Maring language

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Maring
Mareng, Yoadabe-Watoare
Native toPapua New Guinea
RegionMadang Province and Western Highlands Province
EthnicityMaring, such as the Tsembaga Maring
Native speakers
11,000 (1998)[1]
Dialects
  • Central Maring
  • Eastern Maring
  • Timbunki
  • Tsuwenki
  • Karamba
  • Kambegl
Language codes
ISO 639-3mbw
Glottologmari1435[2]

Maring, also known as Mareng or Yoadabe-Watoare, is a Trans–New Guinea language of the Chimbu–Wahgi branch. Speakers of the language can be found in the Bismarck range of the Madang province or in the Hagen district of the Western Highlands province. Dialects of the Maring language are Central Maring, Eastern Maring, Timbunki, Tsuwenki, Karamba, and Kambegl. All Maring speakers can understand the Central Maring dialect.

Language status and development[edit]

According to EGIDS, the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale, the Maring language is rated as a 5.[3] This rating on EGIDS means that this language is still developing, meaning that the language is not sustainable but there is significant use of the language verbally and literately.[4] According to AES, the Agglomerated Endangerment Status, the Maring language is considered as threatened.[5]

The development of the language is low. The literacy rate of native speakers is below 5%, while the rate of people who use Maring as a second language is below 5%.

Phonology[edit]

Phonemic and Orthographic Inventory[6]
ɑ mb nd ə ɛ ŋg i ndzj k l m n nj ŋ o p r tsj t u w j
a b d e ee g i j k l m n ny ng o p r s t u w y
A B D G J K L M N Ny Ng P R S T W Y

/w/ voiced labial-velar approximant

/mb/ voiced prenasalised bilabial plosive

/nd/ voiced prenasalised dental plosive

/ŋg/ voiced prenasalised velar plosive

/nj/ voiced palatalized dental affricate

/tsj/ voiceless palatalized dental affricate

/ndzj/ voiced prenasalized dental affricate

Maring Consonants
Bilabial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar
Plosive p t k
Nasal m n ɲ
Trill r
Tap or Flap
Fricative
Lateral Fricative
Approximant j
Lateral Approximant l
Maring Vowels
Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-mid ə o
Open-mid ɛ
Open ɑ


Syllable patterns[edit]

The following are different patterns of consonants (C) and vowels (V) for syllables. Examples for each pattern show the Maring word with each syllable separated by a period. The example syllable pattern in the word will be in bold. The English translation of the word will follow in single quotation.

V[edit]

  • a.sa 'sister'
  • ai.u.gui 'to close'
  • au.a 'different'

VV[edit]

  • ae 'we two'
  • ai.re 'what, how'

VC[edit]

  • am 'breast'
  • an.pek 'quickly'
  • ai.uk 'flat'

CV[edit]

  • ma 'possum'
  • na.ko 'I'
  • ro.ba.da 'hot'
  • a.bo 'buttocks'

CVV[edit]

  • moe 'yam type'
  • mai.wa 'very large'
  • jee.kai 'grub type'

CVC[edit]

  • kong 'taro'
  • kam.gul 'thunder'
  • tu.wum.pai 'pandanus sp.'
  • a.bin 'your wife'

CVVC[edit]

  • mieng 'tree sp.'
  • a.ruib 'taro type'


References[edit]

  1. ^ Maring at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Maring". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ "Maring". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2019-10-06.
  4. ^ "Language Status". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2019-10-06.
  5. ^ "Glottolog 4.0 - Maring". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2019-10-06.
  6. ^ "Maring Organised Phonology Data | Languages of Papua New Guinea". pnglanguages.sil.org. Retrieved 2019-10-08.

External links[edit]