Marlon James (novelist)

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Marlon James
James in 2014
James in 2014
Born (1970-11-24) 24 November 1970 (age 53)
Kingston, Surrey County, Jamaica
OccupationNovelist
Education
Period2002–present
GenreFiction
Literary movementPostcolonialism
Notable works
Notable awards
Website
marlonjameswriter.com

Marlon James (born 24 November 1970[1]) is a Jamaican writer. He is the author of five novels: John Crow's Devil (2005), The Book of Night Women (2009), A Brief History of Seven Killings (2014), which won him the 2015 Man Booker Prize, Black Leopard, Red Wolf (2019), and Moon Witch, Spider King (2022). Now living in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in the U.S., James teaches literature at Macalester College in St. Paul, Minnesota.[2][3] He is also a faculty lecturer at St. Francis College's Low Residency MFA in Creative Writing.[4]

Early life and education[edit]

Marlon James at the 2015 National Book Festival
James at the 2015 National Book Festival

James was born in Kingston, Jamaica, to parents who were both in the Jamaican police: his mother (who gave him his first prose book, a collection of stories by O. Henry) became a detective and his father (from whom James took a love of Shakespeare and Coleridge) a lawyer.[5][6] James attended Kingston's prestigious Wolmer's Trust High School for Boys.[7] He is a 1991 graduate of the University of the West Indies, where he read Language and Literature. He left Jamaica to escape anti-gay violence and economic conditions that he felt would mean career stagnation,[8] later explaining: "Whether it was in a plane or a coffin, I knew I had to get out of Jamaica."[2] He received a master's degree in creative writing from Wilkes University in Pennsylvania (2006).[9]

Career[edit]

James' first novel, John Crow's Devil (2005) – which was rejected 70 times before being accepted for publication[10] – tells the story of a biblical struggle in a remote Jamaican village in 1957.[11] His second novel, The Book of Night Women (2009), is about a slave woman's revolt in a Jamaican plantation in the early 19th century.[12] His 2014 novel, A Brief History of Seven Killings, explores several decades of Jamaican history and political instability through the perspectives of many narrators. It won the fiction category of the 2015 OCM Bocas Prize for Caribbean Literature[13] and the 2015 Man Booker Prize for Fiction, having been the first book by a Jamaican author ever to be shortlisted.[14][15] He is the second Caribbean winner of the prize, following Trinidad-born V. S. Naipaul who won in 1971.[16] James's most recent work, Moon Witch, Spider King (2022) is the second in a planned fantasy series which began with Black Leopard, Red Wolf (2019).[17]

James has taught English and creative writing at Macalester College in St. Paul, Minnesota, since 2007.[18][19] He is also a faculty lecturer at St. Francis College's Low Residency MFA in Creative Writing.[4]

In February 2019, James gave the seventh annual Tolkien Lecture at Pembroke College, Oxford.[20]

In 2020, James began co-hosting with his editor Jake Morrissey a literary podcast called "Marlon and Jake Read Dead People" that explores, in a casual setting, the work of deceased authors.[21]

In 2021, James began writing his first television series for HBO and Channel 4 titled Get Millie Black.[22]

Themes[edit]

Themes in James's work span religion and the supernatural, sexuality, violence, and colonialism. Often, his novels display the struggle to find an identity, whether it be as a slave or a postcolonial inhabitant of Jamaica.

John Crow's Devil (2005)[edit]

In John Crow's Devil, his first novel, James explores postcolonial Jamaica through a religiously charged, archetypal battle of good and evil. His characters in this novel represent, through their archetypal portrayals, many facets of humanity including hope. Despite the particular setting, the novel "conveys archetypal situations that reside in the collective unconsciousness."[23] Additionally, this piece of Caribbean gothic reveals the power of guilt and hypocrisy both in a person and in a community, and generally reveals truths of human nature. The ghosts of colonialism are more subtle, but the instability and struggle for identity are clear to the reader.

The Book of Night Women (2009)[edit]

In The Book of Night Women, James challenges the traditional slave narrative by presenting a protagonist (Lilith) who approaches her enslavement with complex duality, despite the constant description of antagonism between slaves and masters on a plantation in Jamaica. Lilith hates the masters, but much of the novel deals with how she "aspires to obtain a privileged stature within plantation society by submitting to the sexual subjugation of a white overseer, Robert Quinn".[24] This is additionally challenged by Lilith and Robert's "love", leading the reader to question the limits of love and relationships. James intends to have readers root for Robert and Lilith, but then catch themselves, as Robert Quinn has a reputation as a brutal, violent overseer—even ordering Lilith to be severely whipped. The situation for the reader is further complicated because Quinn is Irish, another population that was looked down upon during the time period. While this at times brings him sympathy, his whiteness overshadows his Irishness.

Additionally, the novel explores the complexity of what it is to be a woman, with some characters having deep connections to Obeah and Myal spiritualism. The female slaves are portrayed as strong-willed and intelligent, while the male slaves are often portrayed as weak, thoughtless, and even traitorous. "Rape, torture, murder and other dehumanizing acts propel the narrative, never failing to shock in both their depravity and their humanness. It is this complex intertwining that makes James’s book so disturbing and so eloquent".[25] The novel "defies hegemonic notions of empire by pointing out the explosive and antagonistic relationship between colonizers and colonized."[24]

A Brief History of Seven Killings (2014)[edit]

James's 2014 novel, A Brief History of Seven Killings, portrays "a passionate, often angry account of postcolonial society struggling to balance identity and a burgeoning criminal element."[26] The novel has twelve narrators, contributing to the "excess" that Sheri-Marie Harrison explores in her article "Excess in A Brief History of Seven Killings".[27] She explains: "James's rejection of a purely nationalist tradition, like that of other authors in his cohort, concretizes his critique of the ways nationalism distracts us from the increased deregulation of global capital and its production of material inequality around the globe. This disruption of privileged tropes in the interest of turning attention onto the transnational forces that structure inequality helps to explain James's use of 'a poetics of excess.' His experimentation with form functions to rework now familiar paradigms and themes that have been central to the literary imagination of postcolonial realities for a little over half a century."[27]

Black Leopard, Red Wolf (2019)[edit]

His book, Black Leopard, Red Wolf (2019) — characterized as "an African Game of Thrones[28] — is the first instalment of a planned trilogy.[29] It has been described by NPR journalist Ari Shapiro as "an epic fantasy quest — full of monsters, sex, and violence, set in a mythic version of ancient Africa."[30] According to TIME magazine, the novel "joins the ranks of those by authors like Tomi Adeyemi and N. K. Jemisin, whose works push back against stereotypes about the types of figures who 'should' appear in fantasy fiction."[28]

Warner Bros. and Michael B. Jordan's production company Outlier Society acquired the book's film rights in 2019.[31]

Moon Witch, Spider King (2022)[edit]

The sequel to Black Leopard, Red Wolf in 2022, titled Moon Witch, Spider King, was published by Riverhead in 2022.[32]

Influences[edit]

James's influences include authors as well as musicians. In his acceptance speech for the Man Booker Prize in 2015, he explained: "The reggae singers Bob Marley and Peter Tosh were the first to recognize that the voice coming out our mouths was a legitimate voice for fiction and for poetry."[33] In other words, these singers empowered other artists such as James to create. In his popular 2015 essay "From Jamaica to Minnesota to Myself", published in the New York Times Magazine, James describes reading Salman Rushdie's novel Shame (1983): "Its prose was so audacious, its reality so unhinged, that you didn't see at first how pointedly political and just plain furious it was. It made me realize that the present was something I could write my way out of."[2]

James has said that he re-read Ben Okri's 1991 novel The Famished Road while writing Black Leopard, Red Wolf: "Okri is such an influence on me. I've read Famished Road like four times."[29]

A lifelong fan of comics, James has cited comic characters such as "Hellboy" as an influence on his work, citing comics' ability to blend genres as an inspiration to his own approach to writing fiction.[34]

Tone and style[edit]

James's work carries a unique style, often referred to as disturbing, brutal, and violent, leading him to be compared in one review to Quentin Tarantino, who is known for his excessive use of violence in his films. James does not hold back in his graphic descriptions of sexual and violent acts, which contributes to the raw nature of his writing. "James does not set out to entertain, he does not want readers to be entertained by shocking events: he believes they should be rightly horrified…"[26] His work is challenging and lyrical, and he often uses Jamaican Patois in dialogue, and often uses multiple dialects for different characters. His style strays from traditional and expected Caribbean literature by "creating wild and risky new possibilities for thinking about the region's place in our contemporary reality."[27] James has stated that he commits offences in his writing that he would not allow his students to commit, "such as writing seven-page sentences."[26] James's writing has been compared to that of Toni Morrison, William Faulkner, and Gabriel García Márquez.

Reception[edit]

The reception of James's novels has been conflicted—the same elements that some critics find to be strengths, others believe are his weaknesses. The conflicting nature of how readers and reviewers respond stems from reactions to the often upfront brutality juxtaposed with the mechanical elements that James uses to tell his stories. One critic writes: "The linguistic and stylistic excess which dominates A Brief History of Seven Killings both elevates it and burdens it."[26] Another reviewer explained, "I have had conversations with fellow Caribbeanists and students in which they have used terms like 'orgiastic' and 'masturbatory' to describe James's writing."[27] When reviewing The Book of Night Women, another critic explains: "Rape, torture, murder and other dehumanizing acts propel the narrative, never failing to shock in both their depravity and their humanness. It is this complex intertwining that makes James’s book so disturbing and so eloquent."[25]

Awards and honours[edit]

In 2013, James received a Silver Musgrave Medal from the Institute of Jamaica.[35]

In 2019, he was named one ofTime's 100 Most Influential People.[36][37] The same year, The Guardian,[38] Kirkus Reviews,[39] and Shelf Awareness[40] named Black Leopard, Red Wolf one of the best books of the year.

In 2022, Kirkus Reviews,[41] NPR,[42] Publishers Weekly[43] named Moon Witch, Spider King one of the best books of the year.

Awards for James's writing
Year Title Award Result Ref.
2009 The Book of Night Women National Book Critics Circle Award for Fiction Finalist [44][45]
2010 Dayton Literary Peace Prize for Fiction Won [46][45]
Minnesota Book Award for Novel & Short Story Won [47][48][45]
NAACP Image Award Finalist [45]
2014 National Book Critics Circle Award for Fiction Finalist
2015 A Brief History of Seven Killings Andrew Carnegie Medals for Excellence in Fiction and Nonfiction Longlist [49]
Anisfield-Wolf Book Award for Fiction Won [50][51]
Green Carnation Prize Won [52]
Man Booker Prize Won [53][54][55][56]
OCM Bocas Prize for Caribbean Literature for Fiction Won [13]
PEN Open Book Award Longlisted [57]
2016 International Dublin Literary Award Shortlisted [58]
2019 Black Leopard, Red Wolf Foyles Book of the Year for Fiction Shortlisted [59]
Goodreads Choice Award for Fantasy Finaliist [60]
Los Angeles Times Book Prize Won [61]
National Book Award for Fiction Finalist [62][63]
2020 American Book Award Won [64]
American Library Association's Over the Rainbow Book List Top [65]
Audie Award for Fantasy Finalist [66][67]
Goodreads Choice Award for Fantasy Finalist [68]
Lambda Literary Award for Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Finalist [69][70][71]
Locus Award for Best Horror Novel Won [72][73]
Minnesota Book Award for Genre Fiction Won [74]
Ray Bradbury Prize for Science Fiction Won [75]
Leopardo negro, lobo rojo with Javier Calvo (trans) Premios Kelvin Award for Mejor Novela Traducida (Best Translated Novel) Finalist [76]
2022 Moon Witch, Spider King Dragon Award for Best Fantasy Novel (Including Paranormal) Finalist [77]

Works[edit]

Stand-alone literature[edit]

  • —— (2005). John Crow's Devil (hardcover 1st ed.). Akashic Books. p. 226. ISBN 978-1888451825.
  • —— (2009). The Book of Night Women (hardcover US ed.). Riverhead Books. p. 417. ISBN 978-1594488573.
  • —— (2014). A Brief History of Seven Killings (hardcover ed.). Riverhead Books. p. 688. ISBN 978-1594486005.

The Dark Star trilogy[edit]

  1. —— (2019). Black Leopard, Red Wolf (hardcover ed.). Riverhead Books. p. 620. ISBN 978-0735220171.
  2. —— (2022). Moon Witch, Spider King (hardcover ed.). Riverhead Books. p. 626. ISBN 978-0735220201.
  3. ——. White Wing, Dark Star. Riverhead Books.[78]

Television[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Man Booker Prize for Fiction Winner: A Brief History of Seven Killings by Marlon James" Archived 19 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine, LiteraryFestivals.co.uk, 14 October 2015.
  2. ^ a b c James, Marlon (10 March 2015). "From Jamaica to Minnesota to Myself". The New York Times.
  3. ^ Richards, Kimberley (14 October 2015), "Marlon James Becomes First Jamaican Winner Of Booker Prize", Huffington Post – Arts & Culture.
  4. ^ a b "Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing", St. Francis College.
  5. ^ Akbar, Arifa (14 October 2015). "Marlon James: 'I don't believe in PG violence'". The Independent.
  6. ^ Harvey, Chris (13 October 2015), "Marlon James interview: 'I didn’t want to fall into a pornography of violence'", The Telegraph.
  7. ^ Tolentino, Jia (21 January 2019), "Why Marlon James Decided to Write an African 'Game of Thrones'", The New Yorker.
  8. ^ Wright, André (15 October 2015), "Why Marlon James had to get out of Jamaica to win the Booker prize", The Guardian.
  9. ^ Marlon James: Books, Biography, Blog, Audiobooks, Kindle. Amazon.com.
  10. ^ "Man Booker Prize winner Marlon James 'in exile' from Jamaica", Channel 4 News, 14 October 2015.
  11. ^ John Crow's Devil: Marlon James. Amazon.com: Books
  12. ^ Reed, Troy, "The Book of Night Women" (review), HNR, Issue 48 (May 2009). Historical Novel Society.
  13. ^ a b "Top three books named for 2015 OCM Bocas Prize • Bocas Lit Fest". Bocas Lit Fest. 1 April 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  14. ^ "The Man Booker Prize for Fiction 2015 shortlist is revealed" Archived 25 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The Man Booker Prize website, 15 September 2015.
  15. ^ "Jamaican writer makes history", News Americas, 15 September 2015.
  16. ^ "OCM Bocas Prize winner gets world's biggest literary award". Daily Express. Trinidad. 14 October 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2022.
  17. ^ Liptak, Andrew (12 December 2015). "Marlon James's Next Book Will Be 'African Game of Thrones'". io9. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  18. ^ "About Marlon James", Penguin.com. Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine: "A professor of literature and creative writing at Macalester College, he divides his time among Minnesota, New York, and Jamaica."
  19. ^ "Marlon James, Writer in Residence and Associate Professor, English", Macalester College.
  20. ^ Video and Photos of Marlon James’s Tolkien Lecture, The J.R.R. Tolkien Lecture on Fantasy Literature, 28 February 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  21. ^ Libbey, Peter (24 January 2020). "Marlon James to Host New Literary Podcast". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
  22. ^ White, Peter (7 December 2021). "Marlon James' Jamaica Detective Series 'Get Millie Black' Lands Series Order At HBO & UK's Channel 4". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Media Corporation.
  23. ^ Madore, Joel (2011). "Jamaican Signatures: An Archetypal Analysis of Marlon James' John Crow's Devil". Journal of Caribbean Literatures. 7: 69–75 – via EBSCO.
  24. ^ a b Ozuna, Ana (May 2017). "Feminine Power: Women Contesting Plantocracy in The Book of Night Women" (PDF). Africology: The Journal of Pan African Studies. 10 (3). Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  25. ^ a b Glover, Kaiama L. (26 February 2009). "Womanchild in the Oppressive Land". The New York Times.
  26. ^ a b c d Battersby, Eileen (13 October 2015). "Booker Winner Marlon James Tops Tarantino for Body Count". The Irish Times.
  27. ^ a b c d Harrison, Sheri-Marie (24 October 2015). "Excess in A Brief History of Seven Killings". Post45. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  28. ^ a b Feldman, Lucy (5 February 2019). "How Marlon James Built a New World in His 'African Game of Thrones'". TIME.
  29. ^ a b Preston, Alex (17 February 2019). "Marlon James: 'You have to risk going too far'". The Observer.
  30. ^ Shapiro, Ari (5 February 2019), "Marlon James Builds A New World From Old Stories In 'Black Leopard'", All Things Considered, NPR.
  31. ^ Reid, Tiana (2 March 2022). "Marlon James Has No Idea What Comes Next". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  32. ^ Christensen, Lauren (24 February 2022). "From Thriller to Fantasy to Horror, the Genre Series Is the Cash Cow". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
  33. ^ Ulin, David L. (13 October 2015). "Marlon James' powerful mix of influences and cultures lands him the Man Booker Prize". latimes.com.
  34. ^ Phillips, Jevon (27 October 2020). "Marlon James talks influences and mixing genres". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 3 August 2021 – via YouTube.
  35. ^ Reynolds-Baker, Athaliah (18 October 2018). "Eight Outstanding Jamaicans Awarded Musgrave Medals". Jamaica Information Service. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  36. ^ Rushdie, Salman (2019). "Marlon James: The 100 Most Influential People of 2019". TIME. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  37. ^ "James on Time 100 List". Locus Online. 18 April 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  38. ^ "The Guardian Best Science Fiction and Fantasy". Locus Online. 3 December 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  39. ^ "Kirkus Best Fiction of 2019". Locus Online. 11 November 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  40. ^ "Shelf Awareness's Best Books of 2019". Shelf Awareness. 3 December 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  41. ^ "Best Science Fiction and Fantasy of 2022". Kirkus Reviews. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  42. ^ "NPR's Best Books of 2022". Locus Online. 22 November 2022. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  43. ^ "Publishers Weekly Best Books 2022". Locus Online. 26 October 2022. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  44. ^ "National Book Critics Circle Finalists Are Announced". The New York Times. 24 January 2010. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  45. ^ a b c d Ciabattari, Jane (1 October 2010). "October 14 Reading by NBCC Finalists Marlon James, Jayne Anne Phillips, and Brenda Shaughnessy". National Book Critics Circle. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  46. ^ "2010". Dayton Literary Peace Prize. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  47. ^ Combs, Marianne (17 April 2010). "2010 Minnesota Book Award Winners". MPR News. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  48. ^ Goetzman, Amy (19 April 2010). "2010 Minnesota Book Awards go home". MinnPost. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  49. ^ "2015 Winners". Reference & User Services Association (RUSA). 20 October 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  50. ^ "Winners". Anisfield-Wolf Book Awards. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  51. ^ "Marlon James". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  52. ^ Anderson, Eric Karl (7 December 2015). "The Green Carnation Prize 2015 Winner". Lonesome Reader. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  53. ^ Kellogg, Carolyn (13 October 2015). "Marlon James wins the Man Booker Prize". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  54. ^ "Man Booker Prize 2015: Marlon James wins for A Brief History of Seven Killings". BBC News. 13 October 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  55. ^ Brown, Mark (13 October 2015). "Marlon James wins the Man Booker prize 2015". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  56. ^ Singh, Anita (14 October 2015). "Booker Prize 2015 winner Marlon James: 'I almost gave up'". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  57. ^ "2015 PEN Open Book Award". PEN America. 2 February 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  58. ^ Cain, Sian (12 April 2016). "Shortlist announced for the 2016 International Dublin Literary award". the Guardian. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  59. ^ "2019 Foyles Books of the Year Shortlists". Locus Online. 28 October 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  60. ^ "Black Leopard, Red Wolf (The Dark Star Trilogy, #1)". Goodreads. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  61. ^ locusmag (17 April 2020). "2019 LA Times Book Prize Winners". Locus Online. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  62. ^ "The 2019 National Book Awards Finalists Announced". National Book Foundation. 7 October 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  63. ^ "2019 National Book Awards Finalists". Locus Online. 8 October 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  64. ^ "Who We Are". Before Columbus Foundation. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  65. ^ Jarnagin, Briana (28 January 2020). "2020 Over the Rainbow Book List features 70 titles for adult readers". American Library Association. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  66. ^ "2020 Audie Awards® - APA (en-US)". Audio Publishers Association. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  67. ^ "2020 Audie Awards Finalists". Locus Online. 3 February 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  68. ^ "Black Leopard, Red Wolf (The Dark Star Trilogy, #1)". Goodreads. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  69. ^ "32nd Annual Lambda Awards Winners". Locus Online. 1 June 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  70. ^ Yee, Katie (10 March 2020). "Here are the finalists for the 2020 Lambda Literary Awards!". Literary Hub. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  71. ^ Hart, Michelle (10 March 2020). "Here are the Finalists For the 2020 Lambda Literary Awards". Oprah Daily. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  72. ^ "2020 Locus Awards Winners". Locus Online. 27 June 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  73. ^ "2020 Locus Awards Online". Locus Online. 4 August 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  74. ^ "2020 Minnesota Book Awards Finalists". Locus Online. 28 January 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  75. ^ Romanoff, Zan (17 April 2020). "Dystopian fiction has always been real for Ray Bradbury prize winner Marlon James". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  76. ^ "2020 Premios Kelvin Winners". Locus Online. 18 June 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  77. ^ "2022 Dragon Awards Winners". Locus Online. 7 September 2022. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  78. ^ "Marlon James: Dark Stars". Locus. 88 (733). February 2022.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]