Cromwell tank

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Tank, Cruiser, Mk VIII, Cromwell (A27M)
Cromwell in the Kubinka Museum.jpg
Cromwell Mk IVd in the Kubinka Tank Museum
Type Cruiser tank
Place of origin United Kingdom
Service history
In service 1944–1955
Used by British Army, Israeli Army, Greek Army, Portuguese Army
Wars World War II, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Korean War
Production history
Designer Leyland, then Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Company from 1942[1]
Manufacturer Nuffield Mechanisation and Aero
Unit cost £10,000[2]
Number built 4,016
Specifications
Weight 27.6 long tons (28.0 t)
Length 20 ft 10 in (6.35 m)
Width 9 ft 6 12 in (2.908 m)
Height 8 ft 2 in (2.49 m)
Crew 5 (Commander, gunner, loader/radio operator, driver, front gunner)

Armour 3 inches (76 mm) on Mk.IV, 4 inches (100 mm) on Mk.V
Main
armament
Ordnance QF 75 mm
with 64 rounds
Secondary
armament
2 x 7.92 mm Besa machine gun
with 4,950 rounds
Engine Rolls-Royce Meteor V12 petrol
600 hp (450 kW)
Power/weight 21.4 hp/tonne
Transmission Merritt-Brown Z.5 gearbox (five forward and one reverse gear) driving rear sprockets
Suspension Improved Christie
Ground clearance 16 inches (410 mm)
Fuel capacity 110 imp gal (500 l) + optional 30 imp gal (140 l) auxiliary
Operational
range
170 miles (270 km) on roads, 80 mi (130 km) cross country[3]
Speed 40 mph (64 km/h) with 3.7:1 final reduction drive

The Cromwell tank, or Tank, Cruiser, Mk VIII, Cromwell (A27M),[a] was one of the most successful of the series of cruiser tanks fielded by Britain in the Second World War. Named after the English Civil War leader Oliver Cromwell, the Cromwell was the first tank put into service by the British to combine a dual-purpose gun, high speed from the powerful and reliable Meteor engine, and reasonable armour, in a balanced package. Its design formed the basis of the later Comet tank.

The name "Cromwell" was actually applied to three different vehicles during development. Early Cromwell development led to the creation of the A24 Cavalier. Later Cromwell development led to the creation of the competing Tank, Cruiser, Mk VIII, Centaur (A27L) design. The Centaur tank was closely related to the Cromwell, both vehicles being externally of very similar appearance. Cromwell and Centaur differed in the engine used. While the Centaur had the 340 hp Liberty engine, the Cromwell had the significantly more powerful 600 hp Meteor.

The Cromwell first saw action in the Battle of Normandy in June 1944. The tank equipped the armoured reconnaissance regiments of the Royal Armoured Corps, in the 7th Armoured Division, 11th Armoured Division and the Guards Armoured Division. While the armoured regiments of the latter two divisions were equipped with M4 Shermans, the armoured regiments of the 7th Armoured Division were equipped with Cromwell tanks. The Centaurs were not used in combat except for those fitted with a 95mm howitzer, which were used in support of the Royal Marines during the invasion of Normandy.

Development[edit]

Initial designs: A23, A24[edit]

Development of the Cromwell and Centaur dates to 1940, as the Crusader tank was being readied for service. The General Staff was aware that the Crusader would become obsolete, and in late 1940 they set out the specifications for the new tank to replace it. The tank was to be fitted with the QF 6 pounder gun and was expected to enter service in 1942.

Vauxhall responded with the A23, a scaled down version of their A22 Churchill infantry tank. This would have had 75 mm of frontal armour, used a 12-cylinder Bedford engine, carried a crew of five and would have the same suspension as the A22.

Nuffield submitted the A24, heavily based on its Crusader design and powered by its version of the Liberty engine, a V-12 design dating the late days of World War I and now thoroughly outdated. Nevertheless, as the design was based on the Crusader, it was expected it could be put into production rapidly.

The final entry was from Leyland and Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon (BRC&W). Their design[b] was similar to the Nuffield, but with different suspension and tracks.[4]

The designs were received and examined in January 1941, with Nuffield's A24 being declared the winner on 17 January. Six prototypes of the Cromwell were ordered for the spring of 1942. These arrived four months late and by this time the design was already outdated. It was put into production anyway, but in service it proved entirely underpowered and only a small number were built.

Delays in the A24 program led to demands to get the QF 6 pounder into service earlier. This led to a series of up-gunned Crusaders mounting the 6-pounder.[5]

Creation of the Meteor engine[edit]

Main article: Rolls-Royce Meteor

With the start of the war, Rolls-Royce ended car production and set up a design team looking for other ways to use their design capability. The team formed under the direction of Roy Robotham at Clan Foundry near Belper, north of Derby. To start works, they began recovering and refurbishing parts from crashed Merlin engines with the intention of using them for non-aviation purposes.

In October 1940 Robotham met with Henry Spurrier of Leyland Motors to discuss British tank design. The Tank Board desperately needed a more powerful tank engine to replace the aging Liberty. Robotham and Spurrier decided to attempt to fit a refurbished and re-worked Rolls-Royce Merlin engine to a Leyland tank for testing. They removed the supercharger from a Merlin Mk. III to downgrade the performance to a suitable level for tank use, reversed the direction of engine rotation to match tank transmissions, and fitted the resulting engine to a Leyland-built Crusader.

Delivered to Aldershot on 6 April 1941, the test team had trouble timing its runs because it was so fast, estimating it reached 50 miles per hour (80 km/h). Everyone was so impressed by this display that Leyland arranged to start production of 1,000 examples of the engine as the Meteor. They planned to fit this to BRC&W-built versions of their original A24 submission.

Design splits, and production commences: A24, A27L, A27M[edit]

Refitting the design of the A24 Cromwell for the Meteor engine was not acceptable to Nuffield, and hence a new specification of tank was created working with Leyland, the A27 Cromwell.

In mid-1941, Leyland changed its mind, concerned about cooling problems. This was a major concern for the Tank Board, as cooling issues had been a major problem for the previous generation of Crusader and Covenanter tanks. The Tank board was still committed to the Meteor, but to avoid dedicating all resources into a potentially flawed design, the design was split into three separate vehicles:

  • A24 Cromwell I under Nuffield, later known as Cavalier. This was based on the existing specification of Liberty engine and Wilson steering, working from experience learned with the Crusader.
  • A27L Cromwell II under Leyland, later known as Centaur. This was to be based on a revised and upgraded Liberty engine and the newly available Merrit-Brown gearbox as used on the Churchill tank.
  • A27M Cromwell III under BRC&W, which carried the Cromwell name through to production and service. This was to be based on the new Meteor engine and the Merrit-Brown gearbox, but was also to be designed such that the Liberty engine could be fitted if problems arose.

These early design designations of Cromwell I, II, and III are not to be confused with the later production designations of Cromwell I, II, etc. which were production variants of the A27M.

While Leyland continued with the Liberty under A27L, the Tank Board continued with the Meteor engine by placing an order directly with Rolls-Royce. Leyland also suggested using a diesel engine of their own design, although this was later abandoned.

Cromwell's cooling system was a new design and put through over 9 months of testing in a variety of configurations. This included the development of new fan drives and inlet louvers which can be seen on the Cromwell engine deck. The resulting system for Meteor-powered tank delivered both the necessary cooling performance, and reduced the power lost in driving the cooling system from 90 hp to 30 hp.[6] This made the performance improvement of Meteor over the Liberty even more pronounced and left room for expected development of the A27.

The first (mild steel) prototype of a Meteor-powered Cromwell was delivered to the Army for trials in March 1942,[7] several months before the A24 that was supposed to precede it, and also prior to the A27L Centaur pilot vehicle. With nearly 600 hp (450 kW) it proved to be exceptionally mobile when tested.

Orders were placed for both A27L and A27M versions as there were concerns about the production rate of the Meteor. All of Rolls Royce's production capacity was engaged in producing the Merlin engine for aircraft, and thus production of the Meteor was initially based solely on recovered crashed aircraft, many Meteor engines still showing crash damage. Additional sources for manufacturing the Meteor engine were investigated. Even when assigned reduced production quotas, BRC&W proved unable to meet the demand for Cromwell, and Leyland eventually took over production of both A27L and A27M versions.

Rover enters[edit]

Rolls was at this time having trouble meeting demand for the Merlin, let alone the Meteor. Meanwhile, Rover was having troubles developing Frank Whittle's Power Jets W.2 jet engine design due to increasing animosity between the engineers at Power Jets and Rover. Things became particularly heated when Whittle learned that Rover had set up a secret lab to develop their own versions of the design. Whittle had, during the same period, contacted Rolls for help delivering some of the required parts that Rover proved unable to produce.

A solution to both their problems was offered by Ernest Hives, a Rolls board member, who had met Whittle and was fascinated by the jet engine. Hives called a meeting with his counterpart at Rover, Spencer Wilks, and the two met late in 1942 at the Swan and Royal pub in Clitheroe. Hives offered to trade the Meteor for the W.2, an offer Wilks jumped at. Rover set up production at their Tyseley factory, and an additional line was set up by Morris Motors in Coventry.

Production began in November 1942. That month, new names were given to all three designs; the original A24 Cromwell I became the Cavalier, the Liberty powered A27L Cromwell II became Centaur, and the Meteor powered A27M kept the name Cromwell. It would take considerable time for Rover to make ready production lines for the Meteor, and it was not until a few months later, in January 1943, that sufficient Meteor engines were available and the A27M Cromwell began production. The official handover of the Meteor and W.2 took place on 1 January 1943.

Alongside Cromwell production, Centaur production design also allowed for the later conversion to the Meteor engine and many Centaurs were converted to Cromwell. A small number were retro-fitted for trials as Cromwell III and Cromwell X. Larger numbers were fitted with the Meteor engine on the production line as Cromwell III and IV (not to be confused with the earlier Cromwell III design project).[8]

Early trials[edit]

The first real field test of the design was carried out in August–September 1943, when examples of the Centaur, Cromwell, Sherman M4A2 (diesel engine) and Sherman M4A4 (multi-bank petrol engine) were all tested in Exercise Dracula, a 2,000 mile long trip around Britain. The Shermans proved to be the most reliable, by far, requiring 420 hours of specialist fitter attention over a total distance travelled of 13,986 miles (22,508 km). This corresponds to 0.03 hours per mile. In comparison, the Cromwells drove 11,582 miles (18,639 km) and required 814 hours, or 0.07 hours per mile. The Centaur managed only 8,492 miles (13,667 km) due to constant breakdown, and required 742 hours, or 0.087 hours per mile.[9]

The Cromwell and Centaur were given additional time to work out these problems. The Cromwell's problems were mostly related to oil leaks and brake and clutch failures, an observer noting that these were well-known and should already have been corrected. The crews, however, expressed their love for the design, and especially its speed and handling. The Centaur was largely dismissed, with one observer expressing his hope that units were being equipped with it only for training purposes. The same reviewers unanimously supported the Sherman.[9] A similar test in November demonstrated the Cromwell was improving, while the underpowered Centaur fared no better than the first test.

Final specification[edit]

The production model design was finalised on 2 February 1944 when Leyland released specifications for what they called the "Battle Cromwell".

This included a number of minor changes to the basic design, including 6 mm (0.24 in) of extra armour below the crew compartment, the introduction of an all-round vision cupola for the commander, seam welding all joints to waterproof and strengthen the tank, and standardizing on the A27M version with Meteor engine and Merritt-Brown transmission.

The Cromwell Final Specification was applied part way through the production of Cromwell III and IV, changing the appearance and specification of both vehicles. The specification was later improved toward the end of the war with the Cromwell VII, resulting in an upgrade programme.

Centaur and Cavalier never met the requirements to enter front-line service. Most were used for training, although a few notable exceptions were used in action.

Production[edit]

Total A27 production consisted of 4,016 tanks, 950 of which were Centaurs and 3,066 Cromwells. In addition, 375 Centaur hulls were built to be fitted with an anti-aircraft gun turret; only 95 of these were completed.

Production was led by Leyland Motors on Centaur, and Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Company on Cromwell. Several other British firms also built Centaur and Cromwell tanks, however, as the numbers required were greater than any one company could deliver. Companies contracted to build the tanks included English Electric, Harland and Wolff, John Fowler & Co., LMS Railway, Metro-Cammell, Morris Motors and Ruston-Bucyrus.[3]

Production of Cromwell and Centaur was split into two different groups.[10] Cromwell was to be built by BRC&W and Metro-Carmela while Centaur was to be built by Leyland, English-Electric, Harland & Wolf, John Fowler & Co., LMS, Morris, Ruston-Bucyrus. Nuffield also switched production to Centaur when Cavalier completed. To increase Cromwell production capacity, English Electric switched from manufacturing Centaur to Cromwell, but remained tooled for Centaur. This resulted in a number of Cromwells being built with Centaur hulls. By January 1943, when production started, Leyland had become the production and design lead for A27 series including subcontractors producing components.[7] Records show that John Fowler & Co. also produced both varieties.

Vauxhall produced two Cromwell pilot models - with a turret similar to that of the Churchill - in the expectation that they would build Cromwells once production of Churchill was terminated in 1943 but Churchill production was extended and Vauxhall withdrew from Cromwell programme.[11]

Design[edit]

Silhouettes of M4 Sherman (top) and Cromwell (bottom) together

Hull[edit]

The frame was of riveted construction, though welding was used later. The armour plate was then bolted to the frame; large bosses on the outside of the plate were used on the turret.

The suspension was of the Christie type, with long helical springs (in tension) angled back to keep the hull sides low. Of the five road wheels each side, four had shock absorbers. The tracks were driven by sprocketed wheels at the rear and tension adjusted at the front idler, this being standard British practice. Some variants were produced with 14-inch-wide (360 mm) tracks; later, 15.5-inch tracks were used. As with previous Christie-suspension cruiser tanks, there were no track return rollers, the track being supported instead on the tops of the road wheels, known as the "slack-track" design. The side of the hull was made up of two spaced plates, the suspension units between them, and the outer plate having cutouts for the movement of the road-wheel axles.

The gearbox had five forward and one reverse gears. The first gear was for "confined spaces, on steep inclines or...sharp turns". The transmission was the new Merrit-Brown Z.5, which offered differential steering without clutching or braking, a major advance on previous designs. It gave the Cromwell superb maneuverability, with only the German Tiger I, using a similar design, able to match it.

The Meteor engine delivered 540 hp at 2,250 rpm giving the Cromwell speed as well as maneuverability. This was the maximum rpm, which was limited by governors built into the magnetos. Fuel consumption on "pool" petrol (67 octane) was between 0.5 and 1.5 miles per gallon depending on terrain.

The driver sat on the right in the front of the hull, with the hull gunner on the left, separated by a bulkhead. The driver had two periscopes and a visor in the hull front. The visor could be opened fully or a small "gate" in it opened; in the latter case a thick glass block protected the driver. A bulkhead with access holes separated the driver and hull gunner from the fighting compartment.

A further bulkhead separated the fighting compartment from the engine and transmission bay. The engine compartment drew cooling air in through the top of each side and the roof and exhausted it to the rear. To allow fording through up to 4 ft (1.2 m) deep water, a flap could be moved to cover the lowermost air outlet.[12] Air for the engine could be drawn from the fighting compartment or the exterior; it was then passed through oil bath cleaners. It was modified so that the exhaust fumes were redirected so that they were not drawn into the fighting compartment, a problem found when tanks were drawn up together, preparing to advance.[13]

In June 1944, the Cromwell saw action during Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy. It had a mixed reception by crews, being faster, with a lower profile and thicker frontal armour plate than the Sherman tank, but also being smaller and more cramped. Cromwell had 3 in (76 mm) of frontal armour compared with 2 in (51 mm) on the glacis of the early Shermans, though it was unsloped and hence less effective in head-on combat[14] On later Cromwells this was further increased, first to 3 14 in (83 mm), then to 4 in (100 mm).

Turret and Armament[edit]

The Cromwell had revisions to make before service, changing from the QF 6-pounder (57 mm) to the ROQF 75 mm gun, which was an adaptation of the 6-pounder design to fire the ammunition of the US M3 75 mm gun. This meant that the 75 mm used the same mounting as the 6 pounder.

The 75 mm gun, though able to fire a useful HE shell in an infantry support role, was not as effective against armour as the previous 6-pounder or the Ordnance QF 17 pounder gun. A new 75mm HV gun was intended to replace it, but wouldn't fit the turret. A derivative of the Cromwell, the Cruiser Mk VIII Challenger, was built to take the 17-pounder; but only a small number were built.

In common with British tank doctrine of the time, the vehicle was designed to fire on the move. The turret offered hydraulically powered turret traverse motors with proportional speed control. Later vehicles fitted an all-round view cupola for the commander to identify and track targets. Both gunner and commander had Vickers rotating and pivoting periscopes, while episcopes were fitted in the cupola.

There was a 7.92 mm Besa machine gun mounted co-axially to the main armament, operated by the gunner. A second was "gimbal" mounted in the front of the hull, with 45 degrees horizontal and 25 degrees vertical movement. Sighting was by a No. 35 telescope, which was connected through a linkage to the mounting. In the top of the turret was a 2 inch "bombthrower" angled to fire forward and thirty smoke grenades were carried for it.

A close support version of the vehicle was fitted with the 95mm howitzer in place of the 75mm. This too fired HE, though its primary role was delivering smoke shells, covering the other tanks in the unit.

Some command or OP tanks had the armament removed, leaving space in the turret for further radios. These were fitted with a dummy wooden gun, so as not to appear different to the enemy and attract hostile fire.

Cromwell and Centaur differences[edit]

Aside from the engine and its ancillaries (fans, radiator, clutch, etc.), both vehicles are very similar designs. While similar however, there were a number of minor variations between Cromwell and Centaur caused by the divergence of design and production.

Increases in Cromwell's design weight from 24 to 27 tons resulted in a reworking of suspension during the design process, which was not reflected on Centaur.[6] Cromwell had heavier grade suspension with longer suspension arms. Cromwell's shock absorbers and springs were improved against Cavalier, and increased in number to four (compared with Centaur's three).

The method of track tensioning is a commonly noted difference. Initially, the design based on A24 Cavalier used a worm drive for tensioning. This was noted as being slow to operate, and trapped dirt. BRC&W developed an alternative ratchet mechanism based on the Valentine tank, and this was incorporated into the A27M Cromwell design, also enabling the tank to accept wider 15.5" tracks.[15] Centaur under Leyland continued without this development.

Some of these differences can be seen in Cromwells built with Centaur hulls, although many were removed with the introduction of the Cromwell Final Specification. This included the Cromwell method of track tensioning.[10]

By comparison, Cavalier can easily be identified by the vehicle's rear armour plate, which incorporates Crusader style horizontal angled exhaust louvres.[16] Cromwell and Centaur both have a flat rear armour plate, with exhaust venting to the top immediately behind the engine deck. For this reason, many Cromwell and Centaur vehicles had a cowl fitted to direct the exhaust gases back where they could not re-enter the tank fighting compartment.

Performance[edit]

A King's Royal Hussars Cromwell of the 11th armoured division advances through Uedem, Germany, 28 February 1945

The A24 design specification had originally been constrained by the available tank engines of the time, delivering only 300 hp and limiting the weight. The evolution to A27M increased the weight slightly, but fitting a 600 hp engine almost doubled the power-to-weight ratio and created a very fast tank.

Cromwell was the fastest British tank to serve in the Second World War, with a top speed of 40 mph (64 km/h).[17] This speed was extremely beneficial in both attack and defence, outmanoeuvring opponents. At least one case is known of vehicle commanders using the vehicles fast speed to jump large gaps - In Holland, a troop of three Cromwell's was able to leap a 20 ft wide canal when surprised by enemy forces[18]

This speed proved too much for even the Christie suspension and in later models the final drive ratio was changed[19] to lower the top speed to 32 mph (51 km/h), which was still fast for its time. Thanks to its excellent engine power and Christie parentage the Cromwell was very agile on the battlefield.

The Cromwell's armament was changed from the 6-pounder to the dual purpose 75mm. This gave a significant reduction in armour penetration, compared to some types of 6-pounder shell offering almost twice the penetration, but added the ability to fire High Explosive shells which were more capable against other targets such as anti-tank guns. The High Velocity 75mm gun was developed in an attempt to give both good anti-tank and HE performance, but in May 1943 proved too big to be fitted to the Cromwell. This issue led to the development of the A34 Comet, while the gun bore increased to 77mm to gain compatibility with the 17-pounder (albeit with smaller shell casings). The lack of a High Velocity weapon proved to be a significant limitation against heavy opponents, such as the Tiger, and Cromwell had to rely on mobility.

The dual purpose 75 mm main gun fired the same ammunition as the US 75 mm gun as used on the Sherman, and was also fitted to the Churchill, it had around the same HE and armour-piercing capabilities as the 75 mm equipped Sherman tank. The Cromwell's speed and low profile gave an advantage over the Sherman however, giving the tank the element of surprise and making return fire more difficult. Cromwell crews in North-West Europe succeeded in outflanking the heavier and more sluggish German tanks with superior speed, maneuverability and reliability.

The armour on the Cromwell ranged from 8 mm up to 76 mm thick overall. On all-welded vehicles built by BRC&W, the weight saved by the welding allowed for the fitting of additional appliqué armour plates on the nose, vertical drivers' plate and turret front, increasing the maximum thickness there to 102 mm. These vehicles are identified by their War Department numbers carrying the suffix W, e.g. T121710W. The armour compared well with that of the Sherman, although the Cromwell did not share the Sherman's sloped glacis plate.

While the Cromwell was a match for the majority of Axis tanks in use, it was not a match for the armour and armament of the latest German vehicles developed at the same time. British tank design would go through another stage, the Comet, before developing the Centurion tank.

Combat service[edit]

World War II[edit]

Wounded German soldiers being ferried to an aid post on the hull of a Cromwell tank

The Cromwell tank entered front-line service with the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944. Cromwells landed with the following forces on D+1. They saw extensive action with the British Army, forming part of the 6th Airborne Division, 7th Armoured Division, 11th Armoured Division, Guards Armoured Division, and 1st (Polish) Armoured Division. The tank was also used by the 1st (Czechoslovakian) Independent Armoured Brigade Group as part of the First Canadian Army in Dunkirk.[10]

Cromwells were used as the main tank in the armoured brigades of the 7th Armoured Division, while being used in the armoured reconnaissance regiments of the other British armoured divisions (Guards Armoured Division and 11th Armoured Division) in North-west Europe. It excelled at this task because of its speed and low profile.[20] The tank was praised for its speed and reliability, while its low profile made it harder to spot.

While the standard 75mm gun was able to tackle the majority of German armoured vehicles, and added the capability to fire High Explosive shells, it lacked the armour penetration of the preceding 6-pounder and had trouble penetrating the front of heavier German tanks such as the Tiger. The 75mm HV was intended to rectify this, but prior to entering service [10] was found to be too large to fit in the Cromwell turret. To overcome the lack of penetration, Cromwells were often teamed with a Sherman Firefly or A30 Challenger while British forces waited for the development of the A34 Comet to conclude. Comet mounted the new weapon, increased in calibre to 76.2mm in the interim, now known as the 77mm HV.[10]

In contrast, the Centaur was chiefly used for training; only those in specialist roles saw action. The Centaur IV Close Support version with a 95 mm howitzer saw service in small numbers as part of the Royal Marine Armoured Support Group on D-Day. Originally intended to serve as static pillboxes, the engine was retained allowing the Marines to advance the tank inland.[10] A number of Centaurs were also re-purposed as combat engineering vehicles, such as an armoured bulldozer.

The Sherman remained the most common tank in British and other Commonwealth armoured units in Europe. The Cromwell, in turn, was succeeded by small numbers of the Comet tank. This was based on the Cromwell and shared many components but had been designed from the outset to mount a superior gun, the 77 mm tank gun (a version of the 17 pounder with different ammunition).[21] The war ended before this replacement was complete.

Post war[edit]

After the war, the Cromwell remained in British service, and saw service in the Korean War with the 7th Royal Tank Regiment and the 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars.

Over 700 Cromwells were provided overseas to Australia, Austria, Burma, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Eire, Finland, France, Greece, Hong Kong, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Portugal, South Africa, USSR, and West Germany.[10]

The Cromwell/Centaur had the distinction of being the first tank to go into service with the Greek Army during the re-formation following the Second World War. Fifty-two Centaur I tanks were donated early in 1946, during the opening stages of the Greek Civil War but they were kept in storage due to the lack of trained personnel. In 1947, the first Greek officers returned from training courses in the United Kingdom and training of tank crews began. The Centaur saw limited service in the civil war as in 1949 battles were fought on mountains. Centaurs formed the core of the Greek Armour Corps during the 1950s and were retired in 1962, having been replaced by US-built M47s.

A number of countries also used the upgraded Charioteer version of the Cromwell post war. These saw action in conflicts in the Middle-East.

Operators[edit]

Czechoslovak soldiers on a Cromwell tank near Dunkerque in 1945.


Variants[edit]

Cromwell tank hierarchy.png

Development of hull types and armaments occurred independently. Hull types applied to all variants. A single mark could cover up to four types, and a type up to six marks making classification complex. Combinations of mark and type were applied by different manufacturers.[22]

Cromwell[edit]

A Cromwell IV of the Welsh Guards displays its speed at Pickering in Yorkshire, 31 March 1944
Cromwell I
Early vehicles armed with the Royal Ordnance QF 6 pounder (57 mm) gun (with 64 rounds of ammunition). Only 357 produced[citation needed] due to the switch from the 6 pounder (57 mm) to the 75 mm gun.
Cromwell II
Pilot vehicle built by Vauxhall with cast turret similar to Churchill VII. This did not enter production.
Cromwell III
Centaur hull fitted with Meteor V12 engine. Turret houses Royal Ordnance QF 6 pounder. Only ~ 200 produced[citation needed] due to scarcity of Centaur I's.
Cromwell IV
Centaur hull fitted with Meteor engine. Turret houses 75 mm ROQF Mk V gun. Later Cromwell IV's saw the introduction of the Final Specification, changing some features (such as track-adjuster) to normal Cromwell standard. The most numerous variant with over 1,935 units produced.[citation needed]
Cromwell V
Cromwell built to Final Specification and armed with the 75 mm gun.
Cromwell VI
Cromwell built to Final Specification and armed with 95 mm howitzer. 341 produced.[citation needed]
Cromwell VII
Upgrade to Cromwell IV, V, and VI armed with the 75 mm gun. Some hulls were upgraded with features from later hull types. Wider (15.5 inch) tracks, and upgraded suspension (where not fitted earlier in the production programme). These were introduced very late in the war and did not see much in the way of combat. ~ 1,500 produced, Some saw combat in the Korean War and many were later converted to FV4101 Tank, Medium Gun, Charioteer.[citation needed]
Cromwell VIII
Cromwell VI reworked with same upgrades as VII but retaining the 95 mm howitzer.

Centaur[edit]

Centaur IV of Royal Marine Armoured Support Group, Normandy 13 June 1944
Centaur I
Armed with the Royal Ordnance QF 6 pounder (57 mm) gun (with 64 rounds of ammunition). It was used only for training. 1,059 produced.[citation needed]
Centaur II
Mark I with wider tracks and no hull machine gun. Experimental only.
Centaur III
Centaur armed with the 75 mm ROQF Mk V gun. In 1943, most Centaur I were converted to IIIs, but a few remained as such. 233 produced.[citation needed]
Centaur IV
Centaur armed with a 95 mm howitzer (with 51 rounds of ammunition). This is the only version of the Centaur known to have seen combat, in service with the Royal Marines Armoured Support Group. The vehicles were fitted with wading gear to get them ashore. Trunking waterproofed the engine inlets and covers were fitted to the guns. 114 produced.[23]

Hull variants[edit]

Cromwell VI with type F hull, showing drivers side-opening hatch and turret storage bins
Cromwell VIIw with type Dw or Ew hull, showing welded construction with applique armour

Hull types ranged from Type A to Type F. Each type applied a different package of changes to the hull design to different marks of tank.[24] Changing the vehicle type allowed the introduction of changes without changing the overall offensive capability.

Cromwell type Construction Major features Cromwell Mark
A Riveted First version with:
  • Top opening driver & hull gunner hatch
  • 4 lockers
  • Layered 6 mm + 8 mm floor plate
Applied to:
  • Cromwell I
  • Cromwell III
  • Cromwell X
  • Cavalier I
B Riveted As A, but:
  • Side opening hatch for hull gunner
  • 3 lockers
  • Hull gunner periscope deleted
Applied to:
  • Centaur I
  • Cavalier I
C Riveted As B, but:
  • Engine compartment armour reduced to save weight
  • Hull gunner periscope reinstated (later vehicles only)
  • Revised trackguards (later vehicles only)
Applied to:
  • Cromwell I
  • Cromwell III
  • Cromwell IV
  • Cromwell V
  • Centaur I
  • Centaur III
  • Centaur IV
D D: Riveted

Dw: Welded

As C, but:
  • Engine deck redesigned for ease of access to radiators
  • Hull gunner periscope (all vehicles)
  • Revised trackguards (all vehicles)
  • Single-piece pivot-opening driver hatch (welded vehicles only)
  • Applique armour (welded vehicles only)
Applied to:
  • Cromwell IV
  • Cromwell Vw (welded)
  • Cromwell VI
  • Centaur III
  • Centaur IV
E E: Riveted

Ew: Welded

As D, but:
  • 14mm single skin floorplate to hull
  • lower ratio final drives (welded vehicles only)
Applier to:
  • Cromwell IV
  • Cromwell Vw (welded)
  • Cromwell VI
F Riveted As E, but:
  • Driver and hull gunner side opening escape doors
  • 2 lockers
  • 2 turret bins replacing the removed lockers
  • towing rope on front glacis
  • sprung towbar (late vehicles only)
Applied to:
  • Cromwell IV
  • Cromwell VI

Vehicles based on chassis[edit]

Conversions[edit]

A number of further vehicles were based on the Cromwell tank hull, either re-working existing vehicles or built from scratch with the Cromwell as the basis:

Cromwell Command
The main gun was removed and it carried one No. 19 (Low Power) and one No. 19 (High Power) Wireless sets. These were used by brigade and divisional headquarters.[25]
Cromwell Observation Post
Cromwell IV, Cromwell VI, or Cromwell VIII fitted with extra radio equipment; 2 x No. 19 and 2 x No. 38 (portable) radios. The main gun was retained.[25]
Cromwell Control
Two No. 19 Low Power radio. Main armament kept. Used by regimental headquarters[25]
Centaur, AA Mk I
Used a Crusader III, Anti-Aircraft Mk II turret fitted with twin 20 mm Polsten guns. Were originally deployed in Normandy, but withdrawn as unnecessary due to Allied air superiority. 95 were produced.[citation needed]
Centaur, AA Mk II
Used a Crusader III, AA Mk III turret with twin 20 mm Polsten AA guns.
Centaur Dozer with hydraulic operated blade
Centaur Dozer
A Centaur with the turret removed and given a simple dozer blade operated by a winch. Since the winch passed over the top of the hull it was not possible to retain the turret. One of "Hobart's Funnies". 250 produced.
Centaur Observation Post (OP)
A Centaur with a dummy main gun, and extra radio communications.
Centaur Kangaroo
A Centaur with turret removed to make space for passengers. (Few produced)
Centaur Armoured Recovery Vehicle (ARV)
A Centaur with turret removed, and replaced with winch fitted instead, and an optional A-frame.

Post war, a number of Cromwell's were upgraded to meet the new Cold War threat:

FV 4101 Charioteer
Cromwell hull with a QF 20 pounder gun in a tall turret, designed in the 1950s to give more fire support. 200 produced.

Designs based on the Cromwell[edit]

The Cromwell tank design was also used as the basis for the design of following vehicles:

A30 Challenger
The design combined a lengthened Cromwell chassis with widened superstructure to mount the 17-pounder gun in a new turret.
A30 Avenger SP 17pdr
A version of the Challenger using a lighter open-topped turret in a gun-carrier role.
A33 Excelsior
An experimental design with elements of Infantry tank as a possible replacement for Churchill tank. When the Churchill continued to meet requirements, development was halted.
A34 Comet
A tank based on lessons learned from the Cromwell development, incorporating a larger turret ring, now enabling this class of tank to utilize the latest gun available. This tank reflects much of what was intended for the Cromwell.

The majority of following British tank designs utilised the Meteor engine and Merritt-Brown steering & gearbox combination initially developed for the Cromwell, lasting all the way through Centurion. This proved to be one of the primary elements in the development of the Main Battle Tank.

Surviving vehicles[edit]

Cromwell IV memorial to the 7th Armoured Division (Desert Rats) Ickburgh in Norfolk

Around 56 Centaur and Cromwell tanks survive, ranging from scrapyard wrecks to fully restored museum vehicles.

Cromwell tanks[edit]

Around 26 Cromwell tanks exist in various states.

  • Cromwell I(A27M). Royal Australian Armoured Corps Tank Museum, Puckapunyal, Victoria, Australia. Cromwell MkI shipped to Australia to assist with the up gunning of the Australian Cruiser tanks but did not arrive before that programme had been terminated. Repainted with the markings it arrived in Australia with, it is now under cover on display at the museum.
  • Cromwell IV(A27M) The Tank Museum, Bovington, Dorset, England.[26]
  • Cromwell IV(A27M) Command Tank T187617. Imperial War Museum Duxford, Cambridgeshire, England.[27]
  • Cromwell IV(A27M) on A1065 Thetford Forest, Norfolk, England, as part of a memorial to 7th Armoured Division ("Desert Rats") whose armoured regiments had trained there prior to embarking for Normandy.[28]
  • Cromwell IV(A27M) Rick Wedlock Collection, UK. In running condition.[27]
  • Cromwell IV(A27M) National War and Resistance Museum, Overloon, Netherlands. Recovered after the Battle of Overloon in October 1944.
  • Cromwell IV(A27M) Heintz Barracks, Bastogne, Belgium. In running condition.[27]
  • Cromwell IV(A27M) Wilrijk, Antwerp, Belgium. This was unveiled in September 2014 for the 70th anniversary of the liberation of the city in 1944.[29]
  • Cromwell IV(A27M). Army Technical Museum, Lesany, Czech Republic. In running condition.[27]
  • Cromwell IV(A27M) "Faust". Private collection, Czech Republic. In running condition.[27]
  • Cromwell IV(A27M). Kubinka Tank Museum, Russia.[30]
  • Cromwell IV(A27M). Yad la-Shiryon Museum, Latrun, Israel. Was used by the IDF in War of Independence (1948–1949).
  • Cromwell IV(A27M). Yad la-Shiryon Museum, Latrun, Israel. Was used by the IDF in War of Independence (1948–1949).
  • Cromwell IV(A27M) "Blenheim". Stored in California.[27]
  • Cromwell IV(A27M). Private Collection, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
  • Cromwell IV(A27M). The Wheatcroft Collection, UK. Currently a wreck and not restored.
  • Cromwell IV(A27M). Adrian Barrell Collection, UK. Currently just a restored hull with no turret.[27]
  • Cromwell IV(A27M). Rex & Rod Cadman Collection, UK. Currently a wreck and not restored.
  • Cromwell IV(A27M). Heintz Barracks, Bastogne, Belgium. Currently a wreck and not restored.
  • Cromwell IV(A27M). Army Technical Museum, Lesany, Czech Republic. Currently just a wreck with no turret.
  • Cromwell IV(A27M). Handmet Military, Gostyñ, Poland. Currently just a wreck with no turret.
  • Cromwell IV(A27M). Vojenské Museum, Králíky, Czech Republic. Currently just a wreck with no turret.
  • Cromwell IV(A27M). Smržovka private tank museum, Czech Republic. Currently a wreck and not restored.
  • Cromwell IV(A27M). Smržovka private tank museum, Czech Republic. Currently just a wreck with no turret.
  • Cromwell IV(A27M). Kevin Wheatcroft Collection, UK.
  • Cromwell IV(A27M). Private collection, Czech Republic. This Cromwell hull was a spare parts donor for the restoration of the Cromwell nicknamed "Faust"

Centaur tanks[edit]

Around 17 Centaurs and 9 Centaur Dozers exist in various states.

  • Centaur I(A27L). Muzeum Broni Pancernej Centrum Szkolenia Wojsk Lądowych,Poznań, Poland. Being restored to running condition (as of March 2015).[27]
  • Centaur I(A27L). Hellenic Army Armor Museum, Athens, Greece. The Greek Army received 52 Centaur I tanks from the British in 1946.
  • Centaur IV(A27L) T215477. Cobbaton Combat Collection, Devon, England. In running condition.
  • Centaur IV(A27L). Musée des Blindés, Saumur, France.[27]
  • Centaur IV(A27L) T185102. Memorial Pegasus Bridge Museum, Ranville, France.[27][31]
  • Centaur IV(A27L) T185075 . La Brèche d’Hermanville (Sword Beach), France.[32]
  • Centaur IV(A27L). Calcada da Ajuda, Lisboa, Portugal. About 24 tanks were sold to Portugal.[27]
  • Centaur IV(A27L). Portuguese Army Cavalry School Museum, Santarém, Portugal. Mounted on a plinth in the town
  • Centaur IV(A27L). Portuguese Army Cavalry School Museum, Santarém, Portugal.
  • Centaur IV(A27L). Santa Margarida da Coutada, Portugal.[27]
  • Centaur IV(A27L). Two found 8 miles offshore in Bracklesham Bay, West Sussex, England.[33] Discovered in a good state of preservation in the Solent, but are unlikely to be recovered.[34]
  • Centaur IV(A27L). Dennis Roberts Collection, UK. In running condition.
  • Centaur VII(A27L). Rex & Rod Cadman Collection, Kent, England. Wreck of a Mark VII.[27]
  • Centaur VII(A27L) T217875. Kevin Powles Collection. Vehicle under restoration.[35]
  • Centaur VII(A27L). Salisbury Plain firing range, England. Used as live fire target.[27]
  • Centaur VII(A27L). Oberhoffen-sur-Moder, France. Wreck of Centaur VII stored outside with other tank wrecks.[27]
  • Centaur Dozer. Private Collection, UK. Tank restored to working order.[27]
  • Centaur Dozer T186642. The Tank Museum, Dorset, England. Restored.[36]
  • Centaur Dozer. Isle of Wight Military Museum, Hampshire, England. Restored, 79th Armoured Division insignia painted on hull front.[37]
  • Centaur Dozer. Isle of Wight Military Museum, Hampshire, England. Not restored in bad condition.[38]
  • Centaur Dozer T185462. Ian Galliers Collection UK. Unrestored in bad condition.[27]
  • Centaur Dozer. Armoured Corps Museum, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India.
  • Centaur Dozer T185484. Armoured Corps Museum, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India.
  • Centaur Dozer. Rex & Rod Cadman Collection, UK. Unrestored in bad condition.[27]
  • Centaur Dozer. Rex & Rod Cadman Collection, UK. Unrestored in bad condition.[27]

Other examples include:

  • Centaur(A27L) or Cromwell(A27M). The Tank Museum, Dorset, England. Cannot be identified as it is just a hull.
  • Centaur(A27L) or Cromwell(A27M). The Tank Museum, Dorset, England. Cannot be identified as it is just a hull.
  • Centaur(A27L) or Cromwell(A27M). Rex & Rod Cadman Collection, UK. Cannot be identified as it is just a hull.
  • Centaur(A27L) or Cromwell(A27M). Staman International Trading, Nijverdal, Netherlands. Cannot be identified as it is just a hull.

See also[edit]

Tanks of comparable role, performance, and era[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The designation as the eighth Cruiser tank design, its name given for ease of reference and its General Staff specification number respectively.
  2. ^ It is unclear if it was granted its own number or also referred to as the A24.

Notes[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ WWII Vehicles
  2. ^ Hughes, Emrys (10 March 1952), "Centurion Tank (Cost)", House of Commons Debates (Hansard), c1000, retrieved 21 May 2016 
  3. ^ a b "The A27M Cromwell tank". 
  4. ^ Crawford, Steve. Tanks of World War II, pg. 46
  5. ^ Fletcher The Great Tank Scandal pp. 65–66
  6. ^ a b Development of Cromwell Series, FVDE
  7. ^ a b Chamberlain & Ellis, p43
  8. ^ Cromwell Cruiser Tank 1942-1950; David Fletcher and Richard C. Harley; Osprey Publishing (2006), New Vanguard series #104
  9. ^ a b "The Chieftain's Hatch: Exercise Dracula". world of tanks. 5 July 2014. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Cromwell Cruiser Tank 1942-1950
  11. ^ Chamberlain & Ellis p 45
  12. ^ User Manual
  13. ^ Fletcher, p. 100
  14. ^ Jentz, Thomas; Doyle, Hilary (1993). Tiger 1 Heavy Tank 1942-45. Osprey Publishing. p. 20. ISBN 1855323370. 
  15. ^ Development of Cromwell series, FVDE
  16. ^ Illustrated Parts List Cavalier 1; Chillwell Cat. No. 62/346
  17. ^ Doherty, Richard (2013). British Armoured Divisions and their Commanders, 1939-1945 (First ed.). Barnsley: Pen & Sword. p. 143. ISBN 978-1-84884-838-2. 
  18. ^ Troop Leader: A tank commander's story; Bill Bellamy; The History Press; ISBN 978-0750945349
  19. ^ Workshop Manual for the Cromwell IV -VII; Chief Inspector of Fighting Vehicles; July 1948
  20. ^ Bingham p. 28
  21. ^ Bingham AFV Profile 25 pp. 34–35
  22. ^ Cromwell Tank p. xiii
  23. ^ Ness, Leland. Jane's World War Two Tanks and Fighting Vehicles. p. 22. 
  24. ^ Cromwell Cruiser Tank 1942-50[page needed]
  25. ^ a b c David Fletcher; Richard C. Harley; Peter Sarson. Cromwell Cruiser tank 1942–1950 (New Vanguard series). Osprey Publishing. p. 34. 
  26. ^ http://preservedtanks.com/Profile.aspx?UniqueID=1573
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Surviving Cruiser Tanks" (pdf), Surviving Panzers website 
  28. ^ "Desert Rat Walk". Forestry Commission. Retrieved 8 November 2010. 
  29. ^ "Cromwell Tank - Antwerpen". TracesOfWar. Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  30. ^ http://preservedtanks.com/Profile.aspx?UniqueID=545
  31. ^ "Benouville and St-Aubin-d'Arquenay". 1944 The Battle of Normandy The Memory. Normandie44lamemoire.com. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  32. ^ "Hermanville-s-M. and La Brèche d'Herm.". 1944 The Battle of Normandy The Memory. Normandie44lamemoire.com. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  33. ^ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1041825/Revealed-The-astonishing-D-Day-tanks-the-English-Channel.html
  34. ^ "Discovery in the Solent". FBBC. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  35. ^ http://hmvf.co.uk/forumvb/showthread.php?35747-Centaur-Gun-Tank-Ressurection!
  36. ^ "Centaur Dozer Mark 1 (E1985.32)". The Tank Museum. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  37. ^ http://preservedtanks.com/Profile.aspx?UniqueID=2300
  38. ^ http://preservedtanks.com/Profile.aspx?UniqueID=2310

References[edit]

External links[edit]