 mokuzō amida nyorai oyobi ryōwakiji ryūzō?)[61] The wooden core of the statues was covered with lacquer on which gold foil was pressed. 1195Kamakura period, 1195 woodWood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) amida nyoraiStanding Amida Nyorai and two standing attendants 0530.0530.0 cm (208.7 in) (Amida), 371.0 cm (146.1 in) (each attendant) Hyogo Ono JodojiHon-dō (Amida Hall (阿弥陀堂?) or Jōdo-dō (浄土堂?)), Jōdo-ji, Ono, Hyōgo Front view of three standing statues which are covered in gold. The central statue is about two heads taller than the two falnking statues. It has the right hand pointing down with the palm towards the viewer and the palm of the left hand turned upward with the thumb touching the middle figer. All three statues have halos behind their heads with emanating rays.
Bonten (乾漆梵天立像 kanshitsu bonten ryūzō?) and Taishakuten (乾漆帝釈天立像 kanshitsu taishakuten ryūzō?)[12][62]
0710Nara period, 8th century lacquerHollow dry lacquer (脱活乾漆造 dakkatsu kanshitsu zukuri?), colored setStanding Bonten and standing Taishakuten 0403.0403.0 cm (158.7 in) (Bonten), 378.8 cm (149.1 in) (Taishakuten) Nara Nara Todaiji HokkedoHokke-dō (法華堂?), Tōdai-ji, Nara, Nara
Priest Ganjin (Jianzhen) (乾漆鑑真和上坐像 kanshitsu ganjin wajō zazō?)
0710Nara period, 8th century lacquerHollow dry lacquer (脱活乾漆造 dakkatsu kanshitsu zukuri?), colored ganjinSeated Ganjin 0080.180.1 cm (31.5 in) Nara Nara Toshodaiji Founders HallFounder's Hall (開山堂 kaisan-dō?), Tōshōdai-ji, Nara, Nara Ganjin wajyo portrait.JPG
Kongōrikishi (Niō) (乾漆金剛力士立像 kanshitsu kongōrikishi ryūzō?)[63] Niō in armour. There is another pair of Kongōrikishi (National Treasure) in Nandaimon (南大門?), Tōdai-ji. 0710Nara period, 8th century lacquerHollow dry lacquer (脱活乾漆造 dakkatsu kanshitsu zukuri?), colored, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) nioStanding pair of Niō: Agyō (阿形?) and Ungyō (吽形?) 0326.3326.3 cm (128.5 in) (Agyō) and 306.0 cm (120.5 in) (Ungyō) Nara Nara Todaiji HokkedoHokke-dō (法華堂?), Tōdai-ji, Nara, Nara Todaiji Monastery Kongorikishi of Hokkedo 234.jpg
Priest Gyōshin (乾漆行信僧都坐像 kanshitsu gyōshin sōzu zazō?) Statue of the founder of the Hall of Dreams (夢殿 yumedono?) 0750Nara period, second half of 8th century lacquerDry lacquer (乾漆 kanshitsu?) gyoshinSeated Gyōshin 0089.789.7 cm (35.3 in) Nara Ikaruga Horyuji Hall of DreamsHall of Dreams (夢殿 yumedono?), Hōryū-ji, Ikaruga, Nara Priest Gyoshin Statue.JPG
Four Heavenly Kings (乾漆四天王立像 kanshitsu shitennō ryūzō?)[64]
0710Nara period, 8th century lacquerHollow dry lacquer (脱活乾漆造 dakkatsu kanshitsu zukuri?), colored four heavenly kingsStanding Four Heavenly Kings 0315.1308.5 cm (121.5 in) (Jikoku-ten), 300.0 cm (118.1 in) (Zōjō-ten), 315.1 cm (124.1 in) (Kōmoku-ten), 312.1 cm (122.9 in) (Tamon-ten) Nara Nara Todaiji HokkedoHokke-dō (法華堂?), Tōdai-ji, Nara, Nara Todaiji Monastery Shitenno of Hokkedo (Komokuten) (233).jpg
The ten principal disciples (乾漆十大弟子立像 kanshitsu jū daideshi ryūzō?)[65] Four statues of the group of 10 are lost. Originally enshrined in the Western Golden Hall (西金堂?) surrounding the principal Shaka Nyorai image there 0734Nara period, 734 lacquerHollow dry lacquer (脱活乾漆造 dakkatsu kanshitsu zukuri?), colored ten principal disciplesStanding six of The ten principal disciples: Furuna, Mokuren, Sharihotsu, Kasennen, Ragora, Shubodai 0154.8148.8 cm (58.6 in) (Furuna), 149.1 cm (58.7 in) (Mokuren), 154.8 cm (60.9 in) (Sharihotsu), 146.0 cm (57.5 in) (Kasennen), 148.8 cm (58.6 in) (Ragora), 147.6 cm (58.1 in) (Shubodai) Nara Nara KofukujiKōfuku-ji, Nara, Nara Kofukuji Furuna.jpg
The eight legions (乾漆八部衆立像(内一躯下半身欠失) kanshitsu hachibushū ryūzō?)[66] Of one figure, Gobujō, only the upper part of the body remains. The Ashura of this group is among the most famous sculptures in Japan. 0734Nara period, 734 lacquerHollow dry lacquer (脱活乾漆造 dakkatsu kanshitsu zukuri?), colored eight legionsStanding Eight Legions: Ashura, Gobujō (五部浄?), Kinnara, Sakara/Shakara (沙羯羅?), Hibakara (畢婆迦羅?), Kubanda (鳩槃荼?), Kendatsuba, Garuda 0160.3153.0 cm (60.2 in) (Ashura), 48.8 cm (19.2 in) (fragments of Gobujō), 149.1 cm (58.7 in) (Kinnara), 153.6 cm (60.5 in) (Shakara), 156.0 cm (61.4 in) (Hibakara), 151.2 cm (59.5 in) (Kubanda), 160.3 cm (63.1 in) (Kendatsuba), 149.7 cm (58.9 in) (Garuda) Nara Nara KofukujiKōfuku-ji, Nara, Nara Front view of a standing statue with six arms and three faces. One pair of hands is joined in front of the body with the palms facing each other as if praying. A second set of arms is bend to the sides with the palms of the hands pointing upwards. Also the third pair of arms is bend somewhere between the positions of the other pairs of arms. The three faces point to the fron and both sides of the statue. The statue is embellished with sculpted and painted wide three-quarter length trousers and sandals.

Kofukuji Gobujo.jpg

Fukū Kensaku Kannon (乾漆不空羂索観音立像 kanshitsu fukū kensaku kannon ryūzō?)[67]
0710Nara period, 8th century lacquerHollow dry lacquer (脱活乾漆造 dakkatsu kanshitsu zukuri?), gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) fuku kensaku kannonStanding Fukū Kensaku Kannon 0362.1362.1 cm (142.6 in) Nara Nara Todaiji HokkedoHokke-dō (法華堂?), Tōdai-ji, Nara, Nara Portrait of a deity with elongated earlobes, a crown with a small figure and emanating rays.
Yakushi Nyorai (乾漆薬師如来坐像 kanshitsu yakushi nyorai zazō?)[68] Principal image of the West Octagonal Hall (西円堂, saien-dō?). One of three National Treasure Yakushi Nyorai at Hōryū-ji. The others are located in the Kon-dō and in the Large Lecture Hall (大講堂, daikō-dō?). 0710Nara period, 8th century lacquerHollow dry lacquer (脱活乾漆造 dakkatsu kanshitsu zukuri?), gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) yakushi nyoraiSeated Yakushi Nyorai (healing Buddha) 0244.5244.5 cm (96.3 in) Nara Ikaruga Horyuji West Octagonal HallWest Octagonal Hall (西円堂, saien-dō?), Hōryū-ji, Ikaruga, Nara Yakushi Nyorai Saiendo Horyuji.jpg
Rushana Buddha (乾漆盧舎那仏坐像 rushanabutsu zazō?)[69]
0710Nara period, 8th century lacquerHollow dry lacquer (脱活乾漆造 dakkatsu kanshitsu zukuri?), gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) rushana buddhaSeated Rushana Buddha 0304.5304.5 cm (119.9 in) Nara Nara Toshodaiji KondoKon-dō, Tōshōdai-ji, Nara, Nara Vairocana Tosyodaiji.JPG
Nikkō Bosatsu (塑造日光仏立像 sozō nikkō butsu ryūzō?) and Gakkō Bosatsu (塑造月光仏立像 sozō gakkō butsu ryūzō?)[70]
0710Nara period, 8th century clayColored clay, cut-gold foil (kirikane (截金?)) on clay setStanding Nikkō Bosatsu and Gakkō Bosatsu (Bodhisattvas of sun and moon light) 0206.8206.3 cm (81.2 in) (Nikkō), 206.8 cm (81.4 in) (Gakkō) Nara Nara Todaiji HokkedoHokke-dō (法華堂?), Tōdai-ji, Nara, Nara Todaiji Gakko Bosatsu.jpg
Four Heavenly Kings (塑造四天王立像 sozō shitennō ryūzō?)[71]
0710Nara period, 8th century clayColored clay four heavenly kingsStanding Four Heavenly Kings 0165.4160.6 cm (63.2 in) (Jikoku-ten), 165.4 cm (65.1 in) (Zōjō-ten), 162.7 cm (64.1 in) (Kōmoku-ten), 164.5 cm (64.8 in) (Tamon-ten) Nara Nara Todaiji Kaidan HallKaidan Hall (戒壇堂 kaidan-dō?), Tōdai-ji, Nara, Nara Tamonten, one of the Four Heavenly Kings in the Kaidan Hall. Portrait of a statue in front view. The right arm is raised, the hair sculpted with a top knot and the breast with armour. Narrow slit eyes and a facial expression as if frowning.

Todaiji Monastery Shitenno of Kaidanin (Zochoten) (227).jpg

Shukongōshin (塑造執金剛神立像 sozō shukongōshin ryūzō?)[12][72] Mentioned in the Nihon Ryōiki as the statue which aided the priest Rōben 0750Nara period, mid 8th century clayColored clay shukongoshinStanding Shukongōshin 0173.9173.9 cm (68.5 in) Nara Nara Todaiji HokkedoHokke-dō (法華堂?), Tōdai-ji, Nara, Nara Frontal view of a fierce looking statue dressed in armour and wielding a stick-like object in his right hand.
Twelve Heavenly Generals (塑造十二神将立像 sozō jūni shinshō ryūzō?)[12][73][nb 2] Statues are placed in a circle surrounding Yakushi Nyorai. Oldest extant sculptures of the Twelve Heavenly Generals. One statue, Haira (波夷羅?), dated 1931 is excluded from the nomination. Each of the twelve statues' heads is adorned with one of the twelve animals of the zodiac.[74] 0729Nara period, 729–749 clayColored clay twelve heavenly generalsStanding eleven of the Twelve Heavenly Generals: Bazara (伐折羅?), Anira (頞儞羅?), Bigyara (毘羯羅?), Makora (摩虎羅?), Kubira (宮毘羅?), Shōtora (招杜羅?), Shintara (真達羅?), Santera (珊底羅?), Meikira (迷企羅?), Antera (安底羅?), Indara (因達羅?) 0170.1162.9 cm (64.1 in) (Bazara), 154.2 cm (60.7 in) (Anira), 162.1 cm (63.8 in) (Bigyara), 170.1 cm (67.0 in) (Makora), 165.1 cm (65.0 in) (Kubira), 167.6 cm (66.0 in) (Shōtora), 165.5 cm (65.2 in) (Shintara), 161.8 cm (63.7 in) (Santera), 159.5 cm (62.8 in) (Meikira), 153.6 cm (60.5 in) (Antera), 155.2 cm (61.1 in) (Indara) Nara Nara Shin Yakushiji HondoHon-dō, Shin-Yakushi-ji, Nara, Nara 12 Heavenly Generals ShinYakushiji.JPG

Basara 12 Heavenly Generals ShinYakushiji.JPG

Antera 12 Heavenly Generals ShinYakushiji.JPG

Four sculpted scenes in the pagoda (塑造塔本四面具 sozō tōhon shimengu?)[19][75] Four groups in the cardinal directions depicting scenes from the life of Buddha 0711Nara period, 711 clayColored clay, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) setTotal of 78 statues and two other objects: Miroku Bosatsu leaning against an elephant (S); seated Yuimakoji, seated Monju Bosatsu and 14 attendants (E); Dying Buddha (涅槃釈迦 nehan shaka?) (Shaka Nyorai) and 31 attendants (N); Gold coffin, reliquary and 29 attendants (W) 0098.081.0 cm (31.9 in) (Miroku Bosatsu), 98.0 cm (38.6 in) (Shaka Nyorai), 45.2 cm (17.8 in) (Yuimakoji), 52.4 cm (20.6 in) (Monju Bosatsu), 25.6 cm (10.1 in) (gold coffin), 37.3 cm (14.7 in) (reliquary) Nara Ikaruga Horyuji Five storied pagodaFive-storied pagoda (五重塔 gojūnotō?), Hōryū-ji, Ikaruga, Nara Horyuji Monastery Clay Figures of the Pagoda II (224).jpg
Horyuji Monastery Clay Figures of the Pagoda I (223).jpg
Priest Dōsen (塑造道詮律師坐像 sozō dōsen risshi zazō?)[19]
0873Heian period, around 873 clayColored clay dosenSeated Dōsen 0088.288.2 cm (34.7 in) Nara Ikaruga Horyuji Hall of DreamsHall of Dreams (夢殿 yumedono?), Hōryū-ji, Ikaruga, Nara Dosen Yumedono Horyuji.jpg
Miroku Bosatsu (塑造弥勒仏坐像 sozō miroku butsu zazō?)[19][76] Oldest extant Miroku Bosatsu statue in Japan 0650Asuka period, second half of 7th century clayClay, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) miroku bosatsuSeated Miroku Bosatsu 0219.7219.7 cm (86.5 in) Nara Nara Taimadera KondoKon-dō, Taima-dera, Nara, Nara Maitreya Buddha Taimadera.JPG
Amida Nyorai and two attendants (銅造阿弥陀如来及両脇侍像 dōzō amida nyorai oyobi ryōwakijizō?) and miniature shrine (木造厨子 mokuzō zushi?)[12][19][77] Buddhist image for personal daily worship (nenjibutsu (念持仏?)), dedicated by Lady Tachibana (橘夫人 tachibana fujin?) 0699Asuka period, end of 7th century bronzeGilded bronze, yuga (油画) oil painting on wood for the shrine amida nyoraiSeated Amida Nyorai and two standing attendants (Kannon and Seishi) 0033.333.3 cm (13.1 in) (Amida), 27.0 cm (10.6 in) (each attendant) Nara Ikaruga Horyuji Treasure HouseTreasure House (大宝蔵殿 daihōzōden?), Hōryū-ji, Ikaruga, Nara Amida Triad LadyTatibana Horyuji.JPG
Kannon (銅造観音菩薩立像 dōzō kannon bosatsu ryūzō?) or Shō Kannon (聖観音?)[19][78][79] Influenced by Indian sculpture of the Gupta period 0700Asuka period, early 8th century bronzeGilded bronze kannonStanding Kannon 0188.9188.9 cm (74.4 in) Nara Nara Yakushiji ToindoTōin-dō (東院堂?), Yakushi-ji, Nara, Nara Sho Kannon Yakushiji.JPG
Kannon (銅造観音菩薩立像 dōzō kannon bosatsu ryūzō?) or Yumechigai Kannon (夢違観音?)[19][80] Its common name derives from the belief that the statue could change bad dreams into good dreams. Formerly the principal statue of the Tōin eden (東院絵殿?). One of four National Treasure standing Kannon Bosatsu statues at Hōryū-ji. Two more are also in the Great Treasure Gallery (大宝蔵院 daihōzō-in?), while the third Kannon Bosatsu is enshrined in the Hall of Dreams (夢殿 yumedono?). 0700Asuka period, around 700 bronzeGilded bronze kannonStanding Kannon 0087.087.0 cm (34.3 in) Nara Ikaruga Horyuji Great Treasure GalleryGreat Treasure Gallery (大宝蔵院 daihōzō-in?), Hōryū-ji, Ikaruga, Nara Frontal view of a statue on a pedestal with the left hand raised to breast height. The left hand carries a small object shaped like a vase or pot.
Shakyamuni (Shaka Nyorai) and two attendants (銅造釈迦如来及両脇侍像 dōzō shaka nyorai oyobi ryōwakijizō?)[19][81] By Tori Busshi. One of the most treasured pieces of early Japanese bronze sculpture. It is said to be modelled after Prince Shōtoku.[1] 0623Asuka period, 623 bronzeGilded bronze shaka nyoraiSeated Shaka Nyorai and two standing attendants 0092.486.4 cm (34.0 in) (Shaka), 90.7 cm (35.7 in) (left att.), 92.4 cm (36.4 in) (right att.) Nara Ikaruga Horyuji KondoKon-dō, Hōryū-ji, Ikaruga, Nara Front view of a central figure sitting cross-legged on a raised platform which is flanked by two smaller standing statues. The central figure has the palm of his right hand turned to the front. The attendants look identical pointing upwards with their right hand and their left hand lifted halfway touching the thumb with the middle finger. Each of the three statues has a halo.
Shaka at Birth (銅造誕生釈迦仏立像 dōzō tanjō shaka butsu ryūzō?) and ablution basin (銅造灌仏盤 dōzō kanbutsuban?)[19][82]
0750Nara period, second half of 8th century bronzeGilded bronze shaka at birthStanding Shaka at birth in ablution basin 0047.547.5 cm (18.7 in) (Shaka), diameter of bowl: 89.4 cm (35.2 in) Nara Nara Todaiji KokeidoKōkei-dō (公慶堂?), Tōdai-ji, Nara, Nara Shaka at birth basin.JPG
Buddha head (Buttō) (銅造仏頭 dōzō buttō?)[83] Former principal image in the Lecture Hall (講堂 kō-dō?) of Yamada-dera (山田寺?) 0668Asuka period, 668 bronzeGilded bronze buttoButtō 0098.398.3 cm (38.7 in) Nara Nara Kofukuji National Treasure HouseNational Treasure House (国宝館 kokuhōkan?), Kōfuku-ji, Nara, Nara A Buddha head in three-quarter view with elongated earlobe, thick lips, narrow slit eyes and broad nose.
Yakushi Nyorai and two attendants (銅造薬師如来及両脇侍像 dōzō yakushi nyorai oyobi ryōkyōjizō?)[19][78][84] Yakushi Nyorai is placed on a 150 cm (59 in) high pedestal combining elements of different cultures of the world: grape-vine (Greek), lotus flower pattern (Mideast), crouching barbarians (India), dragon, tiger and tortoise (China). Unusually, the Yakushi does not carry a medicine pot in his hand.[78] 0718Nara period, around 718 bronzeGilded bronze yakushi nyoraiSeated Yakushi Nyorai (healing Buddha) and two standing attendants: Nikkō Bosatsu and Gakkō Bosatsu (Bodhisattvas of sun and moon light) 0317.3254.7 cm (100.3 in) (Yakushi), 317.3 cm (124.9 in) (Nikkō), 315.3 cm (124.1 in) (Gakkō) Nara Nara Yakushiji KondoKon-dō, Yakushi-ji, Nara, Nara Three-quarter view of a central cross-legged seated statue on a pedestal flanked by two standing statues of almost the same size. The central figure has the palm of his right hand facing forward and that of the left hand upwards with the left hand resting on his knee. The flanking statues show a similar pose with their right hand while their left arm is hanging down. All three statues have halos in their back which are decorated with small cross-legged seated statues.
Yakushi Nyorai (銅造薬師如来坐像 dōzō yakushi nyorai zazō?)[85] One of three National Treasure Yakushi Nyorai at Hōryū-ji. The others are located in the West Octagonal Hall (西円堂, saien-dō?) and in the Large Lecture Hall (大講堂, daikō-dō?). 0607Asuka period, 607 bronzeGilded bronze yakushi nyoraiSeated Yakushi Nyorai 0063.063.0 cm (24.8 in) Nara Ikaruga Horyuji KondoKon-dō, Hōryū-ji, Ikaruga, Nara Yakushi Nyorai Kondo Horyuji.jpg
Rushana Buddha (銅造盧舎那仏坐像 dōzō rushanabutsu zazō?) or Great Buddha of Nara[12][86] The largest statue in this list and the largest gilt bronze statue in the world, and the main hall of Tōdai-ji, in which it is located, is the largest wooden structure in the world.[87] 0752Nara period, 752. Head is a recast from the Edo period, hands date to the Momoyama period bronzeGilded bronze rushana buddhaSeated Rushana Buddha 1486.814.868m Nara Nara Todaiji KondoKon-dō, Tōdai-ji, Nara, Nara Three-quarter view and worm's-eye view of a seated statue. The palm of his right hand faces forward. The folds in his clothing are deeply sculpted. Behind the head of the sculpture there is a halo decorated with sitting statues. Color picture.
Twelve Heavenly Generals (板彫十二神将立像 itabori jūni shinshō ryūzō?)[88]
1000Heian period, 11th century woodWooden tablets, relief carving (板彫 itabori?), coloring, cut-gold foil (kirikane (截金?)) on wood twelve heavenly generalsStanding Twelve Heavenly Generals 0100.387.9–100.3 cm (34.6–39.5 in) Nara Nara Kofukuji National Treasure HouseNational Treasure House (国宝館 kokuhōkan?), Kōfuku-ji, Nara, Nara Twelve Heavenly Generals Relief.JPG
Priest Gien (木心乾漆義淵僧正坐像 mokushin kanshitsu gien sōjō zazō?)[19] Priest Gien was the founder of Oka-dera. 0710Nara period, 8th century woodWood-core dry lacquer (木心乾漆 mokushin kanshitsu?), colored gienSeated Gien 0093.093.0 cm (36.6 in) Nara Asuka OkaderaOka-dera (岡寺?), Asuka, Nara Front view of a cross-legged seated statue with long earlobes. His hands rest on his knees with the palm of his right/left hand turned down/up.
Four Heavenly Kings (木心乾漆四天王立像 mokushin kanshitsu shitennō ryūzō?)[89] 0791Nara period, 791 woodWood-core dry lacquer (木心乾漆 mokushin kanshitsu?), colored four heavenly kingsStanding Four Heavenly Kings 0139.1138.2 cm (54.4 in) (Jikoku-ten), 136.0 cm (53.5 in) (Zōjō-ten), 139.1 cm (54.8 in) (Kōmoku-ten), 134.5 cm (53.0 in) (Tamon-ten) Nara Nara Kofukuji North Octagonal HallNorth Octagonal Hall (北円堂 hokuen-dō?), Kōfuku-ji, Nara, Nara Kofukuji Monastery Shitenno of Hokuendo (Jikokuten) (244).jpg
Monju Bosatsu and attendants (木造騎獅文殊菩薩及脇侍像 mokuzō kishi monjubosatsu oyobi kyōjizō?)[90][91] By Kaikei. Largest Monju image in Japan 1203Kamakura period, 1203 woodColored wood Monju BosatsuMonju Bosatsu riding a lion and four attendants 0268.7198.0 cm (78.0 in) (Monju Bosatsu), 134.7 cm (53.0 in) (Zenzai Dōji), 268.7 cm (105.8 in) (Utennō), 187.2 cm (73.7 in) (Butsudahari Sanzō), Nara Sakurai Abe MonjuinAbe Monju-in, Sakurai, Nara
Eleven-faced Goddess of Mercy (木心乾漆十一面観音立像 mokushin kanshitsu jūichimenkannon ryūzō?)[92]
0750Nara period, second half of 8th century woodWood-core dry lacquer (木心乾漆 mokushin kanshitsu?), gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) Juichimen KannonStanding Jūichimen Kannon 0209.1209.1 cm (82.3 in) Nara Sakurai Shorinji DaibidenDaibiden (大悲殿?), Shōrin-ji (聖林寺?), Sakurai, Nara Eleven-faced Kannon Shorinji.JPG
Thousand-armed Kannon (木心乾漆千手観音立像 mokushin kanshitsu senjū kannon ryūzō?)[19][93]
0750Nara period, second half of 8th century woodWood-core dry lacquer (木心乾漆 mokushin kanshitsu?), gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) thousand armed kannonStanding Thousand-armed Kannon 0535.7535.7 cm (210.9 in) Nara Nara Toshodaiji KondoKon-dō, Tōshōdai-ji, Nara, Nara Thousand armed Kannon Tosyodaiji.JPG
Yakushi Nyorai (木心乾漆薬師如来立像 mokushin kanshitsu yakushi nyorai ryūzō?)[19][94]
0796Heian period, 796–815 woodWood-core dry lacquer (木心乾漆 mokushin kanshitsu?), gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) yakushi nyoraiStanding Yakushi Nyorai 0369.7369.7 cm (145.6 in) Nara Nara Toshodaiji KondoKon-dō, Tōshōdai-ji, Nara, Nara Statues GoldenHall Toshodaiji.JPG
Hachiman in the guise of a Buddhist monk (木造僧形八幡神坐像 mokuzō sōgyō hachimanjin zazō?), Empress Jingū (木造神功皇后坐像 mokuzō jingūkōgō zazō?), Nakatsuhime (木造仲津姫命坐像 mokuzō nakatsuhime?)[19] Oldest statues of their kind in Japan 0889Heian period, 889–898 woodColored wood hachimanSeated Hachiman, Empress Jingū and Nakatsuhime 0038.838.8 cm (15.3 in) (Hachiman), 33.9 cm (13.3 in) (Jingū), 36.8 cm (14.5 in) (Nakatsuhime) Nara Nara Yakushiji Chinju HachimanguChinju Hachimangu (鎮守八幡宮?), Yakushi-ji, Nara, Nara Nakatsuhime Yakushiji.jpg
Tentōki (木造天燈鬼立像 mokuzō tentōki ryūzō?) and Ryūtōki (木造竜燈鬼立像 mokuzō ryūtōki ryūzō?)[95] Tentoki attributed to Kōben (康弁?), Ryūtoki by Kōben. Tentōki is a creature unique to Japan and Ryūtōki carries a lantern as offering to the Historical Buddha.[96] 1216Kamakura period, 1216 woodColored wood, crystal eyes setStanding Tentōki (lantern on hand/shoulder) and Ryūtōki (lantern on head) 0077.977.9 cm (30.7 in) (Tentōki), 77.3 cm (30.4 in) (Ryūtōki) Nara Nara KofukujiKōfuku-ji, Nara, Nara  Tentōki. Front view of a stocky statue with a demon face. He is carrying a lantern on is left shoulder supported by his left hand. Black and white photograph.

Ryūtōki. Front view of a stocky statue with a demon face. He is balancing a lantern on his head. He is grabbing his right wrist with the left hand. Black and white photograph.

Muchaku (木造無著菩薩立像 mokuzō muchaku bosatsu ryūzō?) and Seshin (木造世親菩薩立像 mokuzō seshin bosatsu ryūzō?)[19][97] By Unkei 1208Kamakura period, 1208 woodColored wood, crystal eyes setStanding Muchaku and Seshin. 0193.0193.0 cm (76.0 in) (Muchaku), 190.9 cm (75.2 in) (Seshin) Nara Nara Kofukuji North Octagonal HallNorth Octagonal Hall (北円堂 hokuen-dō?), Kōfuku-ji, Nara, Nara  Muchaku (Asanga). Frontal view of a lifelike statue keeping his hands in front of his body with one palm turned up and the other facing sidewards as if keeping something. Black and white photograph.

Seshin. Front view of a lifelike statue. Both arms are bend with the palm of the left hand turned upward and the right hand pointing up. Black and white photograph.

Bonten (木造梵天立像 mokuzō bonten ryūzō?) and Taishakuten (木造帝釈天立像 mokuzō taishakuten ryūzō?)[19][98]
0750Nara period, second half of 8th century woodColored wood setStanding Bonten and standing Taishakuten 0188.8186.2 cm (73.3 in) (Bonten), 188.8 cm (74.3 in) (Taishakuten) Nara Nara Toshodaiji KondoKon-dō, Tōshōdai-ji, Nara, Nara Bonten Toshodaiji.JPG
Yuima (木造維摩居士坐像 mokuzō yuima koji zazō?)[74][99] Carved by Jōkei over a period of 56 days and painted by Kōen in 50 days 1196Kamakura period, 1196 woodColored wood in assembled wood-block (yosegi) technique, crystal eyes yuimaSeated Yuima 0088.688.6 cm (34.9 in) Nara Nara Kofukuji Eastern Golden HallEastern Golden Hall (東金堂, tōkon-dō?), Kōfuku-ji, Nara, Nara Frontal view of a cross-legged seated statue placed on a throne. His right arm rests on his leg, the left arm is bend and slightly raised.
Kannon (木造観音菩薩立像 mokuzō kannon bosatsu ryūzō?) or Nine-faced Kannon (九面観音 kumen kannon?)[19][100] One of four National Treasure standing Kannon Bosatsu statues at Hōryū-ji. Two more are also in the Great Treasure Gallery (大宝蔵院 daihōzō-in?), while the third Kannon Bosatsu is enshrined in the Hall of Dreams (夢殿 yumedono?). 0600Tang Dynasty, 7th century woodSandalwood, natural wood surface (素地 kiji?) kannonStanding Kannon 0037.637.6 cm (14.8 in) Nara Ikaruga Horyuji Great Treasure GalleryGreat Treasure Gallery (大宝蔵院 daihōzō-in?), Hōryū-ji, Ikaruga, Nara Front and profile view of a standing statue with her left arm bend forward. On the head there are small heads visible facing in various directions.
Kannon (木造観世音菩薩立像 mokuzō kanzeon bosatsu ryūzō?) or Kudara Kannon (百済観音?)[19][101] One of four National Treasure standing Kannon Bosatsu statues at Hōryū-ji. Two more are also in the Great Treasure Gallery (大宝蔵院 daihōzō-in?), while the third Kannon Bosatsu is enshrined in the Hall of Dreams (夢殿 yumedono?). It has been conjectured to be a work of Korean artisans.[1] 0650Asuka period, mid 7th century woodColored wood kannonStanding Kannon 0209.4209.4 cm (82.4 in) Nara Ikaruga Horyuji Great Treasure GalleryGreat Treasure Gallery (大宝蔵院 daihōzō-in?), Hōryū-ji, Ikaruga, Nara Three-quarter view of a very slim and tall statue carrying a vase in with two fingers of her left hand. Her right arm is bend with the palm of her right hand facing upward. A halo on a pole is seen behind the statue.
Kannon (木造観世音菩薩立像 mokuzō kanzeon bosatsu ryūzō?) or Guze Kannon (救世観音?)[1] Oldest extant wooden statue in Japan. One of four National Treasure standing Kannon Bosatsu statues at Hōryū-ji. The others are located in the Great Treasure Gallery (大宝蔵院 daihōzō-in?). 0620Asuka period, first half of 7th century, 620 or so woodSingle block of camphor wood, stitched gold foil (箔押 hakuoshi?) kannonStanding Kannon 0178.8178.8 cm (70.4 in) Nara Ikaruga Horyuji Hall of DreamsHall of Dreams (夢殿 yumedono?), Hōryū-ji, Ikaruga, Nara Front view of a standing statue with flowing robes holding a small container in front of her body. There is a large halo behind the head of the statue.
Tamayorihime (木造玉依姫命坐像 mokuzō tamayorihime no mikoto zazō?)[102] Probably by a Kei school sculptor 1251Kamakura period, 1251 woodWood, yosegi-zukuri (寄木造?) technique, crystal eyes tamayorihimeSeated Tamayorihime 008383 cm (33 in) Nara Yoshino Yoshino Mikumari ShrineYoshino Mikumari Shrine, Yoshino, Nara Head and shoulder portrait of a female statue with long hair, painted eyebrows, colored lips and cloths.
Kongōrikishi (Niō) (木造金剛力士立像 mokuzō kongōrikishi ryūzō?)[103]
1288Kamakura period, 1288 woodColored wood, crystal eyes nioStanding pair of Niō: Agyō (阿形?) and Ungyō (吽形?) 0154.0154.0 cm (60.6 in) (Agyō) and 153.7 cm (60.5 in) (Ungyō) Nara Nara Kofukuji National Treasure HouseNational Treasure House (国宝館 kokuhōkan?), Kōfuku-ji, Nara, Nara Kongorikishi Kofukuji 2.jpg

Kofukuji Monastery Kongo Rikishi of Saikondo (417).jpg

Kongōrikishi (Niō) (木造金剛力士立像 mokuzō kongōrikishi ryūzō?)[104] By Kaikei and Unkei. There is another pair of Kongōrikishi (National Treasure) in hokkedō (法華堂?), Tōdai-ji. 1203Kamakura period, 1203 woodColored wood nioStanding pair of Niō: Agyō (阿形?) and Ungyō (吽形?) 0842.3836.3 cm (329.3 in) (Agyō) and 842.3 cm (331.6 in) (Ungyō) Nara Nara Todaiji NandaimonNandaimon (南大門?), Tōdai-ji, Nara, Nara  Agyō. Front view of a scary statue carrying a spear like object in his right hand and the palm of his left hand facing the viewer with fingers spread. Sculpted breastplate and necklace are visible.

 Ungyō. Front view of a scary statue with the right arm raised and carrying a weapon in his lowered left arm. Sculpted breastplate and necklace are visible.

Four Heavenly Kings (木造四天王立像(金堂安置) mokuzō shitennō ryūzō?)[19][105] By Yamaguchi no Ōguchi atai (山口大口費?) et al. 0650Asuka period, around 650 woodColored wood and cut-gold foil (kirikane (截金?)) on wood four heavenly kingsStanding Four Heavenly Kings 0134.8133.3 cm (52.5 in) (Jikoku-ten), 134.8 cm (53.1 in) (Zōjō-ten), 133.3 cm (52.5 in) (Kōmoku-ten), 134.2 cm (52.8 in) (Tamon-ten) Nara Ikaruga Horyuji KondoKon-dō, Hōryū-ji, Ikaruga, Nara ZojoTen viruudhaka Horyuji Kondo.jpg
Four Heavenly Kings (木造四天王立像(金堂安置) mokuzō shitennō ryūzō?)[19][106]
0750Nara period, second half of 8th century woodColored wood four heavenly kingsStanding Four Heavenly Kings 0188.5185.0 cm (72.8 in) (Jikoku-ten), 187.2 cm (73.7 in) (Zōjō-ten), 186.3 cm (73.3 in) (Kōmoku-ten), 188.5 cm (74.2 in) (Tamon-ten) Nara Nara Toshodaiji KondoKon-dō, Tōshōdai-ji, Nara, Nara Tamonten Toshodaiji.JPG
Four Heavenly Kings (木造四天王立像 mokuzō shitennō ryūzō?)[19][74][107] There are three sets of Four Heavenly Kings designated as National Treasure at Kōfuku-ji. The others are located in the North Octagonal Hall (北円堂 hokuen-dō?) and South Octagonal Hall (南円堂 nan'endō?). 0801Heian period, early 9th century woodColored wood in single-block (ichiboku) technique and cut-gold foil (kirikane (截金?)) on wood four heavenly kingsStanding Four Heavenly Kings 0164.0162.5 cm (64.0 in) (Jikoku-ten), 161.0 cm (63.4 in) (Zōjō-ten), 164.0 cm (64.6 in) (Kōmoku-ten), 153.0 cm (60.2 in) (Tamon-ten) Nara Nara Kofukuji Eastern Golden HallEastern Golden Hall (東金堂, tōkon-dō?), Kōfuku-ji, Nara, Nara Kofukuji Monastery Jikokuten of Tokondo (306).jpg
Four Heavenly Kings (木造四天王立像 mokuzō shitennō ryūzō?)[19][108] By Kōkei. There are three sets of Four Heavenly Kings designated as National Treasure at Kōfuku-ji. The others are located in the North Octagonal Hall (北円堂 hokuen-dō?) and Eastern Golden Hall (東金堂, tōkon-dō?). 1189Kamakura period, 1189 woodColored wood four heavenly kingsStanding Four Heavenly Kings 0206.6206.6 cm (81.3 in) (Jikoku-ten), 197.5 cm (77.8 in) (Zōjō-ten), 200.0 cm (78.7 in) (Kōmoku-ten), 197.2 cm (77.6 in) (Tamon-ten) Nara Nara Kofukuji South Octagonal HallSouth Octagonal Hall (南円堂 nanendō?), Kōfuku-ji, Nara, Nara Kofukuji Monastery Shitenno of Nan-endo (Tamonten) (406).jpg
Shakyamuni (Shaka Nyorai) and two attendants (木造釈迦如来及両脇侍坐像 mokuzō shaka nyorai oyobi ryōwakiji zazō?)[109]
0925Heian period, 925–931 woodCherry wood, single tree, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) shaka nyoraiSeated Shaka Nyorai and two seated attendants. 0227.9227.9 cm (89.7 in) (Shaka), 155.7 cm (61.3 in) (left att.), 153.9 cm (60.6 in) (right att.) Nara Ikaruga Horyuji Inner SanctuaryInner Sanctuary (上御堂 Kami no mi-dō?), Hōryū-ji, Ikaruga, Nara Shaka Kami no Mido Horyuji.jpg
Shakyamuni (Shaka Nyorai) (木造釈迦如来坐像 mokuzō shaka nyorai zazō?)[110]
0799Heian period, end of 8th century woodColored wood shaka nyoraiSeated Shaka Nyorai 0105.7105.7 cm (41.6 in) Nara Uda Muroji Miroku HallMiroku Hall (弥勒堂 miroku-dō?), Murō-ji, Uda, Nara Shaka Muroji Mirokudo.jpg
Shakyamuni (Shaka Nyorai) (木造釈迦如来立像 mokuzō shaka nyorai ryūzō?)[111]
0899Heian period, end of 9th century woodColored wood shaka nyoraiStanding Shaka Nyorai 0237.7237.7 cm (93.6 in) Nara Uda Muroji KondoKon-dō, Murō-ji, Uda, Nara Shaka Muroji Kondo.jpg
Eleven-faced Goddess of Mercy (木造十一面観音立像 mokuzō jūichimenkannon ryūzō?)[19][112]
0899Heian period, end of 9th century woodColored wood juichimen kannonStanding Jūichimen Kannon 0195.1195.1 cm (76.8 in) Nara Uda Muroji KondoKon-dō, Murō-ji, Uda, Nara Almost frontal view of the head and chest of a statue. A number of small heads and small statues are placed on top of the head.
Eleven-faced Goddess of Mercy (木造十一面観音立像 mokuzō jūichimenkannon ryūzō?)[19][113]
0800Heian period, first half of 9th century woodWood, natural wood surface (素地 kiji?) juichimen kannonStanding Jūichimen Kannon 0100.0100.0 cm (39.4 in) Nara Nara Hokkeji HondoHon-dō, Hokke-ji, Nara, Nara Hokkeiji Nunnery Eleven-Headed Kwannon I (303).jpg

Frontal view of the head of a sculpture of a deity. A number of small heads and small statues are placed on top of the head.

Twelve Heavenly Generals (木造十二神将立像 mokuzō jūni shinshō ryūzō?)[74][114] Supposedly each of the statues was carved by a different sculptor 1207Kamakura period, 1207 woodColored wood and cut-gold foil (kirikane (截金?)) on wood twelve heavenly generalsStanding Twelve Heavenly Generals 0126.4113.0–126.4 cm (44.5–49.8 in) Nara Nara Kofukuji Eastern Golden HallEastern Golden Hall (東金堂 tōkon-dō?), Kōfuku-ji, Nara, Nara Three-quarter view of a standing statue. The right arm is bend with the right hand in front of the breast. The left arm is also bend with the palm of the left hand pointing upward.

Kofukuji Monastery The Twelve Generals of Yakushi (423).jpg

Priest Shunjō (木造俊乗上人坐像 mokuzō shunjō shōnin zazō?)[19]
1206Kamakura period, around 1206 woodColored hinoki wood chogenSeated priest Chōgen 0081.481.4 cm (32.0 in) Nara Nara Todaiji ShunjodoShunjō-dō (俊乗堂?), Tōdai-ji, Nara, Nara Todaiji Monastery Portrait of Chogen (427).jpg
Prince Shōtoku and four attendants (木造聖徳太子坐像 mokuzō shōtoku taishi zazō?)[12][19]
1121Heian period, 1121 woodColored wood and cut-gold foil (kirikane (截金?)) on wood shotokuSeated Prince Shōtoku flanked by four seated figures: younger brother Eguri (山背?), first son Yamashiro (殖栗?), priest Eji and Somaro (卒末呂?) 0084.284.2 cm (33.1 in) (Shōtoku), 53.9 cm (21.2 in) (Eguri), 63.9 cm (25.2 in) (Yamashiro), 63.9 cm (25.2 in) (Eji), 52.4 cm (20.6 in) (Somaro) Nara Ikaruga Horyuji ShoryoinShōryō-in (聖霊院?), Hōryū-ji, Ikaruga, Nara Horyuji Monastery Shotoku Taishi of Shoryoin (331).jpg
Thousand-armed Kannon (木造千手観音立像 mokuzō senjū kannon ryūzō?)[19][115] By a sculptor of the Keiha (慶派?) school. Formerly the principal image of the Refectory (食堂 jiki-dō?) 1220Kamakura period, around 1220 woodHinoki wood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)), crystal eyes thousand armed kannonStanding Thousand-armed Kannon 0520.5520.5 cm (204.9 in) Nara Nara Kofukuji National Treasure HouseNational Treasure House (国宝館 kokuhōkan?), Kōfuku-ji, Nara, Nara
Hachiman in the guise of a seated monk (木造僧形八幡神坐像 mokuzō sōgyō hachimanjin zazō?)[19] By Kaikei 1201Kamakura period, 1201 woodColored hinoki wood hachimanSeated Hachiman 0087.187.1 cm (34.3 in) Nara Nara Todaiji HachimandonoHachiman-dono (八幡殿?), Tōdai-ji, Nara, Nara Todaiji Monastery Hachiman by Kaikei (420).jpg
Dainichi Nyorai (木造大日如来坐像 mokuzō dainichi nyorai zazō?)[116] By Unkei. 1176Heian period, 1176 woodWood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)), crystal eyes dainichi nyoraiSeated Dainichi Nyorai 0098.898.8 cm (38.9 in) Nara Nara Enjoji TahotoTahōtō, Enjō-ji, Nara, Nara Front view of a statue depicted wearing a crown and showing the Vajra Mudrā, enclosing the index finger of the left hand with the fist of the right hand.
Jizō Bosatsu (木造地蔵菩薩立像 mokuzō jizō bosatsu ryūzō?)[19][117]
0800Heian period, 9th century woodWood jizo bosatsuStanding Jizō Bosatsu 0172.7172.7 cm (68.0 in) Nara Ikaruga Horyuji Great Treasure GalleryGreat Treasure Gallery (大宝蔵院 daihōzō-in?), Hōryū-ji, Ikaruga, Nara Jizo Bosatsu Horyuji.JPG
Bishamonten (木造毘沙門天立像(金堂安置) mokuzō bishamonten ryūzō?) and Kichijōten (木造吉祥天立像(金堂安置) mokuzō kichijōten ryūzō?)[19]
1078Heian period, 1078 woodColored wood and cut-gold foil (kirikane (截金?)) on wood jizo bosatsuStanding Jizō Bosatsu 0123.2123.2 cm (48.5 in) (Bishamonten), 116.7 cm (45.9 in) (Kichijōten) Nara Ikaruga Horyuji KondoKon-dō, Hōryū-ji, Ikaruga, Nara Horyuji Monastery Bishamonten and Kichijoten of Kondo (330).jpg
Fukū Kensaku Kannon (木造不空羂索観音立像 mokuzō fukū kensaku kannon ryūzō?)[118] By Kōkei 1189Kamakura period, 1189 woodWood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) fuku kensaku kannonSeated Fukū Kensaku Kannon 0341.5341.5 cm (134.4 in) Nara Nara Kofukuji South Octagonal HallSouth Octagonal Hall (南円堂 nan'endō?), Kōfuku-ji, Nara, Nara Fukukensaku Kannon Nanendo Kofukuji.jpg
Monju Bosatsu (木造文殊菩薩坐像 mokuzō monju bosatsu zazō?)[74][119] A work of a sculptor of the Kokei school 1196Kamakura period, 1196 woodColored hinoki wood in assembled wood-block (yosegi) technique, gold paint, crystal eyes monju bosatsuSeated Monju Bosatsu 0093.993.9 cm (37.0 in) Nara Nara Kofukuji Eastern Golden HallEastern Golden Hall (東金堂 tōkon-dō?), Kōfuku-ji, Nara, Nara Three-quarter view of cross-legged seated statue placed on a throne. Both arms rest on his legs. The hair is sculpted with a top knot, which supports a sacred casket.
Bodhisattva in half-lotus position (木造菩薩半跏像 mokuzō bosatsu hankazō?) or Nyoirin Kannon (如意輪観音?)[19][120] It had been wrongly venerated as Nyoirin Kannon.[59] 0650Asuka period, second half of 7th century woodColored Camphorwood nyoirin kannonNyoirin Kannon in half-lotus position 0087.087.0 cm (34.3 in) Nara Ikaruga Chuguji HondoHon-dō, Chūgū-ji, Ikaruga, Nara Three-quarter view of a seated statue in half-lotus position. The right foot rests on the left upper leg, the right elbow rests on the right knee with the right hand close to the head. The hair of the statue is sculpted with two top-knots. There is a halo behind the statue's head.
Six Patriarchs of the Hossō sect (木造法相六祖坐像 mokuzō hossō rokuso zazō?)[12][121] By Kōkei 1188Kamakura period, 1188–1189 woodColored hinoki wood, crystal eyes patriarchs of the hosso sectSix Patriarchs of the Hossō sect: Jōtō (常騰?), Shinei (神叡?), Zenshu (善珠?), Genbō (玄昉?), Genpin (玄賓?), Gyōga (行賀?) 0084.873.3 cm (28.9 in) (Jōtō), 81.2 cm (32.0 in) (Shinei), 83.0 cm (32.7 in) (Zenshu), 84.8 cm (33.4 in) (Genbō), 77.2 cm (30.4 in) (Genpin), 74.8 cm (29.4 in) (Gyōga) Nara Nara Kofukuji South Octagonal HallSouth Octagonal Hall (南円堂 nan'endō?), Kōfuku-ji, Nara, Nara  Gyōga. Frontal view of a seated monk with the left leg propped up.

Kofukuji Monastery Hosso Patriarchs of Nanendo I (407).jpg

Kofukuji Monastery Hosso Patriarchs of Nanendo II (408).jpg

Miroku Bosatsu (木造弥勒仏坐像 mokuzō miroku butsu zazō?)[19][122] By Unkei 1212Kamakura period, 1212 woodWood, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) miroku bosatsuSeated Miroku Bosatsu 0141.5141.5 cm (55.7 in) Nara Nara Kofukuji North Octagonal HallNorth Octagonal Hall (北円堂 hokuen-dō?), Kōfuku-ji, Nara, Nara Miroku Hokuendo Kofukuji.jpg
Yakushi Nyorai and two attendants (木造薬師如来及両脇侍坐像 mokuzō yakushi nyorai oyobi ryōkyōji zazō?)[19][123]
0999Heian period, end of 10th century woodHinoki wood, single tree, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) yakushi nyoraiSeated Yakushi Nyorai (healing Buddha) and two seated attendants: Nikkō Bosatsu and Gakkō Bosatsu (Bodhisattvas of sun and moon light) 0247.2247.2 cm (97.3 in) (Yakushi), 172.1 cm (67.8 in) (each attendant) Nara Ikaruga Horyuji Lecture HallLecture Hall (講堂 Kō-dō?), Hōryū-ji, Ikaruga, Nara
Yakushi Nyorai (木造薬師如来坐像 mokuzō yakushi nyorai zazō?)[19][124]
0800Heian period, 9th century woodColored Japanese nutmeg

wood, single tree

yakushi nyoraiSeated Yakushi Nyorai 0049.749.7 cm (19.6 in) Nara Nara Nara National MuseumNara National Museum, Nara, Nara Yakushi Nyorai Nara National Museum.jpg
Yakushi Nyorai (木造薬師如来坐像 mokuzō yakushi nyorai zazō?)[19][125]
0799Heian period, end of 8th century woodJapanese Nutmeg-yew wood, single tree, natural wood surface (素地 kiji?) yakushi nyoraiSeated Yakushi Nyorai 0191.5191.5 cm (75.4 in) Nara Nara Shin Yakushiji HondoHon-dō, Shin-Yakushi-ji, Nara, Nara 12 Heavenly Generals ShinYakushiji.JPG
Yakushi Nyorai (木造薬師如来立像 mokuzō yakushi nyorai ryūzō?)[19][126]
0801Heian period, early 9th century woodJapanese nutmeg wood, single tree, natural wood surface (素地 kiji?) yakushi nyoraiStanding Yakushi Nyorai 0164.8164.8 cm (64.9 in) Nara Nara Gangoji HondoHon-dō, Gangō-ji, Nara, Nara Yakushi Nyorai Gankoji.jpg
Priest Rōben (木造良弁僧正坐像 mokuzō rōben sōjō zazō?)[19]
0899Heian period, end of 9th century woodColored hinoki wood, single tree robenSeated Rōben 0092.492.4 cm (36.4 in) Nara Nara Todaiji Founder's HallFounder's Hall (開山堂 kaisan-dō?), Tōdai-ji, Nara, Nara Todaiji Monastery Portrait of Ryoben (268).jpg
Hayatama (木造熊野速玉大神坐像 mokuzō kumano hayatama ōkami zazō?), Fusumi (木造夫須美大神坐像 mokuzō fusumi ōkami zazō?), Ketsumiko (木造家津御子大神坐像 mokuzō ketsumiko ōkami zazō?), Kunitokotachi (木造国常立命坐像 mokuzō kunitokotachi no mikoto zazō?)[19][127]
0800early Heian period, 9th century woodColored wood setFour seated Shintō gods: Hayatama, Fusumi, Ketsumiko, Kunitokotachi 0101.2101.2 cm (39.8 in) (Hayatama), 98.5 cm (38.8 in) (Fusumi), 81.2 cm (32.0 in) (Ketsumiko), 80.3 cm (31.6 in) (Kunitokotachi) Wakayama Shingu Kumano Hayatama TaishaKumano Hayatama Taisha, Shingū, Wakayama
Miniature Buddhist shrine (木造諸尊仏龕 mokuzō shoson butsugan?)[19] Brought back from China by Kūkai 0700Tang Dynasty, 8th century woodSandalwood, natural wood surface (素地, kiji?) setvarious Buddhist images 0023.123.1 cm (9.1 in) Wakayama Koya Kongobuji Treasure HallTreasure Hall (霊宝館 reihōkan?), Kongōbu-ji, Kōya, Wakayama Miniature Buddhist shrine Kongobuji.jpg
Thousand-armed Kannon (木造千手観音立像 mokuzō senjū kannon ryūzō?) and two Bodhisattvas (木造菩薩立像 mokuzō bosatsu ryūzō?)[19][128] Unusual combination of deities in this triad 0850Heian period, second half of 9th century woodWood, single tree, gold leaf over lacquer (shippaku (漆箔?)) thousand armed kannonStanding Thousand-armed Kannon and two standing Bodhisattvas, believed to be Nikkō Bosatsu and Gakkō Bosatsu (Bodhisattvas of sun and moon light) 0294.2294.2 cm (115.8 in) (Kannon), 241.5 cm (95.1 in) (Nikkō), 242.4 cm (95.4 in) (Gakkō) Wakayama Hidakagawa Dojoji HobutsudenHōbutsuden (宝佛殿?), Dōjō-ji (道成寺?), Hidakagawa, Wakayama Thousand armed Kannon Dojoji.JPG
Eight Attendants of Fudō Myōō (木造八大童子立像 mokuzō hachidai dōji ryūzō?)[12][19][129] Only six of the eight statues date to the Kamakura period and are National Treasures. The remaining two (Anokuda (阿耨達?), Shitoku (指徳?)) were produced in the 14th century and are not included in this nomination. By Unkei. Formerly enshrined in the Fudō-dō (不動堂?) 1197Kamakura period, 1197 woodColored hinoki wood, crystal eyes eight attendants of fudō myōōSix of the Eight Attendants of Fudō Myōō: Ekō (慧光?), Eki (慧喜?), Ukubaga (烏倶婆誐?), Shōjō Biku (清浄比丘?), Kongara (矜羯羅?), Seitaka (制多迦?) 0103.096.6 cm (38.0 in) (Ekō), 98.8 cm (38.9 in) (Eki), 95.1 cm (37.4 in) (Ukubaga), 97.1 cm (38.2 in) (Shōjō), 95.6 cm (37.6 in) (Kongara), 103.0 cm (40.6 in) (Seitaka) Wakayama Koya Kongobuji Treasure HallTreasure Hall (霊宝館 reihōkan?), Kongōbu-ji, Kōya, Wakayama Seitaka Doji Kongobuji.jpg

Eight Attendants I Kongobuji.jpg

Eight Attendants II Kongobuji.jpg

Miroku Bosatsu (木造弥勒仏坐像 mokuzō miroku butsu zazō?)[19]
0892Heian period, 892 woodColored hinoki wood, single tree miroku bosatsuSeated Miroku Bosatsu 0091.091.0 cm (35.8 in) Wakayama Kudoyama JisoninJison-in, Kudoyama, Wakayama
Usuki Stone Buddhas (臼杵磨崖仏 Usuki magaibutsu?)[19][130] Only National Treasure sculptures of stone. 1185late Heian period–early Kamakura period stoneColored stone set59 statues in total in four groups. (i) Furuzono group (古園石仏 furuzono sekibutsu?): 13 statues; (ii) Sannō group (山王山石仏 sannōzan sekibutsu?): 3 statues; (iii) Hoki group (ホキ石仏 hoki sekibutsu?), 1st cave: 25 statues (iv) Hoki group, 2nd cave: 18 statues 0280.026.8–280.0 cm (10.6–110.2 in) Oita UsukiUsuki, Ōita Photograph of a row of ca. ten seated stone statues in front of a rock. Three-quarter view. One of the statues is about twice as large as the others.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Usuki Stone Buddhas date to the late Heian, early Kamakura period and are therefore counted double in this table.
  2. ^ The temple uses a different association of statues with names of the generals than the national treasure nomination. Here the temple scheme is used.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Schumacher, Mark (2009). "Buddhist sculpture in Asuka and Hakuho era". Japanese Buddhist Statuary. Retrieved 2009-09-16. 
  2. ^ "Other Buddhist images of the Asuka period". Asuka Historical Museum. 1995. Retrieved 2009-09-16. 
  3. ^ Schumacher, Mark (2009). "Buddhist sculpture in Hakuho era". Japanese Buddhist Statuary. Retrieved 2009-09-16. 
  4. ^ a b Schumacher, Mark (2009). "Buddhist sculpture in Nara era". Japanese Buddhist Statuary. Retrieved 2009-09-16. 
  5. ^ Schumacher, Mark (2009). "Buddhist sculpture in Heian era". Japanese Buddhist Statuary. Retrieved 2009-09-16. 
  6. ^ F. Moran, Sherwood (1972). "Early Heian Sculpture at Its Best: Three Outstanding Examples". Artibus Asiae (Artibus Asiae Publishers) 34 (2/3): 119–161. doi:10.2307/3249644. JSTOR 3249644. 
  7. ^ Schumacher, Mark (2009). "Buddhist sculpture in Kamakura era". Japanese Buddhist Statuary. Retrieved 2009-09-16. 
  8. ^ Coaldrake, William Howard (2002) [1996]. Architecture and authority in Japan. London, New York: Routledge. p. 248. ISBN 0-415-05754-X. 
  9. ^ "Cultural Properties for Future Generations" (PDF). Tokyo, Japan: Agency for Cultural Affairs, Cultural Properties Department. March 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-08. 
  10. ^ a b c The Agency for Cultural Affairs (2008-11-01). "国指定文化財 データベース" (in Japanese). Database of National Cultural Properties. Retrieved 2009-04-16. 
  11. ^ a b Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Mary Neighbour Parent (2001). "JAANUS - Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System". Japanese Architectural and Art Historical Terminology (online ed.). Retrieved 2009-04-20. 
  13. ^ "Konjikido-donai-shozo-and-Tengai". Iwate no bunko. Retrieved 2009-06-04. 
  14. ^ "Yakushi Nyorai". Yugawa Village. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  15. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 592–594
  16. ^ a b c "国宝を訪ねて" (in Japanese). 2009-05-14. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  17. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, p. 595
  18. ^ "【国宝】願成就院の運慶作諸仏" [National Treasure, various Buddhas by Unkei]. Izunokuni. 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-22. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax "仏教索引" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  20. ^ "三井寺>名宝の紹介>秘仏>新羅明神坐像" (in Japanese). Mii-dera. 2002. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  21. ^ "三井寺>名宝の紹介>秘仏>智証大師坐像(御骨大師)" (in Japanese). Mii-dera. 2002. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  22. ^ "三井寺>名宝の紹介>秘仏>智証大師坐像(中尊大師)" (in Japanese). Mii-dera. 2002. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  23. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 562–563
  24. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 560–561
  25. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 528–531
  26. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, p. 501
  27. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 580–583
  28. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 474–475
  29. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 468–470
  30. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 558–559
  31. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, p. 459
  32. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 570–573
  33. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 546–551
  34. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 552–555
  35. ^ Schumacher, Mark (2009). "Bosatsu on clouds". Japanese Buddhist Statuary. Retrieved 2009-09-16. 
  36. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 506–507
  37. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 482–485
  38. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 492–500
  39. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 574–577
  40. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 472–473
  41. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 462–463
  42. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 508–511
  43. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 534–535
  44. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, p. 461
  45. ^ Christine Guth Kanda (1985). Shinzō. Harvard Univ Asia Center. p. 51. ISBN 0-674-80650-6. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  46. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 514–527
  47. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 578–579
  48. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, p. 460
  49. ^ "仏像紹介" (in Japanese). Gantoku-ji. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  50. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 488–489
  51. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 454–457
  52. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, p. 458
  53. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 556–557
  54. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 471
  55. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 476–481
  56. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 676–677
  57. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 678–681
  58. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 682–685
  59. ^ a b "nyoirinkannon". JAANUS - Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System. 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-19. 
  60. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 674–675
  61. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 696–701
  62. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 38–39
  63. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 40–43
  64. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 44–49
  65. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 142–145
  66. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 128–141
  67. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 32–37
  68. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, p. 322
  69. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 230–235
  70. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 52–55
  71. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 58–65
  72. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 50–51
  73. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 186–195
  74. ^ a b c d e Kofuku-ji (leaflet). Kofuku-ji. 
  75. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 312–317
  76. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 380–381
  77. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 346–347
  78. ^ a b c Yakushi-ji (leaflet). Yakushi-ji. 
  79. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 222–225
  80. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 348–349
  81. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 298–301
  82. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, p. 31
  83. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 74–75
  84. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 206–219
  85. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 309
  86. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 26–30
  87. ^ Schumacher, Mark (2009). "Birushana Buddha". Japanese Buddhist Statuary. Retrieved 2009-09-19. 
  88. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 156–161
  89. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 110–113
  90. ^ "寺宝・文化財" [Cultural Assets]. Abe Monju-in. 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-22. 
  91. ^ "国宝(美術工芸品)の指定" [National Treasure designation (Fine arts and crafts)]. Nara Prefecture. 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-22. 
  92. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 400–403
  93. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 236–241
  94. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 242–243
  95. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 152–154
  96. ^ Schumacher, Mark (2009). "Ishidoro". Japanese Buddhist Statuary. Retrieved 2009-09-16. 
  97. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 108–109
  98. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 244–245
  99. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 76,78
  100. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 358–359
  101. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 338–343
  102. ^ Christine Guth Kanda (1985). Shinzō. Harvard Univ Asia Center. pp. 81–85. ISBN 0-674-80650-6. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  103. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 146–151
  104. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 18–23
  105. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 302–308
  106. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 246–249
  107. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 80–89
  108. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 118–121
  109. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 320–321
  110. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 438–442
  111. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 418–423
  112. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 424–427
  113. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 275–277
  114. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 90–97
  115. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, p. 122
  116. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 413–415
  117. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, p. 361
  118. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 114–117
  119. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 77,79
  120. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 362–367
  121. ^ "木造法相六祖坐像(もくぞうほつそうろくそざぞう) 「国宝」「重要文化財」 文化財 法相宗大本山 興福寺" (in Japanese). Kofuku-ji. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  122. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 104–107
  123. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 318–319
  124. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 199
  125. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 182–185
  126. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 164–165
  127. ^ Ise Jingu and Treasures of Shinto (exhibition leaflet). Tokyo National Museum. 2009. 
  128. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 668–669
  129. ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 658–665
  130. ^ James M. Goodwin; Janet R. Goodwin. "The Usuki Site". Archived from the original on 2008-12-03. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Ogawa, Kouzou; Seki, Nobuko; Yamazaki, Takayuki (2009). 仏像. 山溪カラー名鑑 (in Japanese) (2nd ed.). 1-19-13 Akasaka Minato-ku Tokyo Japan: YAMA-KEI. ISBN 978-4-635-09031-5. .