Lule Sami language
|Native to||Norway, Sweden|
Lule Sami is 4 on this map
Lule Sami (julevsámegiella) is a Uralic, Sami language spoken in Lule Lappmark, i.e. around the Lule River, Sweden and in the northern parts of Nordland county in Norway, especially Tysfjord municipality, where Lule Sami is an official language. It is written in the Latin script, having an official alphabet.
- 1 Status
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Orthography
- 4 Grammar
- 5 References
- 6 External links
With 1,500 to 2,000 speakers it is the second largest of all Sami languages. It is reported that the number of native speakers is in sharp decline among the younger generations. The language has, however, been standardised in 1983 and elaborately cultivated ever since.
The orthography used for Lule Sámi is written using an extended form of the Latin script.
|B b||/p/, /b/|
|D d||/t/, /d/|
|E e||/eː/, /ie̯/||/ie̯/ when unstressed.|
|G g||/k/, /ɡ/|
|K k||/k/, /kʰ/||Postaspirated at the beginning of a stressed syllable.|
|O o||/uo̯/||Only unstressed.|
|P p||/p/, /pʰ/||Postaspirated at the beginning of a stressed syllable.|
|T t||/t/, /tʰ/||Postaspirated at the beginning of a stressed syllable.|
|Å å||/o/, /oː/|
Traditionally, the character n-acute (Ń/ń) has been used to represent the [ŋ] sound, found, for example, in the English word "song". In place of n-acute (found in Unicode, but not in Latin-1 or traditional Nordic keyboards), many have used ñ or even ng. In modern orthography, such as in the official publications of the Swedish government and the recently published translation of the New Testament, it is usually replaced with ŋ, in accordance with the orthography of many other Sami languages.
Lule Sámi has seven cases:
Like the other Uralic languages, the nominative singular is unmarked and indicates the subject of a predicate. The nominative plural is also unmarked and is always formally the same as the genitive singular.
The genitive singular is unmarked and looks the same as the nominative plural. The genitive plural is marked by an -j. The genitive is used:
- to indicate possession
- with prepositions
- with postpositions.
The inessive marker is -n in the singular and the plural, when it is then preceded by the plural marker -j. This case is used to indicate:
- where something is
- who has possession of something
- where something is going
- who is receiving something
- the indirect object
The elative marker is -s in the singular and the plural, when it is then preceded by the plural marker -j. This case is used to indicate:
- where something is coming from
The comitative marker in the singular is -jn and -j in the plural, which means that it looks like the genitive plural. The comitative is used to state with whom or what something was done.
The personal pronouns have three numbers - singular, plural and dual. The following table contains personal pronouns in the nominative and genitive/accusative cases.
|First person (singular)||I||mån||my||muv|
|Second person (singular)||you (thou)||dån||your, yours||duv|
|Third person (singular)||he, she||sån||his, her||suv|
|First person (dual)||we (two)||måj||our||munnu|
|Second person (dual)||you (two)||dåj||your||dunnu|
|Third person (dual)||they (two)||såj||theirs||sunnu|
|First person (plural)||we||mij||our||mijá|
|Second person (plural)||you||dij||your||dijá|
|Third person (plural)||they||sij||their||sijá|
The next table demonstrates the declension of a personal pronoun he/she (no gender distinction) in various cases:
- first person
- second person
- third person
Lule Sami has 5 grammatical moods:
and 2 compound tenses:
Lule Sami, like Finnish, the other Sámi languages and some Estonian dialects, has a negative verb. In Lule Sami, the negative verb conjugates according to tense (past and non-past), mood (indicative, imperative and optative), person (1st, 2nd and 3rd) and number (singular, dual and plural).
- Lule Sami at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- "To which languages does the Charter apply?". European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Council of Europe. p. 3. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Lule Sami". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Spiik, Nils-Erik: Lulesamisk grammatik
- Grundström, Harald: Lulesamisches Wörterbuch
- Kintel, Anders 1991: Syntaks og ordavledninger i lulesamisk. Kautokeino : Samisk utdanningsråd.
- Wiklund, K.B. 1890: Lule-lappisches Wörterbuch. Helsinki: Suomalais-ugrilaisen seuran toimituksia ; 1
|Lule Sami language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|