List of medieval Mongol tribes and clans

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Mongol Empire c.1207

The qualifier Mongol Tribes was established as an umbrella term in the early 13th century, when Temüjin (later Genghis Khan) united the different tribes under his control and established the Mongol Empire. There were 19 Nirun tribes (marked (N) in the list) that descended from Bodonchar and 18 Darligin tribes (marked (D) in the list),[1] which were also core Mongolic tribes but not descending from Bodonchar. The unification created a new common ethnic identity as Mongols. Descendants of those clans form the Mongolian nation and other Inner Asian people .

Almost all of tribes and clans mentioned in the Secret History of the Mongols [2] and some tribes mentioned in the Tarikh-i-Rashidi.

Khamag Mongol confederation included Temüjin's clan[edit]


[3][4] A Turco-Mongol Christian (Nestorian) nation.[5][6] Prominent Christian figures were Tooril and Sorghaghtani Beki.

  • Tumen Tubegun; Mongolian: Tümen Tübegün
  • Dungkhait; Mongolian:Dongoid
  • Ubchikh
  • Jirgin
  • Ongchijid

Tatar confederation[edit]

  • Airi'ut, mentioned in connection with Ambakhai's death
  • Buiri'ut, mentioned in connection with Ambakhai's death
  • Juyin other Tatars, or maybe a military organization, mentioned in connection with Ambakhai's death
  • Chakhan Tatar, mentioned in connection with the final destruction of the Tatar; Mongolian: Tsagaan Tatar
  • Alchi Tatar, mentioned in connection with the final destruction of the Tatar
  • Duta'ut Tatar, mentioned in connection with the final destruction of the Tatar
  • Alukhai Tatar, mentioned in connection with the final destruction of the Tatar
  • Tariat Tatar[7]

Merkit confederation[edit]

The Merkits were a Mongol tribe who opposed the rise of Temüjin, and kidnapped his new wife Börte. They were defeated and absorbed into the Mongol nation early in the 13th century.

  • Uduyid; Mongolian:Uduid Mergid
  • Uvas, Uvas Mergid
  • Khaad, Khaad Mergid




Mentioned in the Jami' al-tawarikh.

Khamag Mongol[edit]

Other groups mentioned in Secret History of the Mongols[edit]

Groups whose affiliation is not really made clear: these groups may or may not be related to any of the tribes and clans mentioned above:

  • Olkhonud, the clan of Temüjin's mother (D); Mongolian: Olkhunuud
  • Khongirad, the tribe Börte, Temüjin's first wife, descends from (D)
  • some clans whose members join Temüjin after the first victory over the Merkit and the separation from Jamukha:
    • Jalair'
    • Tarkhut
    • Bishi'ut; Mongolian: Bishiüd
    • Bayads
    • Khinggiadai (D), Khinggit, subclan of Olhunoud; Mongolian: Khingid
    • Gorlos (D), subclan of Olhunoud
    • Ikires; Mongolian: Ikhires
    • Sakhait
    • Arulat (Mongolian:Arulad)(D)
    • Oronar
  • some clans that take part in Sangums conspiracy:
    • Khardakit
    • Ebugedjin; Mongolian: Övögjin
    • Kharta'at (N?)
  • Khorulas, clan that joins Chinggis at the Baljun lake
  • Tokhura'ut
  • Negus or Chonos tribe, clan whose chief is killed together with the 70 Chinos princes

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Jami' al-tawarikh
  2. ^ Erich Haenisch, Die geheime Geschichte der Mongolen, Leipzig 1948
  3. ^ Kereys, Files about origins of Kirgiz-Kaisak(Kazak) people, Muhamedzhan Tynyshbaev
  4. ^ Kereys, Genealogy of türks, kirgizes, kazakhs and ruling dynasties, Shakarim Qudayberdy-uly
  5. ^ R. Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes, New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers University Press, 1970, p191.
  6. ^ Moffett, A History of Christianity in Asia pp. 400-401.
  7. ^ Tarikh-i Rashidi