List of Mongolic states

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This is a list of Mongolic states. "Mongolia" is understood in the broader historical sense (see Greater Mongolia and Mongolian Plateau). Aside from the Mongol Empire and its descendants, the proto-Mongols and their descendants likely are responsible for many states such as the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Khitan[1][2][3] The list of states is chronological but follows the development of different dynasties. Whether some ancient peoples such as the Xianyu and the Xiongnu were proto-Mongol has not yet been definitely confirmed.

Ancient and postclassical states[edit]

Name Years Area Map Capital
Bida state
(Our state)[4]
Xianyu people – an ancestor of the Xiongnu (not yet confirmed to be Mongolic)
Zhongshan VI BC–296 BC
Xiongnu (not yet confirmed to be Mongolic) 209 BC–93 AD 4,030,000 km2(176 BC)[5] Hunnu Empire.jpg Luut city
(Dragon city,
Lungcheng)
Mongolia
Yueban 160–490 Nirun, Tuyuhun, Yueban, Tuoba Wei.jpg
Han Zhao
(Former Han)
304–329 2,000,000 km2(316 AD)[6] Lishi (304-305)
Liting (305-308)
Puzi (308-309)
Pingyang (309-318)
Chang'an (318-329)
Shanggui (329)
Northern Liang 397–460 China400ce.png Jiankang (397-398)
Zhangye (398-412)
Guzang (412-439)
Jiuquan (440-441)
Dunhuang (441-442)
Shanshan (442)
Gaochang (442-460)
Xia state 407–431 Tongwan (418-427)
Shanggui (427-428)
Pingliang (428-430)
Xianbei
Xianbei state 93–234 Mongolia III.jpg Orda,
Khangai Mountains,
Mongolia
Western Qin 385–431 Yongshicheng (385-386)
Wanchuan (386-388, 400, 410-412)

Jincheng (388-395)
Xicheng (395-400)
Dujianshan (409-410)
Tanjiao (412)
Fuhan (412-429)
Dinglian (429-430)
Nan'an (430-431)

Murong Xianbei
Former Yan 337–370 Jicheng (337-341)
Longcheng (341-350)
Jicheng (350-357)
Yecheng (357-370)
Western Yan 384–394 Chang'an (385-386)
Zhangzi (386-394)
Later Yan 384–409 Asia 400ad.jpg Zhongshan (386-397)
Longcheng (397-409)
Tuyuhun Kingdom 284–672 Nirun, Tuyuhun, Yueban, Tuoba Wei.jpg Fuqi
Tuoba Xianbei states
Southern Liang 397–414 Asia 400ad.jpg Lianchuan (397-399)
Ledu (399, 402-406, 410-414)
Xiping (399-402)
Guzang (406-410)
Dai state 315–377 Shengle
Northern Wei 386–535 2,000,000 km2(450)[6] Nirun, Tuyuhun, Yueban, Tuoba Wei.jpg Shengle (386-398,
capital of former
Dai, near modern Huhhot)
Pingcheng (398-493)
Luoyang (493-534)
Chang'an (534-535)
Eastern Wei 534–550 1,000,000 km2(550 AD)[6] 西魏・東魏・梁.PNG Luoyang (534)
Yecheng (534-550)
Western Wei 535–557 1,300,000 km2(557 AD)[6] Chang'an
Yuwen Xianbei
Northern Zhou 557–581 1,500,000 km2(577 AD)[6] Northern and Southern Dynasties 560 CE.png Chang'an
Nirun
Nirun or Rouran Khaganate 330–555 4,000,000 km2(405 AD)[6][7] Nirun, Tuyuhun, Yueban, Tuoba Wei.jpg Mumo City, in Mongolia
Khitans (sometimes considered to be Para-Mongolic)
Liao dynasty 907–1125 2,600,000 km2(947)[7][8]
4,000,000 km2(1111)
Mongolia XI.jpg Shangjing
Dongdan Kingdom 926–936
Northern Liao 1122–1123
Kara-Khitan Khanate 1124/1125–1221 2,500,000 km2(1210)[7] KaraKhitaiAD1200.png Balasagun
Eastern Liao 1211–1220
Khar-Khitan Sultanate 1220s–1306
Tatabi (Kumo Xi)
Great Xi 1123
Khanates in the X-XII centuries
Khamag Mongol Khanate 900s–1206 Mongol Empire c.1207.png
Khereid Khanate 900s–1203
Merkit Khanate XI–mid XII
Naiman Khanate –1204
Tatar Khanate VI—X/(IX – mid XII?)
Flag of the Mongol Empire.svg Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire 1206–1368 33,000,000 km2[7][9] Mongol dominions.jpg Avarga (1206–35)
Karakorum (1235–60)
Dadu (1260–1368)
Yuan dynasty 1271-1368 14,000,000 km2(1310)[8] Yuan Dynasty 1294.png Khanbaliq
(Beijing)
Flag of Golden Horde-2-.svg Golden Horde
Golden Horde 1240–1502 6,000,000 km2(1310)[7] MongolEmpireDivisions1300.png Sarai Batu
Great Horde 1466–1502
Flag of the Chagatai Khanate.svg Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate 1225–1340s 3,500,000 km2(1310)[7][8] Chagatai Khanate map en.svg Almaliq
Qarshi
Western Chagatai Khanate 1340s–1370
Moghulistan 1340–1462 Mongolia XVI.png
Kara Del Khanate 1383–1513
Flag of the Ilkhanate.svg Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate 1256–1335 3,750,000 km2
[7][8]
Ilkhanate in 1256–1353.PNG Maragha (1256–1265)
Tabriz (1265–1306)
Soltaniyeh (1306–1335)
Chobanids 1335–1357 IranaftertheIlkhanate.png Tabriz
Injuids 1335–1357 Baghdad (Till 1411)
Basra (1411-1432)
Jalayirid Sultanate 1335–1432 Baghdad (Till 1411)
Basra (1411-1432)
Arghun dynasty 1479?–1599?
Genghisid Mongolian Khaganate
Post-Imperial Mongolia or Mongolian Khaganate
1368–1691 5,000,000 km2(1550)[8] Mongolia XVI.png Shangdu (1368–69)
Yingchang (1369–70)
Karakorum (1371–88)
Khotogoid Khanate
(subject of the Mongolian Khaganate)
late XVI – late XVII Mongolia XVII.png in Mongolia
Oirats - Non-Genghisid states
Four Oirat 1399–1634 1,000,000 km2
(15th - late 16th)
~1,600,000 km2
(early 17th century)
Mongolia XVI.png
Dzungar Khanate 1634–1758 3,500,000—4,000,000 km2 Mongolia XVII.png
Khoshut Khanate 1642?–1717 ~1,400,000 km2
Kalmyk Khanate 1630–1771
Timurid states (Persianate Turco-Mongol states)
Timurid dynasty 1370–1507 4,400,000 km2
(1405)
Das Reich Timur-i Lenks (1365-1405).GIF Samarkand (1370–1505)
Herat(1505–1507)
Mughal Empire 1526–1857 3,200,000 km2
(1700)
The Mughal Empire.jpg Agra (1526–1571)
Fatehpur Sikri (1571–1585)
Lahore (1585–1598)
Agra (1598–1648)
Shahjahanabad/Delhi (1648–1857)

Modern states[edit]

Name Years Area Map Capital
Balagad state
(Buryats)
1919–1926[10][11][12][13] In Kizhinginsky District, Buryatia
Republic of Oirat-Kalmyk 1930 Kalmykia
Republic of Southern Mongolia 1945 In Inner Mongolia
Flag of Mongolia (1911-1921).svg State of Mongolia
(Bogd Khaganate)
1911-1924 Mongolia 1915.jpg Ikh Khuree
(Ulaanbaatar)
Flag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1940-1992).svg People's Republic of Mongolia 1924-1992 Ulaanbaatar
Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia 1992–present 1,564,115.75 km2 Un-mongolia.png

Autonomous areas[edit]

In Russia[edit]

Name Years Capital Area Map
State of Buryat-Mongolia 1917–1921 Chita
Mongol-Buryat Autonomous Oblast 1922–1923
Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Oblast 1921–1923
Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1923–1958 Ulan-Ude Buryat-Mongol ASSR in 1925.jpg
Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1958–1992 Russia - Buryat Republic (2008-01).svg
Republic of Buryatia 1992-present 351,300 km2
Agin Buryat-Mongol National Okrug 1937–1958 Aginskoye Russia - Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (2008-01).svg
Agin-Buryat National Okrug 1958–1977
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug 1977–2008 9,6002
Ust-Orda Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Okrug 1937–1958 Ust-Ordynsky RussiaUst-OrdaBuryatia2007-07.svg
Ust-Orda Buryat National Okrug 1958–1978
Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug 1978–2008 22,1382
Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast 1920–1935
1957–1958
Astrakhan (till 1928)
Elista
Атлас Союза Советских Социалистических Республик 1928 - Автономная Калмыцкая область.jpg
Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1935–1943
1958–1990
Elista Russia - Republic of Kalmykia (2008-01).svg
Kalmyk Soviet Socialist Republic 1990–1992
Kalmyk Republic-Halmg-Tangch 1992–1994
Kalmyk Republic 1994–present 76,100 km2

In China[edit]

Name Years Capital Area Map
Mengjiang state 1936–1945 Kalgan
(Khaalgan)
Mengjiang.png
Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region 1947–present Huhhot 1,183,000 km2
Inner Mongolia in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Gansu Province
Subei Mongol Autonomous County Location of Subei within Gansu (China).png
Hebei Province
Weichang Manchu and Mongol Autonomous County
Heilongjiang Province
Dorbod Mongol Autonomous County
Jilin Province
Qian Gorlos Mongol Autonomous County
Liaoning Province
Harqin Left Mongol Autonomous County
Fuxin Mongol Autonomous County
Qinghai Province
Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Qinghai subdivisions - Haixi.svg
Henan Mongol Autonomous County
Xinjiang Province
Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture Korla 462,700 km2
China Xinjiang Bayingolin.svg
Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture Bortala
(Bortal)
China Xinjiang Bortala.svg
Hoboksar Mongol Autonomous County Hoboksar
(Khovogsair)
Location of Hoboksar within Xinjiang (China).png

See also[edit]

Maps[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Janhunen 2003b, pp. 391–394.
  2. ^ Janhunen 2003a, pp. 1–3.
  3. ^ Andrews 1999, p. 72.
  4. ^ The Blue Chronicle, Vanchinbalyn Injinash
  5. ^ Claudio Cioffi-Revilla, J. Daniel Rogers, Steven P. Wilcox, & Jai Alterman, "Computing the Steppes: Data Analysis for Agent-Based Modeling of Polities in Inner Asia", Proceedings of the 104th Annual Meeting of the Amer. Pol. Sci. Assoc., Boston, Massachusetts, p. 8 August 28–31, (2008)
  6. ^ a b c d e f Rein Taagepera "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.", Social Science History Vol. 3, 115-138 (1979)
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Jonathan M. Adams, Thomas D. Hall and Peter Turchin (2006). East-West Orientation of Historical Empires.Journal of World-Systems Research (University of Connecticut). 12 (no. 2): 219–229.
  8. ^ a b c d e Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly 41 (3): 475–504.
  9. ^ Morgan. The Mongols. p. 5.
  10. ^ Бидия Дандарон (Russian)
  11. ^ Балагатское движение (Russian)
  12. ^ Теократическое движение в Хоринском ведомстве Бурятии :1919–1926 гг. (Russian)
  13. ^ БАЛАГАТСКОЕ ДВИЖЕНИЕ (Russian)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Andrews, Peter A. (1999). Felt tents and pavilions: the nomadic tradition and its interaction with princely tentage, Volume 1. Melisende. ISBN 1-901764-03-6. 
  • Janhunen, Juha (2003a). "Proto-Mongolic". In Janhunen, J. The Mongolic languages. pp. 1–29. 
  • Janhunen, Juha (2003b). "Para-Mongolic". In Janhunen, J. The Mongolic languages. pp. 391–402. 
  • Weiers, Michael (ed.) (1986): Die Mongolen. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
  • Dughlát Muhammad Haidar, Norbert Elias, Edward Denison Ross - The Tarikh-i-rashidi
  • Henry Hoyle Howorth-History of the Mongols
  • Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank -The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907–1368
  • William Bayne Fisher, Peter Jackson, Laurence Lockhart, J. A. Boyle -The Cambridge history of Iran, 5
  • Konstantin Nikolaevich Maksimov - Kalmykia in Russia's past and present national policies and administrative system